Search Results

[Man sits under an awning]

Description: Photograph of a silhouette of a man underneath an awning. The porch has a dirt floor that leads right up to a road winding around the building in the background. The focal point of the picture is the American flag leaning next to a US Postal Service mailbox.
Date: 1982
Creator: Clark, Joe & Clark, Joseph Wade Junebug
Item Type: Photograph
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

Description: Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K. & Lagerberg, B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

Description: The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E. & Hargraves, M.D.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Material from Wells 299-W10-35 (C7573) and 299-W14-74 (C7024)

Description: The objective of this work was to characterize material accumulating on wells 299-W10-35 (C7573) and 299-W14-74 (C7024) to determine the type of material (i.e., chemical or biological) and, if the material is biological, to identify the microorganisms present.
Date: July 15, 2011
Creator: Tilton, Fred A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C. & Strandquist, Sara C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

Description: The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.
Date: October 30, 2001
Creator: Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H. & Southard, John A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulimar Queen environmental restoration project closure package Sandia environmental stewardship exemplar.

Description: In March 2008, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, Roswell Field Office, completed its responsibilities to plug and abandon wells and restore the surface conditions for the Sulimar Queens Unit, a 2,500 acre oil field, in Chaves County, Southeast New Mexico. Sandia assumed this liability in an agreement to obtain property to create a field laboratory to perform extensive testing and experimentation on enhanced oil recovery techniques for shallow oil fields. In addition to plugging and abandoning 28 wells, the project included the removal of surface structures and surface reclamation of disturbed lands associated with all plugged and abandoned wells, access roads, and other auxiliary facilities within unit boundaries. A contracting strategy was implemented to mitigate risk and reduce cost. As the unit is an important wildlife habitat for prairie chickens, sand dune lizards, and mule deer, the criteria for the restoration and construction process were designed to protect and enhance the wildlife habitat. Lessons learned from this project include: (1) extreme caution should be exercised when entering agreements that include future liabilities, (2) partnering with the regulator has huge benefits, and (3) working with industry experts, who were familiar with the work, and subcontractors, who provided the network to complete the project cost effectively.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Tillman, Jack B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Response to the Baltimore Tunnel Fire Scenario

Description: On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB, the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents), to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation package designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the COBRA-SFS and ANSYS® computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different package designs. The staff concluded that larger transportation packages resembling the HOLTEC Model No. HI STAR 100 and TransNuclear Model No. TN-68 would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event with only minor damage to peripheral components. This is due to their sizable thermal inertia and design specifications in compliance with currently imposed regulatory requirements. The staff also concluded that some components of smaller transportation packages resembling ...
Date: November 15, 2006
Creator: Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Guzman, Anthony D. & Bajwa, Christopher S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

Description: This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Stiger, Susan G; Hargis, Kenneth M; Graham, Michael J & Rael, George J
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

Description: It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al. 2000).
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N & Burian, Steven J
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

Description: The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to ...
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Glauz, William W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION POWER UNITS AT MARGINAL OIL WELL SITES

Description: The CEC approved funding on April 9, 2003 for $1,000,000.00 instead of the $1,500,000.00 COPE requested for the project. A kickoff meeting with the California Energy Commission (CEC) was held on Monday, April 14, 2003, in their Sacramento, CA offices. Mark Carl, IOGCC project manager for the DOE grant, attended this meeting, along with Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu, Mike Merlo and CEC officials. The change in funding by the CEC required a modification in the scope of work and an amended form DOE F 4600.1. The modifications were completed and the IOGCC received approval to commence work on the project on May 9, 2003. On May 29, 2003, Virginia Weyland with DOE/NETL, Mark Carl with IOGCC, and Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu and Mike Merlo, consultants with COPE, participated in a teleconference kick-off meeting. During May, 2003, COPE canvassed its membership for potential locations for the four test sites. They received a very good response and have identified at least two potential sites for each of the four test sites. COPE has been obtaining gas samples from the various potential lease sites for analyses to verify the chemical properties analyses which the oil and gas producers provided during the initial contact period. The St. James project located at 814 W. 23 rd Street in Los Angeles, California, was selected as the first test site for the project. A Project Advisory Committee (PAC) was established in May, 2003. The following representatives from each of the following areas of expertise comprise the PAC membership. Acquisition of permits for the initial test site has required drawn out negotiations with CEC which has hindered progress on the technical aspects of the project. The technical aspects will begin aggressively beginning in October, 2003. The Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) donated ...
Date: October 29, 2003
Creator: Carl, Mark A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

