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Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Photophysical Properties of New Rhenium(I) Pyrazolyl-Triazine Complexes

Description: The reaction of the chelating ligand 4-[4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N,N-diethyl-benzenamine, L, with pentacarbonylchlororhenium by conventional heating method produces the complexes fac-[ReL(CO)3Cl2] and fac-[Re2L(CO)6Cl2] in a period of 48 hours. The use of microwaves as the source of heat and the increase in the equivalents of one of the reactants leads to a more selective reaction and also decreases the reaction time to 1 hour. After proper purification, the photophysical properties of fac-[ReL(CO)3Cl] were analyzed. The solid-state photoluminescence analysis showed an emission band at 628 nm independent of temperature. However, in the solution studies, the emission band shifted from 550 nm in frozen media to 610 nm when the matrix became fluid. These results confirm that this complex possess a phenomenon known as rigidochromism.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Salazar Garza, Gustavo Adolfo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design, Synthesis and Screening of Homoleptic and Heteroleptic Platinum(ii) Pyridylazolate Complexes for N-type Semiconducting and Light-emitting Devices

Description: A series of heteroleptic and homoleptic platinum(II) complexes has been synthesized and characterized towards their use in thin film devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Pyridylpyrazolate- and pyridyltetrazolate-containing ligands were selected due to their structural rigidity and ease of functionalization. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies of two selected heteroleptic complexes show strong aggregation with preferential stacking into vertical columns with a varying degree of overlap of the neighboring square planar molecular units. It is shown that the close proximity of the molecules to one another in the stack increases semiconducting character, phosphorescence quantum yields, and shorter radiative lifetimes. The potential for these materials towards incorporation into high-efficiency doping free white OLEDs (DFW-OLEDs) for solid-state lighting and display applications has been realized and will be expanded upon by present and future embodiments of materials in this thesis.
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Date: August 2012
Creator: Oswald, Iain William Herbert
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Tethering Group on Borylazadipyrromethene Dyes to Apply to Photogalvanic Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

Description: This is my thesis research on the preparation of borylazadipyrromethene (azaBODIPY) dyes bearing an anchoring group, such as a carboxylic acid group, at the β-pyrrolic position of the azadipyrromethene scaffold. Carboxylate groups form covalent bonds to oxide semiconductors such as TiO2 (n-type) or Cu2O (p-type) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) or photogalvanic dye-sensitized solar cells (P-DSCs). Oxide-binding azaBODIPY dyes can be used to investigate the rate and mechanism of electron injection from the dyes to the semiconductors. Two different types of azaBODIPY (difluoroboryl and dialkynylboryl) were prepared by following previously developed methods. To convert difluoroborylazaBODIPY to the final dyes having a carboxylic acid in the β-pyrrolic position, several distinct synthetic routes were designed, adopting various reactions, such as halogenation, Sonogashira coupling, Knoevenagel condensation, Grignard reagents, Vilsmeir-Haack, and Steglich esterification. Some of these reactions were successful, but the overall synthesis to the targeted final molecule couldn’t be accomplished. Even though further studies on the synthesis of oxide-binding azaBODIPYs are needed, at least my thesis research suggests what reactions can be implemented to complete this synthesis in the future. Proton NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and carbon NMR were commonly used to confirm the synthesized compounds, and sometimes crystallographic information was obtained by XRD (X-ray diffraction) whenever crystals of sufficient size and quality were grown. NMR spectra, interpreted by SpinWorks 3 software, and crystal structures will be introduced in each chapter.
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Date: August 2014
Creator: Park, Eunsol
Partner: UNT Libraries

A New Chromophoric Organic Molecule Toward Improved Molecular Optoelectronic Devices

