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Biodiversity and Genetic Structure of Benthic Macroinvertebrates along an Altitudinal Gradient: A Comparison of the Windhond and Róbalo River Communities on Navarino Island, Chile

Description: Altitudinal gradients in Sub-Antarctic freshwater systems present unique opportunities to study the effect of distinct environmental gradients on benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and dispersal. This study investigates patterns in biodiversity, dispersal and population genetic structure of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna across an altitudinal gradient between two watersheds on Navarino Island in southern Chile. Patterns in diversity, density, evenness and functional feeding groups were not significantly different across the altitudinal gradient in both the Windhond and Róbalo Rivers. Taxa richness in both rivers generally increased from the headwaters of the river to the mouth, and functional feeding group patterns were consistent with the predictions of the River Continuum Concept. Population genetic structure and gene flow was investigated by sampling the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene in two invertebrate species with different dispersal strategies. Hyalella simplex (Amphipoda) is an obligate aquatic species, and Meridialaris chiloeense (Ephemeroptera) is an aquatic larvae and a terrestrial winged adult. Contrasting patterns of population genetic structure were observed. Results for Hyalella simplex indicate significant differentiation in genetic structure in the Amphipod populations between watersheds and lower genetic diversity in the Róbalo River samples, which may be a result of instream dispersal barriers. Meridialaris chiloeense exhibited weak population structure but higher genetic diversity, which suggests this species is able to disperse widely as a winged adult.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Pulliam, Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1676

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including the right valve only. The specimen exhibits a quadrate shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 100 - 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1672

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including the right valve only. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1671

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a quadrate shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; orange external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 11, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Mabe, Jeffery; Perry, Heather & Pulliam, Lauren
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1655

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 11, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1652

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including the left valve only. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; black external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures over 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah & Pulliam, Lauren
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1651

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures over 120 mm in length and was assessed to be long dead when collected.
Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1657

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; orange external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Mabe, Jeffery & Perry, Heather
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1650

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including the right valve only. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; black external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures over 120 mm in length and was assessed to be very-long dead when collected.
Date: May 17, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1658

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; orange external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of pustules. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Mabe, Jeffery & Perry, Heather
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1654

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an oval shape; moderately thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 11, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1659

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of pustules. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Mabe, Jeffery & Perry, Heather
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1656

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Mabe, Jeffery & Perry, Heather
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Megalonaias nervosa, Specimen #1653

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; double looped beak sculpturing; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 100 - 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: May 16, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1625

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1622

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1617

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a quadrate shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1627

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1628

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1624

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1626

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1623

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; reddish-brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Pulliam, Lauren; Perry, Heather & Mabe, Jeffery
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Arcidens confragosus, Specimen #1637

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a quadrate shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Mabe, Jeffery; Perry, Heather & Pulliam, Lauren
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Arcidens confragosus, Specimen #1638

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a quadrate shape; moderately thick shell; white internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; external sculpturing in the form of ridges. Collected in the Guadalupe basin. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: June 18, 2011
Creator: Hammontree, Sarah; Mabe, Jeffery; Perry, Heather & Pulliam, Lauren
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum