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Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Date: July 21, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Description: This report discusses how U.S. policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) is developed and implemented in the executive branch and the agencies that are involved. It also analyzes the three main sources of congressional influence--legislative authority, the power of the purse, and oversight activities-- on U.S. policy towards the development banks. Finally, it examines the levels of funding Congress has approved for MDBs, budgetary issues and the policy directives that Congress has initiated over the years.
Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Date: February 3, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

Description: This report provides information on the role the IMF has played in the financial crisis, international agreement to increase the financial resources of the IMF, and the role of Congress in increasing the Fund's resources. As will be discussed in detail at the end of the report, congressional authorization, and perhaps appropriation, would be required to increase U.S. contributions to the IMF.
Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China’s Currency: U.S. Options

Description: In recent years, the United States and China have disagreed whether China’s national currency, the yuan or renminbi, is properly valued compared to the U.S. dollar and whether China is manipulating its currency.1 The United States has pushed China to raise the value of its currency. Chinese officials say they want to make their exchange rate system more flexible, but China also needs long-term stability in its currency value in order to avoid dislocations. Chinese officials also say they will not bow to foreign pressure. China announced a new exchange rate procedure on July 21, 2005. This report summarizes this controversy, it describes actions and positions taken by the United States, China and other countries, and it discusses various approaches the United States might use to address this concern.
Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-2009

Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations. It will be updated periodically. Three companion reports provide further information on the MDBs. See CRS Report RS20793, Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background, CRS Report RS20791, Multilateral Development Banks: Procedures for U.S. Participation, and CRS Report RS22134 International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation.
Date: August 8, 2008
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts

Description: In the past three years, the Administration has moved to substantially increase U.S. aid levels for Guatemala from $18.3 million in FY84 to a proposed $149.7 million in FY88. Budgetary limits on the overall size of the U.S. foreign aid program may cause reductions in the proposed 1988 levels, however, independent of any choices related to the Guatemalan, situation. This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Guatemala. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
Date: March 31, 1987
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

Description: This report discusses the government of Iraq and its active role in stimulating and directing the Iraqi economy.This report identifies issues to be addressed before Iraq can participate normally in the world economy.
Date: June 3, 2003
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department