Description: The characterization of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexabromotriphenylene, Br6TP, is presented toward its potential use as an n-type organic semiconductor and metal-free room temperature phosphor. The crystal structure shows both anisotropic two-dimensional BrBr interactions and inter-layer ?-stacking interactions. Photophysical characteristics were evaluated using solid-state photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, revealing significantly red-shifted excitations in the visible region for the yellow solid material (compared to ultraviolet absorption bands for the colorless dilute solutions). Correlation of spectral, electrochemical, and computational data suggest the presence of an n-type semiconducting behavior due to the electron-poor aromatic ring. The material shows excellent thermal stability as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectra of a thin film deposited by thermal evaporation. The potential for Br6TP and its analogues toward use in several types of photonic and electronic devices is discussed.
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Date: December 2012
Creator: Halbert, Jason Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Plasma on Silicon Nitride, Oxynitride and Other Metals for Enhanced Epoxy Adhesion for Packaging Applications

Description: The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiNx) and oxynitride (SiOxNy ) surfaces and Cu have been studied by x-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O2,NH3 and He capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiNx) and Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy ) surfaces. O2plasma and He plasma treatment results in the formation of silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH3 plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiNx and SiOxNy surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiNx and SiOxNy surfaces when exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH3 plasma and He plasma, indicating that the O2 plasma-induced SiO2 overlayer is highly reactive towards ambient corresponding to increased roughness measured by AFM. At longer ambient exposures (>~10 hours), however surfaces treated by either O2, He or NH3 plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in the contact angle upon the exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Gaddam, Sneha Sen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Peropyrene and Tetracene Derivatives for Photochemical Applications

Description: A novel route for the synthesis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon peropyrene (Pp) is reported along with the efforts to synthesize derivatives of Pp, 2,2′- and 5,5′-linked tetracene dimers as candidates for study as singlet fission materials in photovoltaic devices. Peropyrene was synthesized by the McMurry coupling conditions from phenalenone and low-valent titanium species. The crystal structure of Pp is formed by π-stacked molecular pairs in a herringbone arrangement. The direct functionalization of Pp was studied, and several indirect methods for the functionalization of Pp via phenalenone derivatives are reported. Nucleophilicly dependent, regioselective Michael addition pathways for phenalenone are described. Phenalenone forms a nucleophilic complex with bispinacolatodiboron and yields chiral 3,3′-linked phenalenone dimers and a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivative product of an unusual 3,4 addition. An active complex product of phenalenone and (dimethylphenylsilyl)boronic acid pinacolic ester forms Pp directly. The synthesis of 2,2′- and 5,5′-linked tetracene dimers led to the study of the reduction of 1-arylprop-2-yn-1-ol derivatives via TFA-catalyzed hydride transfer from triethylsilane. Substrates with terminal and TMS-protected alkynes showed silane exchange upon reduction. A TMS-protected, terminal alkyne became triethylsilyl-protected by about 50% whereas only triethylsilyl-protected, terminal alkyne was observed from the reduction of an unprotected, terminal alkyne. A new conformational polymorph of 1,4-bis(triisopropylsilyl)buta-1,3-diyne is reported. Five other rotamers are studied by density functional theory as possible candidates of conformational polymorphism by the analysis of torsional strain energies. The relative stabilities and interconversion equilibria of the seven conformational isomers are studied.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Rodríguez López, Marco Tulio
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Studies of C–H/C–C Manipulation Utilizing Transition Metal Complexes

Description: Density Functional Theory (DFT) is an effective tool for studying diverse metal systems. Presented herein are studies of a variety of metal systems, which can be applied to accomplish transformations that are currently difficult/impossible to achieve. The specific topics studied utilizing DFT include: 1) C–H bond activation via an Earth-abundant transition metal complex, 2) C–H bond deprotonation via an alkali metal superbase, 3) and amination/aziridination reactions utilizing a CuI reagent. Using DFT, the transformation to methanol (CH3OH) from methane (CH4) was examined. The transition metal systems studied for this transformation included a model FeII complex. This first-row transition metal is an economical, Earth-abundant metal. The ligand set for this transformation includes a carbonyl ligand in one set of complexes as well as a phosphite ligand in another. The 3d Fe metal shows the ability to convert alkyls/aryls to their oxidized counterpart in an energetically favorable manner. Also, “superbasic” alkali metal amides were investigated to perform C—H bond cleavage. Toluene was the substrate of interest with Cs chosen to be the metal of interest because of the highly electropositive nature of this alkali metal. These highly electrophilic Cs metal systems allow for very favorable C—H bond scission with a toluene substrate. Finally, the amination and aziridination of C–H and C=C bonds, respectively, by a CuI reagent was studied. The mechanism was investigated using DFT calculations. Presently, these mechanisms involving the use of coinage metals are debated. Our DFT simulations shed some insight into how these transformations occur and ultimately how they can be manipulated.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Pardue, Daniel B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diimine(dithiolate)platinum(ii) Chromophores: Synthesis, Spectroscopy, and Material Applications

