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Total carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and nitrate measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 cruise

Description: In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) scientists have been measuring the growing burden of greenhouse gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. Collection of data at a series of hydrographic stations along longitude 170{degrees} W during austral autumn of 1990 was designed to enhance understanding of the increase in the column burden of chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the thermocline waters since the last expedition in 1984. This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and nitrate data during the NOAA/PMEL research vessel (R/V) Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise. Data were collected along two legs; sampling for Leg 1 began along 170{degrees} W from 15{degrees} S to 60{degrees} S, then angled northwest toward New Zealand across the Western Boundary Current. Leg 2 included a reoccupation of some stations between 30{degrees} S and 15{degrees} S on 170{degrees} W and measurements from 15{degrees} S to 5{degrees} N along 170{degrees} W. The following data report summarizes the TCO{sub 2}, salinity, temperature, and nitrate measurements from 63 stations. The TCO, concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometric/extraction system (Models 5011 and 5030, respectively) originated by Ken Johnson. The NOAA/PMEL R/V Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise data set is available without charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a {open_quotes}readme{close_quotes} file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Lamb, M. F.; Feely, R. A. & Moore, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M. & Kozyr, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, May 2000.

Description: This month the authors will visit an ARM CART site with a pleasant climate: the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) CART site, along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. The TWP locale lies between 10 degrees North latitude and 10 degrees South latitude and extends from Indonesia east-ward beyond the international date line. This area was selected because it is in and around the Pacific warm pool, the area of warm sea-surface temperatures that determine El Nino/La Nina episodes. The warm pool also adds heat and moisture to the atmosphere and thus fuels cloud formation. Understanding the way tropical clouds and water vapor affect the solar radiation budget is a focus of the ARM Program. The two current island-based CART sites in the TWP are in Manus Province in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru Island.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Sisterson, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2000.

Description: Winter Weather Outlook--With the chill of colder temperatures in the air, we can rest assured that the icy grips of winter are just around the corner. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC), a specialized part of the National Weather Service (NWS), has issued its annual winter outlook for the 2000-2001 winter season. The CPC, located in Camp Springs, Maryland, is a government agency that focuses its predictions on Earth's climate. In comparison to the NWS forecasts of short-term weather events, the CPC goes farther into the future (from a week to seasons). The CPC conducts real-time monitoring of Earth's climate and makes predictions of climate variability over land and ocean and in the atmosphere. The CPC also evaluates the sources of major climate anomalies. The operations branch of the CPC prepares long-range forecasts by applying dynamical, empirical, and statistical techniques. The analysis branch performs applied research to identify physical factors responsible for climate fluctuations. The two branches work jointly to test new forecast methods and models, with the goal of improving model output. The CPC also evaluates the outlook for floods, droughts, hurricanes, ozone depletion, and El Nino and La Nina environments. So, what is the CPC outlook for winter 2000-2001? For the most part, winter weather will return to ''normal'' this season, because the El Nino and La Nina anomalies that shaped our past three winters have dissipated. Normal winter weather statistics are based on data for 1961-1990. The strong influence of the sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean during an El Nino or La Nina episode, which makes it easier for forecasters to predict the trend for weather events, has given way to more neutral conditions. This winter, we should be prepared for swings in temperature and precipitation. The CPC is forecasting a more normal winter in ...
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Sisterson, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kingman reef

Description: This memorandum describes the search for an acceptable test site for surface detonations of nuclear devices. Concern is expressed over possible Tsunami hazards. Kingman Reef is recommended as a designated target area, and it is recommended that Palmyra Island be investigated as to availability.
Date: February 17, 1965
Creator: Gilbert, F. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

Description: Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M. & Warden, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

137Cs(90Sr) and Pu isotopes in the Pacific Ocean sources & trends

Description: The main source of artificial radioactivity in the world`s oceans can be attributed to worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of selected artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean were first conducted in the 1960`s where it was observed that fallout radioactivity had penetrated the deep ocean. Extensive studies carried out during the 1973-74 GEOSECS provided the first comprehensive data on the lateral and vertical distributions of {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes in the Pacific on a basin wide scale. Estimates of radionuclide inventories in excess of amounts predicted to be delivered by global fallout alone were attributed to close-in fallout and tropospheric inputs from early U.S. tests conducted on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Equatorial Pacific. In general, levels of fallout radionuclides (including {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes) in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean have decreased considerably over the past 4 decades and are now much more homogeneously distributed. Resuspension and the subsequent deposition of fallout radionuclides from previously deposited debris on land has become an important source term for the surface ocean. This can be clearly seen in measurements of fallout radionuclides in mineral aerosols over the Korean Peninsula (Yellow dust events). Radionuclides may also be transported from land to sea in river runoff-these transport mechanisms are more important in the Pacific Ocean where large quantities of river water and suspended sands/fluvial sediments reach the coastal zone. Another unique source of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is derived from the slow resolubilization and transport of radionuclides deposited in contaminated lagoon and slope sediments near U.S. and French test sites. Although there is a small but significant flux of artificial radionuclides depositing on the sea floor, > 80% of the total 239, {sup 240}Pu inventory and > 95% of the ...
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Hamilton, T.F., Millies-Lacrox, J.C. & Hong, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Can T phases be used to map blockage?

