56 Matching Results

Search Results

Gene Patents: A Brief Overview of Intellectual Property Issues

Description: This report is a brief discussion of the ethical, legal, and economic issues of gene patenting. The courts have upheld gene patents that meet the criteria of patentability defined by the Patent Act. However, the practice of awarding patents on genes has come under intense scrutiny by some scientists, legal scholars, politicians, and other experts.
Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LiverTox: Advanced QSAR and Toxicogeomic Software for Hepatotoxicity Prediction

Description: YAHSGS LLC and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established a CRADA in an attempt to develop a predictive system using a pre-existing ORNL computational neural network and wavelets format. This was in the interest of addressing national needs for toxicity prediction system to help overcome the significant drain of resources (money and time) being directed toward developing chemical agents for commerce. The research project has been supported through an STTR mechanism and funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences beginning Phase I in 2004 (CRADA No. ORNL-04-0688) and extending Phase II through 2007 (ORNL NFE-06-00020). To attempt the research objectives and aims outlined under this CRADA, state-of-the-art computational neural network and wavelet methods were used in an effort to design a predictive toxicity system that used two independent areas on which to base the system’s predictions. These two areas were quantitative structure-activity relationships and gene-expression data obtained from microarrays. A third area, using the new Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) technology to assess gene expression, also was attempted but had to be dropped because the company holding the rights to this promising MPSS technology went out of business. A research-scale predictive toxicity database system called Multi-Intelligent System for Toxicogenomic Applications (MISTA) was developed and its feasibility for use as a predictor of toxicological activity was tested. The fundamental focus of the CRADA was an attempt and effort to operate the MISTA database using the ORNL neural network. This effort indicated the potential that such a fully developed system might be used to assist in predicting such biological endpoints as hepatotoxcity and neurotoxicity. The MISTA/LiverTox approach if eventually fully developed might also be useful for automatic processing of microarray data to predict modes of action. A technical paper describing the methods and technology used in the CRADA has been ...
Date: February 25, 2011
Creator: Lu, P-Y. & Yuracko, K. (YAHSGS, LLC)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patents and Drug Importation

Description: This report explores the intellectual property laws and policies concerning the parallel importation of patented pharmaceuticals into the United States.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patent Reform: Judicial Developments in Areas of Legislative Interest

Description: This report reviews the relationship between Congress and the courts in patent reform. It begins by offering a summary of the patent system. The report then discusses a number of topics that have been the subject of both judicial and legislative consideration. The current state of the law is then contrasted with legislative reform proposals before previous Congresses. The report closes with observations concerning the subtle interaction between legislative, administrative, and judicial actors within the patent system and their impact upon the U.S. innovation environment.
Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovation Output and the Cost of Funds

Description: Do firms with higher levels of innovation output, measured by patent counts and citations, enjoy lower costs of funds? The process to develop and apply for patents involves valuable resources. Thus, applying for a patent is a credible signal that the underlying invention is valuable. This value is validated to some degree when the patent is granted. In addition, patents contain detailed information about the firm's inventions and provide collateral value as they can be sold and licensed. The number of citations a firm receives act as a proxy for high-quality inventions, active networking, and pioneering. These attributes are expected to attract investors and reduce the cost of funds. Univariate and cross-sectional regression analyses of a sample consisting of 404,595 firm-years, involving firms from twenty-eight countries spanning from 1976 to 2012, demonstrate a significant negative association between innovation output and the cost of funds. The evidence suggests that the marginal benefit of innovation diminishes as innovation output increases. The results are robust to different measures of the cost of equity and the cost of debt. The negative association between the cost of equity and innovation output is economically larger for younger and smaller firms. The long-term level of innovation seems to be more important to shareholders than short-term changes of innovation. In addition, shareholders demonstrate an ability to discern between low and high-quality innovations, as they require lower rates of returns when initial patents exhibit a high quality. Shareholders place more value on innovation output when firms operate in countries with legal systems that are more effective in controlling self-dealing practices, in countries that have higher economic freedom, and in countries that have more developed financial markets. The correlation between the cost of debt and innovation output is predominantly derived by larger, more mature, and more leveraged firms. Innovation output ...
Date: December 2016
Creator: Almomen, Adel Abdulkareem
Partner: UNT Libraries

Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

Description: Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K. & Newcomb, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400

Description: H.R. 400 and S. 507 are similar but different omnibus patent reform proposals. Both bills generally transform the Patent and Trademark Office into a government corporation; require publication of patent applications 18 months after filing, subject to certain exceptions that differ in these bills; and extend the patent term for certain delays in patent issuance. S. 507 also contains provisions on patent reexamination reform. This report summarizes and compares the bills and reviews arguments for and against the proposals.
Date: April 16, 1998
Creator: Dorothy Schrader
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Inventors Protection Act of 1999

Description: After several years of consideration, on Friday, November 19, 1999, Congress gave final approval to a bill which makes major changes to the patent laws. On this day the Senate passed the American Inventors Protection Act of 1999 as part of the Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act of 1999, attached by reference to the Consolidated Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2000. This report summarizes major provisions of the patent reform bill.
Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patents and Drug Importation

Description: This report explores the intellectual property laws and policies concerning the parallel importation of patented pharmaceuticals into the United States.
Date: May 25, 2004
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patents and Drug Importation

Description: This report explores the intellectual property laws and policies concerning the parallel importation of patented pharmaceuticals into the United States.
Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exporting Software and the Extraterritorial Reach of U.S. Patent Law: Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp.

