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THE DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ALUMINUM

Description: The diffusion of lithium in aluminum was measured at various temperatures with diffusion couples of aluminum-LiAl. The activation energy, E, is 33.3 kcal/mol, and the diffusion factor, Do, is 4.5 cm{sup2}/sec. (auth)
Date: February 28, 1963
Creator: Costas, L. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECONOMICS OF NUCLEAR AND CONVENTIONAL TANKERS

Description: The work performed augments that portion of ASAE-S-5 devoted to a study of the economics of nuclear tankers by presenting economic data on three additional tanker sizes, each driven at three different speeds. Some of the previous dath are repeated to facilitate direct comparison of the different ship sizes. Operating costs and return on investment are tabulated for all six ship sizes on three specific trade routes. (W.D.M.)
Date: October 10, 1958
Creator: Gordon, J.J. & Buck, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RADIOCHEMISTRY DURING START-UP AND EARLY OPERATION OF THE NUCLEAR SHIP SAVANNAH. Final Report

Description: It was demonstrated that the radioactivity content of the primary system of the N.S. Savannah reactor plant was small and normal during the period of initial criticality and start-up, and during the sea trials and acceptance tests. The principal radioactive constituents (/sup 56/Mn, /sup 41/Ar, /sup 13/N and / sup 18/F) are either intrinsic to the primary system of the pressurized water reactor or are normally found in the coo1ant in concentrations comparable to those observed in this program. The /sup 56/Mn concentrations observed at the various reactor power levels were slightiy higher, relative to those for the other nuclides, than those observed in similar reactor plants. This slightly increased concentration is attributable to the fact that the coolant of this reactor was generally maintained between pH6 and pH7, whereas the primary coolants of the other plants were maintained at somewhat higher pH values. Data for fission product concentrations in the primary coolant indicate that their only significant source is uranium contamination of the reactor core surfaces. The observed concentrations do not represent any significant hazard or potential difficulty in plant operation. The small value of 5.6 x 10/sup -2/ mu g/cm/sup 2/ for the surface density of uranium indicates that no significant contamination of these surfaces occurred during core fabrication. No significant defect in a fuel element cladding was detected during the period in which these measurements were performed. The efficiency of the demineralizer for removal of anionic and cationic radionuclides from the primary coolant was shown to exceed 90%. Volatile radionuclides were the only radioactive constituents found in the demineralizer effluent. Data obtained for the concentrations of gross radioactivity in the waste tanks were maintained below the maximum permissible concentrations for discharge to the environment. On the basis of these radiochemistry studies, it may be concluded that the ...
Date: July 1, 1962
Creator: Battist, L; Winnowski, W S; Dieterly, D K & Koch, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NAVAL REACTORS PHYSICS HANDBOOK. VOLUME I. SELECTED BASIC TECHNIQUES

Description: The purpose of this work is to present the most pertinent parts of the body of physics knowledge which has been built up in the course of the Naval and Shippingport (PWR) Reactor Programs, with the aim of providing a background of understanding for those interested in nuclear core design. Volume 1 of this handbook was planned to bring together topics in the basic theoretical and experimental material which are of especially wide interest, including those common to both thermal and intermediate neutron energy reactor types. The physics design of light water-moderated and -cooled reactors is covered in Volume 2 (classified), and that of intermediate neutron-energy power reactors in Volume 3. The emphasis in Volume 1 is thus on light water reactor systems, and as many recent advances in reactor physics of the Naval and Shippingport Reactor Programs as possible have been included.
Date: January 1, 1964
Creator: Radkowsky, A. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. The Coast Guard's proposed FY2017 budget requests $150 million in acquisition funding for a new polar icebreaker that the Coast Guard wants to begin building in FY2020. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's FY2017 acquisition funding request for a new polar icebreaker, and, more generally, whether to approve, reject, or modify the Coast Guard's overall plan for sustaining and modernizing the polar icebreaking fleet.
Date: May 27, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MARITIME REACTOR PROJECT ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING NOVEMBER 30, 1959

Description: During the report period, the nature of the ORNL supporting activities gradually changed, reflecting the progress in the conetruction of the N.S. Savannah. Design reviews continued to require considerable attention. The Inspection Engineering Dept. of the Jab. continued to act as an inspection agency for the ALC, witnessing inspections and tests during fabrication of components of the nuclear reactor system. An enviromnental analysis was made of safeguard aspects of operation of the N.S. Savannah at the NYSC site in Cannden. A study of the safety response of the reactor on the ORNL Analog Computer further defined the important role of the Doppler coefficient in controlling reactivity excursions. Health physics aspects of the operation were studied. Limited waste disposal studies indicated that sea disposal of exhausted demineralizer resins may be facilitated by casting the radioactive resins into concrete. Installation of a pressurized-water in-pile test loop in the ORR neared completion. The neutron flux distribution in the loop was determined by experimental measurements in a nuclear mockup of the in-pile section. Metallurgical activities included nil-ductility testing of steel from the reactor vessel, chemical analyses of primary system components, and investigations of the properties of electroless - nickel brazed joints. Limited fabrication studies were carried out on advanced fuel concepts which may have merit for future cores of the Savannah Reactor. Most of the latter effort was applied to swaged UO/sub 2/ rod-type elements. A series of physics calculations is being carried out in an attempt to evaluate the possible advantages of using Zircaloy instead of stainless steel as the structural material for Core III. Use of Zircaloy instead of stainless steel for the fuel element cans was found to result in a marked reduction in enrichnnent for a given initial cold reactivity. (For preceding period see ORNL-2657.) (W.D.M.)
Date: January 25, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF ZIRCALOY FOR STAINLESS STEEL IN N.S. SAVANNAH FUEL-ELEMENT CONTAINERS. Summary Report