Description: A series of 28 square-planar dithiol(diimine)platinum(II) chromophoric complexes have been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for potential efficacy in sensitization of solid state photovoltaic devices to the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The effect of molecular stacking in the solid state and self-association in solution are shown to influence spectral, electronic, and magnetic properties of the chromophores. Such properties are investigated in the pure form and as partners in donor-acceptor charge transfer adducts. Finally, selected chromophores have been incorporated into single layer schottky diodes as neat films and as dopants in multi-layer organic photovoltaic devices. Evaluation of the devices internal quantum efficiency and voltage-current was measured as proof of concept.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Browning, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design, Synthesis and Study of Supramolecular Donor – Acceptor Systems Mimicking Natural Photosynthesis Processes

Description: This dissertation investigates the chemical ingenuity into the development of various photoactive supramolecular donor – acceptor systems to produce clean and carbon free energy for the next generation. The process is inspired by the principles learned from nature’s approach where the solar energy is converted into the chemical energy through the natural photosynthesis process. Owing to the importance and complexity of natural photosynthesis process, we have designed ideal donor-acceptor systems to investigate their light energy harvesting properties. This process involves two major steps: the first step is the absorption of light energy by antenna or donor systems to promote them to an excited electronic state. The second step involves, the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center, which triggers an electron transfer process within the system. Based on this principle, the research is focused into the development of artificial photosynthesis systems to investigate dynamics of photo induced energy and electron transfer events. The derivatives of Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, BODIPY, and SubPhthalocyanines etc have been widely used as the primary building blocks for designing photoactive and electroactive ensembles in this area because of their excellent and unique photophysical and photochemical properties. Meanwhile, the fullerene, mainly its readily available version C60 is typicaly used as an electron acceptor component because of its unique redox potential, symmetrical shape and low reorganization energy appropriate for improved charge separation behavior. The primary research motivation of the study is to achieve fast charge separation and slow charge recombination of the system by stabilizing the radical ion pairs which are formed from photo excitation, for maximum utility of solar energy. Besides Fullerene C60, this dissertation has also investigated the potential application of carbon nanomaterials (Carbon nanotubes and graphene) as primary building blocks for the study of the artificial photosynthesis process.
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Date: December 2015
Creator: KC, Chandra Bikram
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-assembly Polymeric Nanoparticles Composed of Polymers Crosslinked with Transition Metals for Use in Drug Delivery

Description: A major drawback of chemotherapy is the lack of selectively leading to damage in healthy tissue, which results in severe acute side effects to cancer patients. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has emerged as novel strategy to overcome the barriers of immunogenic response, controlled release of therapeutic, and targeting the toxicity only to cancerous cells. In this study, polymeric nanoparticles composed of transition metals and particles derived from natural biopolymers have been generated via self-assembly. For example, nanoparticles composed of cobalt crosslinked with albumin (Co-alb NPs) via Co-amine coordination chemistry of lysine residue were syntheisized in various sizes. The method to generate Co-alb NPs involves no thermal heat, organic solvent or any surfactants, which is ideal for the production of large amounts in a timely manner. The Co-alb NPs displayed exceptional stability under physiological conditions (pH 7.4) for several days with minor changes in size; however degradation could be triggered by reductant (reduced glutathione (GSH), 10 mM) with complete disappearance of particles in less than 2 hour. Numerous therapeutics that are highly effective toward cancer cells have been developed; however, many cannot be administered to patients due to poor solubility in water and pH dependent properties. We have successfully encapsulated 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycampothecin (SN-38) into Co-alb NPs with encapsulation efficiency as high as 94% and loading capacities greater than 30%. We employed an emulsion-solvent evaporation method to incorporate SN-38 into Co-alb (SN38 Co-Alb NPs). Release of the drug from SN38 Co-Alb NPs was determined for particles incubated in PBS or PBS-GSH. SN38 Co-Alb NPs were exceptionally stable under physiological condition (PBS pH 7.4), but exhibited sustained release of SN-38 over time in the presence of GSH. Uptake and toxicity of the particles were also investigated in a gastric carcinoma cell line (SNU-5) where high degrees of macropinocytic uptake ...
Date: December 2015
Creator: Nguyen, Duong Thuy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Aqueous Polymeric Hybrid Composites and Nanomaterials of Platinum(II) and Gold(I) Phosphorescent Complexes for Sensing and Biomedical Applications

