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Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project Presidential Permit application, and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: April 9, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project Presidential Permit application, and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

Description: This report provides an overview of Pemex and the content and prospects for Mexico's energy reforms, before discussing specific issues facing Mexico's oil and gas industry. It then examines the U.S.-Mexico energy relationship through the lenses of trade and energy cooperation. It concludes by suggesting several oversight issues for Congress related to what the enactment of energy reform might portend for Mexico's economic development, the U.S. energy matrix, and bilateral or North American energy cooperation.
Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando; Ratner, Michael; Villarreal, M. A. & Hagerty, Curry L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum Refining: Economic Performance and Challenges for the Future

Description: This report discusses the petroleum refining industry and its relation to the economy. Along with volatile changes in crude oil prices, the industry has faced evolving health, safety, and environmental requirements which have changed and multiplied product specifications and required capital investment in refineries. This report also seeks to describe the recent performance of the refining industry, to evaluate the structural changes that are occurring in the industry, and to analyze the nature and effects of the challenges confronting the industry.
Date: June 3, 2008
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

Description: This report provides an overview of aggregate energy consumption, and presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, coal and renewable energy. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Description: We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Saricks, C.; Santini, D. & Wang, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coke/soot formation model for multiphase reacting flow simulation

Description: Coke is a by-product in petroleum fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes. The concentration of coke in an FCC riser reactor is a critical parameter used to evaluate the riser performance. A coke formation and transport model was developed. It was incorporated into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code, ICRKFLO, to simulate the coke formation processes in an FCC riser reactor. Based on a similar process, a soot formation model can be derived from the coke formation model and used for diesel combustion processes, where soot is emitted as one of the primary pollutants.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M. & Zhou, C.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of multi-phase heat transfer and droplet evaporation in petroleum cracking flows

Description: A computer code ICRKFLO was used to simulate the multiphase reacting flow of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactors. The simulation provided a fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer processes in an FCC riser reactor, critical to the development of a new high performance unit. The code was able to make predictions that are in good agreement with available pilot-scale test data. Computational results indicate that the heat transfer and droplet evaporation processes have a significant impact on the performance of a pilot-scale FCC unit. The impact could become even greater on scale-up units.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M. & Zhou, C.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A sectional coupling approach for the simulation of multi-phase reacting flow in a bent reactor

Description: Multi-phase reacting flows of a bent fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) reactor have been simulated using the ICRKFLO code. A new sectional coupling approach has been developed to handle the complex geometry, which divides the bent reactor into two sections and computations are performed for the two sections successively. The computational results show that the ICRKFLO incorporated with the new sectional coupling approach can predict product yields very well compared with experimental data and can be used to identify critical processes and parameters which may be modified to improve the quality and quantity of the FCC products.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X. & Petrick, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Second quarterly, second year, technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: This study is designed to provide improvements in reservoir characterization techniques. Activities include: an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional and diagenic frameworks; the development of pore system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations testing the impact of permeability and anisotropy on enhanced oil recovery. Results are described.
Date: April 13, 1995
Creator: Dunn, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-fouling units for refinery experiments

Description: Two skid mounted field test units were designed and installed at two refineries for fouling data. Each fouling test unit contains test sections with a heat transfer monitor, an onboard computer for acquiring data, controls and instruments, an piping networks for start-up, sampling, and shut-down procedures. Both units are designed according to ASTM specifications for service in refinery or chemical plants. One fouling test unit is designed for two-phase flow of hydrogen and the product stream, the second for single-phase flow of crude oil, which has two heat transfer monitors operating independently. Calculation procedures for the heat transfer coefficient and fouling resistance are presented along with heat transfer data for air and water obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and crude oil obtained at the Shell Wood River refinery. Comparisons are made with the theoretical heat transfer coefficients.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Kuru, W.C.; Panchal, C.B. & Liao, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

Description: This United States Department of Energy (DOE) research project was established to document the integrated team approach for solving reservoir engineering problems. A field study integrating the disciplines of geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering will be the mechanism for documenting the integrated approach. This is an area of keen interest to the oil and gas industry. The goal will be to provide tools and approaches that can be used to detect reservoir compartments, reach a better reserve estimate, and improve profits early in the life of a field.
Date: October 27, 1995
Creator: Kirk, C.W. Van & Thompson, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department