Description: The possibility of reducing fuel-cycle costs for the N.S. SAVANNAH by replacing the stainless steel fuelelement containers in the permanent reactor core structure by similar containers of a zirconium alloy was investigated. These containers, although not integral parts of the fuel-bearing components, are located within the active core and divide the core into 32 separate channels into which the fuel elements are placed. Areas of investigation included reactor physics, fuel-cycle economics, materials compatibility, structural design, and reactor hazards. A summary of the method of analysis and results is given for each area ot investigation. Calculations indicated that the substitution of Zircaloy containers would increase core reactivity about 6% DELTA k and control- rod worth about 4% DELTA k. Fuel-cycle costs would be reduced about 26%. Zircaloy-4 appears to be compatible with the reactor system, except for some uncertainty with respect to fretting corrosion, which can be resolved only by tests. The substitution of cold-worked Zircaloy for stainless steel in the container assembly would necessitate only minor design modifications. Although this evaluation is strictly applicable only to the N.S. SAVANNAH reactor, the results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of using zirconium alloys for in-core capital-cost components. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1963
Creator: Anderson, T.D.; Gross, E.E.; McCurdy, H.C.; Schaffer, L.D.; Shobe, L.R. & Whitmarsh, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT FOR THE NMSR PRESSURIZED WATER LOOP AT ORR

Description: The design criteria, description, flow diagrams, and some drawings of a pressurized water loop in which reactor operation conditions can be simulated are presented. The prirnary purpose of this test facility is irradiation testing of various versions of fuel elements for use in the Merchant Ship Reactor Program. The loop proper is designed for operation at 625 deg F and 2250 psi with a water flow rate of 90 gpm. Heat exchanger capacity is 150 kw at 300-F system water temperature. Loop construction is of 300 series stainless steels throughout. A by-pass purification system provides for continuous water chemistry control. Fuel pin specimens are to be irradiated in the space provided by two tubes, 1.5 II) x 24 in. long, of the "hairpin" type in positions A1 and A2 of the OHR core. The average unpertarbed neutron flux at this point in the reactor is estimated to be 5 x 10/sup 13/ thermal. (auth)
Date: October 23, 1958
Creator: Dudley, I.T.; Trauger, D.B. & Savage, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's plans for sustaining and modernizing the polar icebreaking fleet.
Date: January 15, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

Description: Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor to continue with the project, the Watts Bar Dam Project was canceled and the Exploranium radiation monitors were removed from the doors of Watts Bar Dam ...
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Walker, Randy M; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M & Hill, David E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard’s polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2015 budget requests $6 million to continue initial acquisition activities for a new polar icebreaker. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Coast Guard plans for sustaining and modernizing its polar icebreaking fleet. Congressional decisions on this issue could affect Coast Guard funding requirements, the Coast Guard’s ability to perform its polar missions, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: July 1, 2014
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect Coast Guard funding requirements, the Coast Guard's ability to perform its polar missions, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: March 21, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

Description: The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

Description: Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the actively managed ...
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A. & Johnston, Robert K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN AQUEOUS REPROCESSING PLANT OPERATIONS

Description: Safety precautions utilized for control and cominement of fissionable and radioactive materials in the various aqueous reprocessing operations performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are presented. Three primary nuclear safety controls, geometrical, mass limitation, and concentration control, are used. Operations are penformed according to standard operating procedures which are set up to prevent circumvention of the primary nuclear safety controls. The various processing operations with their particular safety features are discussed. The operations include receipt, handling, and storage of irradiated fuel elements, dissolution of the fuel elements in various reagents, separation of the unburned fissionable material from fission products and fuel element structural materials by solvent extraction, salvage or recycle operations of off- specifications product or waste solutions that exceed the dispossble fuel concentrationalimits, product packaging, storage and shipment, fission product recovery, and waste collection, handling and disposal. The originai plant design and later additions and modifications included built-in geometrical control wherever practical with allowances for possible neutron interaction between vessels. The standard operating procedures specificaily state mass limits and concentration controls required for certain operations which involve appreciable quantities of uranium. Administrative control insures compliance with the standard operating procedures. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1961
Creator: Morrison, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HANDBOOK OF SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ISOTOPIC POWER SOURCES FOR TERRESTRIAL, MARINE, AND SPACE APPLICATIONS