Description: The two major topics studied in this dissertation are the gold(I) pyrazolate trimer {[Au(3-R,5-R’)Pz]3} complexes in aqueous chitosan polymer and phosphorescent polymeric nanoparticles based on platinum(II) based complex. The first topic is the synthesis, characterization and optical sensing application of gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complexes within aqueous chitosan polymer. A gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complex, {[Au(3-CH3,5-COOH)Pz]3}, shows high sensitivity and selectivity for silver ions in aqueous media, is discussed for optical sensing and solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) applications. Gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complexes are bright red emissive in polymeric solution and their emission color changes with respect to heavy metal ions, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. These photophysical properties are very useful for designing the optical sensors. The phosphorescent polymeric nanoparticles are prepared with Pt-POP complex and polyacrylonitrile polymer. These particles show excellent photophysical properties and stable up to >3 years at room temperature. Such nanomaterials have potential applications in biomedical and polymeric OLEDs. The phosphorescent hybrid composites are also prepared with Pt-POP and biocompatible polymers, such as chitosan, poly-l-lysine, BSA, pnipam, and pdadmac. Photoluminescent enhancement of Pt-POP with such polymers is also involved in this study. These hybrid composites are promising materials for biomedical applications such as protein labeling and bioimaging.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Upadhyay, Prabhat Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biological Applications of a Strongly Luminescent Platinum (II) Complex in Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Hypoxia Imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans

Description: Phosphorescent transition metal complexes make up an important group of compounds that continues to attract intense research owing to their intrinsic bioimaging applications that arise from bright emissions, relatively long excited state lifetimes, and large stokes shifts. Now for biomaging assay a model organism is required which must meet certain criteria for practical applications. The organism needs to be small, with a high turn-over of progeny (high fecundity), a short lifecycle, and low maintenance and assay costs. Our model organism C. elegans met all the criteria. The ideal phosphor has low toxicity in the model organism. In this work the strongly phosphorescent platinum (II) pyrophosphito-complex was tested for biological applications as a potential in vivo hypoxia sensor. The suitability of the phosphor was derived from its water solubility, bright phosphorescence at room temperature, and long excited state lifetime (~ 10 µs). The applications branched off to include testing of C. elegans survival when treated with the phosphor, which included lifespan and fecundity assays, toxicity assays including the determination of the LC50, and recovery after paraquat poisoning. Quenching experiments were performed using some well knows oxygen derivatives, and the quenching mechanisms were derived from Stern-Volmer plots. Reaction stoichiometries were derived from Job plots, while percent scavenging (or antioxidant) activities were determined graphically. The high photochemical reactivity of the complex was clearly manifested in these reactions.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Kinyanjui, Sophia Nduta
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biocompatible Hybrid Nanomaterials Involving Polymers and Hydrogels Interfaced with Phosphorescent Complexes and Toxin-Free Metallic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Description: The major topics discussed are all relevant to interfacing brightly phosphorescent and non-luminescent coinage metal complexes of [Ag(I) and Au(I)] with biopolymers and thermoresponsive gels for making hybrid nanomaterials with an explanation on syntheses, characterization and their significance in biomedical fields. Experimental results and ongoing work on determining outreaching consequences of these hybrid nanomaterials for various biomedical applications like cancer therapy, bio-imaging and antibacterial abilities are described. In vitro and in vivo studies have been performed on majority of the discussed hybrid nanomaterials and determined that the cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity are comparatively superior when compared to analogues in literature. Consequential differences are noticed in photoluminescence enhancement from hybrid phosphorescent hydrogels, phosphorescent complex ability to physically crosslink, Au(I) sulfides tendency to form NIR (near-infrared) absorbing AuNPs compared to any similar work in literature. Syntheses of these hybrid nanomaterials has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that either metallic nanoparticles syntheses or syntheses of phosphorescent hydrogels can be carried in single step without involving any hazardous reducing agents or crosslinkers or stabilizers that are commonly employed during multiple step syntheses protocols for syntheses of similar materials in literature. These astounding results that have been discovered within studies of hybrid nanomaterials are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to health science and will have striking effect on environmental and green chemistry approaches.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Marpu, Sreekar B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Investigation of Molecular Optoelectronic and Biological Systems