Description: Generally speaking, United States patent law does not have extraterritorial effect. The exception, however, is § 271(f) of the Patent Act, which makes it an act of patent infringement to manufacture within the United States the components of a patented invention and then export those disassembled parts for combination abroad into an end product. This report discusses Microsoft Corp. v. AT&T Corp. (550 U.S. ___ , No. 05-1056, decided April 30, 2007), in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that software companies are not liable for patent infringement under § 271(f) when they export software that has been embodied in machine-readable, physical form (a CD-ROM, for example), with the intent that such software be copied abroad for installation onto foreign-manufactured computers.
Date: May 31, 2007
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Innovation Portal Brings DOE Technologies to the Market (Fact Sheet)

Description: For venture capitalists, energy entrepreneurs, and industry veterans, finding the right renewable energy or energy efficiency solution used to be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Now, a searchable treasure trove of innovative U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technologies is available. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the online Energy Innovation Portal helps businesses and entrepreneurs access the intellectual property of DOE's 17 national laboratories and other research partners.
Date: October 1, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

Description: The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). To do this, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related patents that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs, and within the FCT portfolio.
Date: September 29, 2011
Creator: Weakley, Steven A. & Brown, Scott A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing the DNA Patent Database

Description: Final Report on Award No. DE-FG0201ER63171 Principal Investigator: LeRoy B. Walters February 18, 2008 This project successfully completed its goal of surveying and reporting on the DNA patenting and licensing policies at 30 major U.S. academic institutions. The report of survey results was published in the January 2006 issue of Nature Biotechnology under the title “The Licensing of DNA Patents by US Academic Institutions: An Empirical Survey.” Lori Pressman was the lead author on this feature article. A PDF reprint of the article will be submitted to our Program Officer under separate cover. The project team has continued to update the DNA Patent Database on a weekly basis since the conclusion of the project. The database can be accessed at dnapatents.georgetown.edu. This database provides a valuable research tool for academic researchers, policymakers, and citizens. A report entitled Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health was published in 2006 by the Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academies. The report was edited by Stephen A. Merrill and Anne-Marie Mazza. This report employed and then adapted the methodology developed by our research project and quoted our findings at several points. (The full report can be viewed online at the following URL: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11487&page=R1). My colleagues and I are grateful for the research support of the ELSI program at the U.S. Department of Energy.
Date: February 18, 2008
Creator: Walters, LeRoy B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

Description: Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Libman, George H. & Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patentable Subject Matter Reform

Description: This report reviews the current law governing patentable subject matter and recent proposals for legislative reform. It begins by providing a basic overview of the patent system and introducing the principles of patentable subject matter. It then considers the leading Supreme Court decisions construing section 101 of the Patent Act. The report then considers the implications of these decisions within the information technology and life sciences industries. The report closes with a review of legislative reform options.
Date: September 8, 2017
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERIP application instructions

Description: This report provides background information and instructions to assist applicants in writing Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) applications. Initial feedback fro usage for the new instructions shows that the best instructions would not be read and followed by all applicants. Applications from more than thirty applicants who have received the new instructions indicated that few had read the instructions. Based on this feedback, the instructions have been further revised to include a title page and table of contents. A warning was also added to advise applicants of the potential penalty of delayed review if these instructions are not followed. This revision was intended to address the possibility that some applicants did not see or bother to follow the instructions which followed the background information about ERIP. Included are two examples of ERIP applications which have been prepared for handout at workshops or mailing to applicants. Writing of example applications was time consuming and more difficult than expected for several reasons: (1) Full disclosures can be lengthy, very detailed, and technical. This contrasts with the desire to prepare examples which are comparatively short and easy for the non-technical person to read. (2) Disclosures contain confidential information which should not be published. (3) It is difficult to imagine that applicants will study examples when they do not bother to read the basic instructions.
Date: January 2, 1992
Creator: Watt, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

Description: During the past two years, it has been found that the binary system of good gasification catalysts such as mixtures of potassium and nickel oxide or still better calcium and potassium oxide can be further improved by adding third components to this system. It has also been shown that petroleum cokes can be gasified as easily as coals. Addition of a ternary component such as nickel oxide to the calcium-potassium oxide catalyst has resulted in a material which can oxidatively couple methane to ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons at very high selectivities and at reasonable conversions. The same type of catalyst can also function as a potentially good steam reforming catalyst and may have activity as a hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst for the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons. The novel nature of this catalyst system needs extensive exploration both of the importance and effectiveness of various components for the ternary system and for an understanding of the mechanisms by which this catalytic system works. The ternary system of oxide catalysts holds the promise of novel reactions for the conversion of carbonaceous material and of low molecular weight hydrocarbons to valuable higher molecular weight hydrocarbons.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Heinemann, H. & Somorjai, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

Description: This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.
Date: May 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)
Date: November 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department