Description: Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.
Date: June 14, 2007
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem & Shea Rose, Leanna
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOS ANGELES DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND POWER FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is currently one of the most active electric utility companies in deploying fuel cell technology. Fuel cells offer many benefits and are now used as an alternative to traditional internal combustion engines in power generation. In continuing it's role as the leader in fuel cell deploying, LADWP installed a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) in February 2002 at its Main Street service center. The goal of this project is to evaluate the PAFC's performance and cost benefits. This will provide LADWP an insight for future deployment of fuel cell technology. The fuel cell ran smoothly through the first year of operation with very high efficiency and availability, and only with some minor setbacks. The Main street fuel cell project is funded by LADWP with partial grant funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. The technical evaluation and the benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street fuel cell are both examined in this report.
Date: March 26, 2004
Creator: Glauz, William W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Frish, Michael B.; Green, B. David; Wainner, Richard T.; Scire-Scappuzzo, Francesca; Cataldi, Paul & Laderer, Matthew C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining Bond Sodium Remaining in Plenum Region of Spent Nuclear Driver Fuel

Description: The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electro-chemical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials [REF 1]. Upon immersion into the ER electrolyte, the sodium used to thermally bond the fuel to the clad jacket chemically reacts with the UCl3 in the electrolyte producing NaCl and uranium metal. The uranium in the spent fuel is separated from the cladding and fission products by taking advantage of the electro-chemical potential differences between uranium and the other fuel components. Assuming all the sodium in the thermal bond is converted to NaCl in the ER, the difference between the cumulative bond sodium mass in the fuel elements and the cumulative sodium mass found in the driver ER electrolyte inventory provides an upper mass limit for the sodium that migrated to the upper gas region, or plenum section, of the fuel element during irradiation in the reactor. The plenums are to be processed as metal waste via melting and metal consolidation operations. However, depending on the amount of sodium in the plenums, additional processing may be required to remove the sodium before metal waste processing.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Vaden, D. & Li, S. X.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Race, Genetics and Medicine: New Information, Enduring Questions

Description: Final Report on Conference held on April 9, 2005 and its Sequelae The Conference, “Race, Genetics and Medicine: New Information, Enduring Questions,” was held on Saturday, April 9, 2005 in the Science Center, Lecture Hall D at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Approximately 150 people attended. The audience was composed mainly of college and graduate school science students and postdoctoral fellows, some science and medical school faculty, science teachers at various levels, journalists and interested members of the public. The keynote speaker and the panelists reflected different academic disciplines (genetics, medicine, anthropology, sociology) and a CEO of a biotechnology company with background in medicine and law. They also presented different perspectives on the utility of race concepts in medicine and even on the use of the word “race.” While the talks often involved descriptions of genetic approaches that were not simple to explain, the speakers did an effective job of getting across the gist of studies that have been carried out on these issues. Although no consensus was reached, the conference gave the audience the opportunity to understand the issues and to have the tools to follow the debates in the future. Our strongest feedback was from attendees who had heard of the race and genetics issues through various media, but did not have a sense of what they were really about. They reported to us that they now felt they understood the basis of these discussions. Our post-conference activities have been successfully completed. While we had proposed to make available transcripts of the talks to the public through a Website, some of the speakers would not agree to have their presentations available in this way. Therefore, we asked permission from the DOE to use the funds to prepare classroom lesson plans for high school students to discuss the issues. These ...
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Beckwith, Jonathan R.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

Description: Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving ...
Date: May 6, 2006
Creator: SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J. & FLAHERTY, J.E.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHALLENGES IN SOURCE TERM MODELING OF DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING WASTES.

Description: Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving ...
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: SULLIVAN, T.M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE MADISON SQUARE GARDEN DISPERSION STUDY (MSG05) METEOROLOGICAL DATA DESCRIPTION.

Description: MSG05 was a study of atmospheric transport and dispersion in the deep urban canyons of Midtown New York City, in the area of Madison Square Garden. This downtown area is considered to be a prime target for terrorist activities, and has one of the largest commuter populations in the world. Little is known about air flow and hazardous gas dispersion in such scenarios, since previous urban field experiments have focused on small to medium sized cities with much smaller street canyons. On March 10 and 14, 2005, a series of Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) tracers were released and tracked with about 30 sampling stations at radial distances of about 0.2 and 0.4 km, with vertical profiles near a 250 m tall building (One Penn Plaza). Meteorological stations collected wind data in the MSG vicinity, at street level and rooftop level. MSG05 is expected to provide useful information on rapid vertical dispersion will assist in planning for more extensive studies. This data release is being made available to a restricted group of key scientists who have worked on the project. Part of the QA program involves feedback from scientists and modelers who are working on this study. This document describes the meteorological component of the project. The file organization and metadata are detailed so that a researcher can work with the data sets.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: REYNOLDS, R.M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title III Evaluation for the Access Road System