Description: The scope of work in this dissertation has comprised several major investigations on applications and theoretical studies of ab initio quantum mechanics and density functional theory where those techniques were applied to the following: (i) investigation of the performance of density functionals for the computations of molecular properties of 3d transition metal containing systems; (ii) guidance for experimental groups for rational design of macrometallocyclic multinuclear complexes with superior π-acidity and π-basicity that are most suitable for p- and n-type semiconductors of metal-organic molecules and nanomaterials; (iii) investigation of the metallo-aromaticity of multi-nuclear metal complexes; (iv) investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of copper-mediated nitrene insertion into C-H and H-H bond; and (v) accurate computations of dissociation energies of hydrogen-bonded DNA duplex moieties utilizing the resolution of identity correlation consistent composite approach (RI-ccCA).
Date: August 2011
Creator: Tekarli, Sammer M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Photophysics and Photochemistry of Copper(I) Phosphine and Collidine Complexes: An Experimental/Theoretical Investigation

Description: Copper(I) complexes have been studied through both experimental and computational means in the presented work. Overall, the work focuses on photophysical and photochemical properties of copper(I) complexes. Photophysical and photochemical properties are found to be dependent on the geometries of the copper(I) complexes. One of the geometric properties that are important for both photochemical and photophysical properties is coordination number. Coordination numbers have been observed to be dependent on both ligand size and recrystallization conditions. The complexes geometric structure, as well as the electronic effects of the coordination ligands, is shown both computationally as well as experimentally to affect the emission energies. Two-coordinate complexes are seen to have only weak emission at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), while at room temperature (298 K) the two-coordinate complexes are not observed to be luminescent. Three-coordinate complexes are observed to be luminescent at liquid nitrogen temperature as well as at room temperature. The three-coordinate complexes have a Y-shaped ground (S0) state that distorts towards a T-shape upon photoexcitation to the lowest lying phosphorescent state (T1). The geometric distortion is tunable by size of the coordinating ligand. Luminescence is controllable by limiting the amount of non-radiative emission. One manner by which non-radiative emission is controlled is the amount of geometric distortion that occurs as the complex undergoes photoexcitation. Bulky ligands allow for less distortion than smaller ligands, leading to higher emission energies (blue shifted energies) with higher quantum efficiency. Tuning emission and increasing quantum efficiencies can be used to create highly efficient, white emitting materials for use in white OLEDS.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Determan, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reductive Functionalization of 3D Metal-Methyl Complexes and Characterization of a Novel Dinitrogen Dicopper (I) Complex