Description: The placement of stations in a CTBT hydroacoustic monitoring network is controlled, in large part, by the presence of bathymetric features or land masses that block propagation. In the absence of blocking features, propagation is very efficient in the SOFAR channel, allowing surveillance over large basins with hydrophone networks that are sparse compared to seismic networks. Blockage can be estimated from theoretical calculations of acoustic attenuation. While calibration of attenuation with controlled sources is best, it is also prohibitively expensive. The T phases generated by undersea earthquakes are known to be sensitive to interruptions of the SOFAR channel. Earthquakes along ridges may illuminate regions of interest to define blockage areas. Our initial examination of T phase amplitudes suggests that T phases can be used to map blockage or other strong path attenuation. The principal difficulty to be surmounted is the ambiguity between source coupling and path attenuation. We are attempting to quantify coupling with a probabilistic model, which would permit us to estimate attenuation and to quantify the reliability of the estimate.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Harris, D. & Hauk, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation between outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature in the Tropical Pacific: A model interpretation

Description: Results from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project show that atmospheric general circulation models tend to underestimate the emission of anomalous heat to space during the 1987 El Nino episode in the tropical Pacific. This systematic bias implies that the models are underestimating negative feedbacks on climate that involve longwave radiation in the tropical atmosphere. These results are consistent with analyses of paleo-data that suggest climate models generally overestimate climate sensitivity in the tropics.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Covey, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

Description: The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

Description: This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access ...
Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Kozyr, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study

Description: The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating.
Date: March 20, 2001
Creator: Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C & Guensch, Greg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2002.

Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently announced the development of El Nino conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean near the South American coastline. Scientists detected a 4 F increase in the sea-surface temperatures during February. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, NOAA administrator and Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, indicated that this warming is a sign that the Pacific Ocean is heading toward an El Nino condition. Although it is too early to predict how strong the El Nino will become or the conditions it will bring to the United States, Lautenbacher said that the country is likely to feel the effects as soon as midsummer (Figure 1). During the last El Nino in 1997-1998, the United States experienced strong weather impacts. Even though researchers don't understand what causes the onset of El Nino, they do recognize what to expect once development has begun. Scientists can monitor the development of El Nino through NOAA's advanced global climate monitoring system of polar-orbiting satellites and 72 ocean buoys moored across the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting measurements of surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperatures are made available to scientists on a real-time basis, allowing for timely monitoring and predictions. This complex monitoring array enabled NOAA to predict the 1997-1998 El Nino six months in advance.
Date: April 29, 2002
Creator: Holdridge, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results

Description: A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Skyllingstad, E.D.; Wijesekera, H.W. & Gregg, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rational reference levels for Pacific Coast radioactive pollution studies supplied by samples from northern Baja California

Description: Background levels of radioactivity in the marine environment along the Pacific Coast are at present extremely low. However, these certainly will rise along with the growth of coastal populations and with the increased use of nuclear energy. It would be desirable to anticipate where and how fast concentrations of artificial radioactivities may reach unacceptable levels in coastal water. Successful prediction of this sort requires knowing how the ocean responds, in given regions, to specific inputs. Fortunately, some of the fate of a large class of radioactive pollutants that must be faced in the future may be inferred from careful studies during the past 20 years of the behavior of certain constituents of nuclear fallout that have entered the ocean along the coasts of California and Baja California. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Folsom, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) operated the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear reactor near Eureka, California under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) provisional license number DPR-7. HBPP Unit 3 achieved initial criticality in February 1963 and began commercial operations in August 1963. Unit 3 was a natural circulation boiling water reactor with a direct-cycle design. This design eliminated the need for heat transfer loops and large containment structures. Also, the pressure suppression containment design permitted below-ground construction. Stainless steel fuel claddings were used from startup until cladding failures resulted in plant system contamination—zircaloy-clad fuel was used exclusively starting in 1965 eliminating cladding-related contamination. A number of spills and gaseous releases were reported during operations resulting in a range of mitigative activities (see ESI 2008 for details).
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Adams, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

Description: Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ...
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R. & Jin, Ling
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

Description: Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana ...
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department