Description: The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.
Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Montalv, H.R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Resolution CFD Simulation of Airflow and Tracer Dispersion in New York City

Description: In 2004, a research project--the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (NYC UDP)--was launched by the Department of Homeland Security with the goal to improve the permanent network of wind stations in and around New York City and to enhance the city's emergency response capabilities. Encompassing both field studies and computer modeling, one of the program's objectives is to improve and validate urban dispersion models using the data collected from field studies and to transfer the improved capabilities to NYC emergency agencies. The first two field studies were conducted in March and August 2005 respectively and an additional study is planned for the summer of 2006. Concurrently model simulations, using simple to sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, have been performed to aid the planning of field studies and also to evaluate the performance of such models. Airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas such as NYC are extremely complicated. Some of the contributing factors are complex geometry, variable terrain, coupling between local and larger scale flows, deep canyon mixing and updrafts/downdrafts caused by large buildings, street channeling and upstream transport, roof features, and heating effects, etc. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), we have developed a CFD model, FEM3MP, to address some of the above complexities. Our model is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate physics for modeling airflow and dispersion in the urban environment. Also utilized in the model are finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex geometries and a semi-implicit projection method for efficient time-integration. A description of the model can be found in Gresho and Chan (1998), Chan and Stevens (2000). Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against data from field studies, such as URBAN 2000 and the Joint URBAN 2003 ...
Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Leach, M J; Chan, S T & Lundquist, J K
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Analysis for Real Time Identification of Grid Disruptions

Description: The U.S. electric power system comprises multiple distinct interconnections of generators, high voltage transmission systems, and local distribution systems that maintain a continuous balance between generation and load with impressive levels of efficiency and reliability. This critical infrastructure has served the nation remarkably well, but is likely to see more changes over the next decade than it has seen over the past century. In particular, the widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart-grid controls, energy storage, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in grid planning and the way we run the power grid. Two challenges in the realization of the smart grid technology are the ability to visualize the deluge of expected data streams for global situational awareness; as well as the ability to detect disruptive and classify such events from spatially-distributed high-speed power system frequency measurements. One element of smart grid technology is the installation of a wide-area frequency measurement system on the electric poles in the streets for conditions monitoring of the distribution lines. This would provide frequency measurements about the status of the electric grid and possible information about impending problems before they start compounding and cascading. The ability to monitor the distribution lines is just one facet of proposed smart grid technology. Other elements include the installation of advanced devices such as smart meters, the automation of transmission lines, the integration of renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind, and the advancement of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology. This chapter describes recent advancements in the area of intelligent data analysis for real time detection of disruptive events from power system frequency data collected using an existing internet-based frequency monitoring network (FNET), which is a precursor for future smart-grid systems.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Chandola, Varun; Omitaomu, Olufemi A & Fernandez, Steven J
Item Type: Book
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

Description: An important milestone was passed this year when the fraction of the world's population living in cities exceeded 50%. This shift from the countryside to urban areas is certain to continue and, for many, the destination will be large cities. Already there are over 400 cities with populations greater than one million inhabitants and twenty cities with populations greater than ten million inhabitants. With a growing fraction of the population living in an urban environment, the unique aspects of an urban climate also rise in importance. These include features like air pollution and increased humidity. Another unique feature of the urban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island. The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one hundred years ago in northern latitude cities, where the city centers were slightly warmer than the suburbs. (Instantaneous communications probably played a role in its identification, much as it did for other weather-related events.) For these cities, a heat island was generally a positive effect because it resulted in reduced heating requirements during the winters. It was only in the 1960s, as air conditioning and heavy reliance on automobiles grew, that the negative impacts of heat islands became apparent. The heat islands made summer conditions much less comfortable and increased air conditioning energy use. Since then the summer heat island has become the dominant environmental concern. Measurements in thousands of sites, plus the development of sophisticated dynamic simulations of urban air basins, has enabled us to better understand the relationships between urban temperatures, sunlight, and rates of formation of air pollutants. These models have also given us insights into the roles of vegetation and other characteristics of the land surface. More recently-roughly the last fifteen years-it has become possible to quantify the roles of the major features influencing the formation ...
Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Meier, Alan
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

Description: This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Kinzey, Bruce R. & Myer, Michael
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department