Description: Reductive functionalization of methyl ligands by 3d metal catalysts and two possible side reactions has been studied. Selective oxidation of methane, which is the primary component of natural gas, to methanol (a more easily transportable liquid) using organometallic catalysis, has become more important due to the abundance of domestic natural gas. In this regard, reductive functionalization (RF) of methyl ligands in [M(diimine)2(CH3)(Cl)] (M: VII (d3) through CuII (d9)) complexes, has been studied computationally using density functional techniques. A SN2 mechanism for the nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the metal-methyl bond, resulting in the formation of methanol, was studied. Similar highly exergonic pathways with very low energy SN2 barriers were observed for the proposed RF mechanism for all complexes studied. To modulate RF pathways closer to thermoneutral for catalytic purposes, a future challenge, paradoxically, requires finding a way to strengthen the metal-methyl bond. Furthermore, DFT calculations suggest that for 3d metals, ligand properties will be of greater importance than metal identity in isolating suitable catalysts for alkane hydroxylation in which reductive functionalization is used to form the C—O bond. Two possible competitive reactions for RF of metal-methyl complexes were studied to understand the factors that lower the selectivity of C—O bond forming reactions. One of them was deprotonation of the methyl group, which leads to formation of a methylene complex and water. The other side reaction was metal-methyl bond dissociation, which was assessed by calculating the bond dissociation free energies of M3d—CH3 bonds. Deprotonation was found to be competitive kinetically for most of the 1st row transition metal-methyl complexes (except for CrII, MnII and CuII), but less favorable thermodynamically as compared to reductive functionalization for all of the studied 1st row transition metal complexes. Metal-carbon bond dissociation was found to be less favorable than the RF reactions for most 3d transition ...
Date: May 2017
Creator: Fallah, Hengameh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Group 10 Catalyzed Olefin Hydroarylation

Description: Alkyl-arenes are important industry feedstock chemicals that are used as solvents, pharmaceutical precursors, and polymer monomer units. One alkyl-arene, ethylbenzene, is the main focus of this dissertation, and is produced in the million ton a year scale. As alkyl-arenes are important commodity chemicals, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is a lucrative alternative for their production rather than Friedel-Crafts alkylation or various coupling reactions that have lower atom economy, require strong acids, or are energetically demanding. Currently catalytic olefin hydroarylation still suffers from decomposition pathways of the active catalytic complexes, side reactions that lead to waste products, and unfavorable activation barriers, which represent high temperature and pressure. Modifications to the catalytically active system bipyridine platinum(II) (bpyPtII), through computational methods, are explored herein. The work presented here investigates catalytic olefin hydroarylation in order to mitigate the aforementioned difficulties. Included in this study are changes to the electronic profile of the supporting ligand, bpy, through the addition of electron withdrawing or electron donating R groups (methoxy, nitro), definite ligand replacements such as bpy to hydridotris(pyrazolyl)borate (Tp), changes in metal oxidation (II to IV), and replacing the metal center from Pt to Ni. Nickel was selected as a possible alternative to platinum as it is more Earth abundant reducing the monetary requirement for the catalyst. In addition to having a different catalytic energetic profile from platinum. Ni as expected could only facilitate single step hydrogen atom transfers due to its inability to access higher oxidations states.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Hector Emanuel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Water-soluble Phosphors for Hypoxia Detection in Chemical and Biological Media

Description: Water-soluble Pt(II) phosphors exist predominantly for photophysical studies. However, fewer are known to be candidates for cisplatin derivatives. If such a molecule could exist, it would be efficient at not only destroying the cancerous cells which harm the body, but the destruction would also be traceable within the human body as it occurred. Herein, research accomplished in chemistry describes the photophysical properties of a water-soluble phosphor. Spectroscopically, this phosphor is unique in that it possesses a strong green emission at room temperature in aqueous media. Its emission is also sensitive to the gaseous environment. These properties have been expanded to both analytical and biological applications. Studies showing the potential use of the phosphor as a heavy metal remover from aqueous solutions have been accomplished. The removal of toxic heavy metals was indicated by the loss of emission as well as the appearance of a precipitate. The gaseous sensitivity was elicited to be used as a potential cancerous cell biomarker. In vivo studies were accomplished in a wide variety of species, including bacteria (E. coli), worms (C. elegans), small crustaceans (Artemia), and fish (D. rerio and S. ocellatus). The phosphor in question is detectable in all of the above. This fundamental research lays the foundation for further expansion into bioinorganic chemistry, and many other possible applications.
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Date: December 2012
Creator: Satumtira, Nisa Tara
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Rational Design of Metal-organic Electronic Devices: a Computational Perspective