Description: The radiation intensities from shielded and unshielded sources fabricated from seventeen isotopes that show promise for use in isotopic power or radiation applications were calculated. Source sizes in the range of 100 to 20,000 thermal watts were evaluated. All shielded sources were assumed to be attenuated by Fe, Pb, and U; and in those cases where the source also emitted neutrons, neutron and gamma attenuation through water was determined. The isotopes studied and their physical form are as follows: /sup 60/Co (metal), /sup 85/Kr (liquefied gas), /sup 90/Sr (oxide and titanate), Zr-/sup 95/Nb (oxide), / sup 106/Ru (metal), /sup 137/Cs (glass), /sup 144/Ce (ox ide), /sup 147/Pm (oxide), /sup 170/Tm and /sup 171/Tm (both as oxides), /sup 204/Tl (metal), /sup 210/Po (metal matrix with void space for gas collection), /sup 232/U (oxide), /sup 228/Th (oxide matrix with void space for gas collection), /sup 238/Pu (oxide), /sup 242/Cm (oxide matrix with void space for gas collection), and / sup 244/Cm (oxide). The use of the graphical results to calculate separation distance, shield thickness, and shield weight is demonstrated. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1964
Creator: Arnold, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMINATION OF A NONREGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER FROM THE U.S.S. NAUTILUS (SSN-571)

Description: Selected components from a staianless steel nonregenerative heat exchanger removed from the U.S.S. Nautilus (SSN571) have been examined for evidence of stress-corrosion cracking. The examination was conducted on three baffle plates, all primary-face seal welds, and the tubes and the surrounding tube sheets of 7 out of a total of 35 tubes. Maximum operating temperature of the heat exchanger was 260 ction prod- F for the inlet primary water and 164 ction prod- F for the exit secondary water. Chloride content of the secondary water averaged 5 ppm, with a maximum of 15 ppm. Only one suspected stress-corrosion crack was found in the components normally in contact with the secondary water. The crack, 2.5 mils in depth, was located on a fully exposed tube. At the 95 per cent confidence level this represented a probability of finding cracking on fully exposed surfaces in 0 to 60 per cent of the rest of the tubes in the heat exchanger. Severe stress-corrosion cracking was found in tubes in the tube-sheet drain area at the juncture with the inner tube sheet at the inlet end, where secondary water seeped past the expanded tubes. Cracks were detected in five of seven tubes for a statistical probability of 25 to 96 per cent at the 95 per cent confidence level. Maximum depth of cracks was 28 mils or 80 per cent penetration of the 35-mil-thick tubing wall. Stress-corrosion cracks also were found around several holes on the drain-side tube-sheet surfaces at the inlet end. Maximum depth was 12 mils, which did not seriously threaten penetration of the 9/16-in.-thick tube sheet. Cracks were detected in 5 of 35 primary-face seal welds at the inlet end and in 11 of 35 at the outlet end. This behavior was attributed to hot-short cracking of the Type 347 stainless ...
Date: February 19, 1960
Creator: Berry, W.E.; Stewart, O.M. & Fink, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Stranding of Juvenile Salmon by Ship Wakes Along the Lower Columbia River Using a Before-and-After Design: Before-Phase Results

Description: Ship wakes produced by deep-draft vessels transiting the lower Columbia River have been observed to cause stranding of juvenile salmon. Proposed deepening of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about the potential impact of the deepening project on juvenile salmon stranding. The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory design and conduct a study to assess stranding impacts that may be associated with channel deepening. The basic study design was a multivariate analysis of covariance of field observations and measurements under a statistical design for a before and after impact comparison. We have summarized field activities and statistical analyses for the ?before? component of the study here. Stranding occurred at all three sampling sites and during all three sampling seasons (Summer 2004, Winter 2005, and Spring 2005), for a total of 46 stranding events during 126 observed vessel passages. The highest occurrence of stranding occurred at Barlow Point, WA, where 53% of the observed events resulted in stranding. Other sites included Sauvie Island, OR (37%) and County Line Park, WA (15%). To develop an appropriate impact assessment model that accounted for relevant covariates, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between stranding probability and other factors. Nineteen independent variables were considered as potential factors affecting the incidence of juvenile salmon stranding, including tidal stage, tidal height, river flow, current velocity, ship type, ship direction, ship condition (loaded/unloaded), ship speed, ship size, and a proxy variable for ship kinetic energy. In addition to the ambient and ship characteristics listed above, site, season, and fish density were also considered. Although no single factor appears as the primary factor for stranding, statistical analyses of the covariates resulted in the following equations: (1) Stranding Probability {approx} Location + Kinetic Energy Proxy + ...
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Miller, Martin C.; Johnson, Gary E.; Williams, Greg D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

Description: A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.
Date: November 9, 2011
Creator: Smith, C A; Simon, A J & Belles, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department