Description: Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-?, and ?-? interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d10 cyclo-[M(?-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(µ-Pz)]3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device engineers to choose the appropriate metal electrodes considering the chemical interactions at the interface. Additionally, the calculations performed on the interfaces provided valuable insight into binding energies, charge redistribution, change in the energy ...
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Date: December 2012
Creator: Chilukuri, Bhaskar
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Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Poly-Imine Ambipolar Ligands and Their Rhenium(I) Carbonyl Complexes

Description: The phenomenon luminescence rigidochromism has been reported since the 1970s in tricarbonyldiimine complexes with a general formula [R(CO)3LX] using conventional unipolar diimine ligands such as 2,2;-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline as L, and halogens or simple solvents as X. As a major part of this dissertation, microwave-assisted synthesis, purification, characterization and detailed photoluminescence studies of the complex fac-[ReCl(CO)3L], 1, where L = 4-[4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-N,N-diethylbenzenamine are reported. The employment of microwaves in the preparation of 1 decreased the reaction time from 48 to 2 hours compared to the conventional reflux method. Stoichiometry variations allows for selective preparation of either a mononuclear, 1, or binuclear, fac-[Re2Cl2(CO)6], 2, complex. The photophysical properties of 1 were analyzed finding that it possesses significant luminescence rigidochromism. The steady state photoluminescence emission spectra of 1 in solution shift from 550 nm in frozen media to 610 nm when the matrix becomes fluid. Moreover, a very sensitive emission spectral analysis of 0.1 K temperatures steps shows a smooth transition through the glass transition temperature of the solvent host. Furthermore, synthetic modifications to L have attained a family of ambipolar compounds that have tunable photophysical, thermophysical and other material properties that render them promising candidates for potential applications in organic electronics and/or sensors - either as is or for their future complexes with various transition metals and lanthanides.
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Salazar Garza, Gustavo Adolfo
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Design, Synthesis and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Coinage Metal-Based Functional Materials toward Potential Lighting, Display and Energy-Harvesting Devices

Description: Groundbreaking progress in molecule-based optoelectronic devices for lighting, display and energy-harvesting technologies demands highly efficient and easily processable functional materials with tunable properties governed by their molecular/supramolecular structure variations. To date, functional coordination compounds whose function is governed by non-covalent weak forces (e.g., metallophilic, dπ-acid/dπ-base stacking, halogen/halogen and/or d/π interactions) remain limited. This is unlike the situation for metal-free organic semiconductors, as most metal complexes incorporated in optoelectronic devices have their function determined by the properties of the monomeric molecular unit (e.g., Ir(III)-phenylpyridine complexes in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)). This dissertation represents comprehensive results of both experimental and theoretical studies, descriptions of synthetic methods and possible application allied to monovalent coinage metal-based functional materials. The main emphasis is given to the design and synthesis of functional materials with preset material properties such as light-emitting materials, light-harvesting materials and conducting materials. In terms of advances in fundamental scientific phenomena, the major highlight of the work in this dissertation is the discovery of closed-shell polar-covalent metal-metal bonds manifested by ligand-unassisted d10-d10 covalent bonds between Cu(I) and Au(I) coinage metals in the ground electronic state (~2.87 Å; ~45 kcal/mol). Moreover, this dissertation also reports pairwise intermolecular aurophilic interactions of 3.066 Å for an Au(I) complex, representing the shortest ever reported pairwise intermolecular aurophilic distances among all coinage metal(I) cyclic trimetallic complexes to date; crystals of this complex also exhibit gigantic luminescence thermochromism of 10,200 cm-1 (violet to red). From applications prospective, the work herein presents monovalent coinage metal-based functional optoelectronic materials such as heterobimetallic complexes with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield, metallic or semiconducting integrated donor-acceptor stacks and a new class of Au(III)-based black absorbers with cooperative intermolecular iodophilic (I…I) interactions that sensitize the harvesting of all UV, all visible, and a broad spectrum of near-IR ...
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Ghimire, Mukunda Mani
Partner: UNT Libraries

Processing, structure property relationships in polymer layer double hydroxide multifunctional nanocomposites

Description: Dan Beaty (1937-2002) was a prolific composer, pianist, researcher, educator, and writer. His large compositional output included chamber works, choral works, songs, orchestral pieces, electronic music, and keyboard works. Beaty was well versed in traditional Western music as well as the more avant-garde and perplexing idioms of the twentieth century. Beaty's compositions reflect the many fascinating, if not always popular, musical trends of his time. His music encompasses styles from serial to jazz, shows compositional influences from Arnold Schoenberg to Indonesian music, and demonstrates thought-provoking and highly intellectual craftsmanship. This document explores several of Beaty's songs through a discussion of the composer's life and compositional process. Songs included in this document are Three Weeks Songs, October, November, A Sappho Lyric, Love Song, That Night When Joy Began, and War Lyrics. This document was written to accompany the author's DMA Lecture-Recital at the University of North Texas. Unfortunately, Beaty's vocal music was never published and is mostly unknown. One goal of the project was to initiate interest in Beaty's songs. Through this document, Lecture-Recital, and additional performances, considerable strides have been made to bring Beaty's songs to new audiences throughout the United States. In addition, the author has received permission from the Beaty family to publish Dan Beaty's songs.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Ogbomo, Sunny Minister
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic studies and computational modeling of atomic chlorine reactions in the gas phase.

Description: The gas phase reactions of atomic chlorine with hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, benzene, and ethylene are investigated using the laser flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence experimental technique. In addition, the kinetics of the reverse processes for the latter two elementary reactions are also studied experimentally. The absolute rate constants for these processes are measured over a wide range of conditions, and the results offer new accurate information about the reactivity and thermochemistry of these systems. The temperature dependences of these reactions are interpreted via the Arrhenius equation, which yields significantly negative activation energies for the reaction of the chlorine atom and hydrogen sulfide as well as for that between the phenyl radical and hydrogen chloride. Positive activation energies which are smaller than the overall endothermicity are measured for the reactions between atomic chlorine with ammonia and ethylene, which suggests that the reverse processes for these reactions also possess negative activation energies. The enthalpies of formation of the phenyl and β-chlorovinyl are assessed via the third-law method. The stability and reactivity of each reaction system is further rationalized based on potential energy surfaces, computed with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical methods and refined through the inclusion of effects which arise from the special theory of relativity. Large amounts of spin-contamination are found to result in inaccurate computed thermochemistry for the phenyl and ethyl radicals. A reformulation of the computational approach to incorporate spin-restricted reference wavefunctions yields computed thermochemistry in good accord with experiment. The computed potential energy surfaces rationalize the observed negative temperature dependences in terms of a chemical activation mechanism, and the possibility that an energized adduct may contribute to product formation is investigated via RRKM theory.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Alecu, Ionut M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phosphorescent Emissions of Coinage Metal-Phosphine Complexes: Theory and Photophysics

Description: The major topics discussed are all relevant to the bright phosphorescent emissions of coinage metal complexes (Cu(I), Ag(I) and Au(I)) with an explanation of the theoretical background, computational results and ongoing work on the application in materials and optoelectronic devices. Density functional computations have been performed on the majority of the discussed complexes and determined that the most significant distortion that occurs in Au(I)-phosphine complexes is a near and beyond a T-shape within the P-Au-P angle when the complexes are photoexcited to the lowest phosphorescent excited state. The large distortion is experimentally qualified with the large Stokes' shift that occurs between the excitation and emission spectra and can be as large as 18 000 cm-1 for the neutral Au(I) complexes. The excited state distortion has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that not only is it pertinent to the efficient luminescence but also for the tunability in the emission. The factors that affect tunability have been determined to be electronics, sterics, rigidity of solution and temperature. The luminescent shifts determined from varying these parameters have been described systematically and have revealed emission colors that span the entire visible spectrum. These astounding features that have been discovered within studies of coinage metal phosphorescent complexes are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to electronics.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Sinha, Pankaj
Partner: UNT Libraries