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Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the history and political background of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia since their breakaway from the former Soviet Union at the end of 1991. It looks at key issues for the 112th Congress including economies, energy, regional politics, local crime, and terrorism.
Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kazakhstan: Current Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the relationship between the U.S. and Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is becoming an important power in Central Asia by virtue of its large territory, ample natural resources, and strategic location. However, it faces political, ethnic, economic, and environmental challenges to its stability and integrity. After the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, Kazakhstan granted overflight rights for U.S.-led coalition actions in Afghanistan, and in 2003 provided some troops for post-conflict rebuilding in Iraq.
Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
Date: December 22, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
Date: March 5, 2014
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: This report offers background information and recent more development in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia political and economic situation. It also discusses U.S. policy, U.S. aid, U.S. trade and investments to these countries, congressional response and other legislation.
Date: September 27, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Georgia's October 2013 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications

Description: This report discusses Georgia's October 27, 2013, presidential election and its implications for U.S. interests. The election took place one year after a legislative election that witnessed the mostly peaceful shift of legislative and ministerial power from the ruling party, the United National Movement (UNM), to the Georgia Dream (GD) coalition bloc.
Date: November 4, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the history and political background of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia since their breakaway from the former Soviet Union at the end of 1991. It looks at key issues for the 112th Congress including economies, energy, regional politics, local crime, and terrorism.
Date: October 25, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
Date: September 13, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: Report that discusses the current status of Central Asian states and U.S. policy, which has been aimed at facilitating their cooperation with U.S. and NATO stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and their efforts to combat terrorism, proliferation, and trafficking in arms, drugs, and persons.
Date: May 31, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kyrgyzstan and the Status of the U.S. Manas Airbase: Context and Implications

Description: In February 2009, Kyrgyzstan announced that it was terminating an agreement permitting U.S. forces to upgrade and use portions of the Manas international airport near the capital of Bishkek to support coalition military operations in Afghanistan. U.S. forces faced leaving the airbase by late August 2009. Major U.S. concerns included working out alternative logistics routes and support functions for a surge in U.S. and NATO operations in Afghanistan and possibly cooler security ties with Kyrgyzstan that could set back U.S. counter-terrorism efforts and other U.S. interests in Central Asia. After reportedly intense negotiations, the United States and Kyrgyzstan reached agreement in June 2009 on modalities for maintaining U.S. and NATO transit operations at Manas.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Azerbaijan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses political, economic, and security challenges facing Azerbaijan, including the unsettled conflict in the breakaway Nagorno Karabakh region. A table provides basic facts and biographical information. Related products include CRS Report RL33453, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests, by Jim Nichol.
Date: June 11, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines Kyrgyzstan's uneven political and economic reform efforts. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance for democratization and other programs. Basic facts and biographical information are provided. Related products include CRS Report RL33458, Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests, by Jim Nichol.
Date: June 18, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Georgia [Republic]: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines Georgia's efforts to democratize and bolster its free market economy, while surmounting separatism, Russian economic sanctions, and other problems. U.S. policy and assistance are discussed. Basic facts and biographical information are provided. Related products include CRS Report RL33453, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests, by Jim Nichol.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The United States has pursued close ties with Armenia to encourage its democratization and because of concerns by Armenian-Americans and others over its fate. Close ties with Georgia have evolved from U.S. contacts with its pro-Western leadership. The Bush Administration supports U.s. private investment in Azerbaijan's energy sector as a means of increasing the diversity of world energy suppliers and to encourage building multiple energy pipelines to world markets.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. The Administration's diverse goals in Central Asia reflect the different characteristics of these states. U.S. interests in Kazakhstan include securing and eliminating Soviet-era nuclear and biological weapons materials and facilities. In Tajikistan, U.S. aid focuses on economic reconstruction. U.S. energy firms have invested in oil and natural gas development in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This report outlines the above, as well as several ongoing debates regarding general relations between the U.S. and Central Asia.
Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. Soon after the terrorist attacks on America on September 11, 2001, all the Central Asia states offered overflight and other support to coalition anti-terrorist efforts in Afghanistan. After September 11, 2001, U.S. policy emphasized bolstering the security of the Central Asian states to help them combat terrorism, proliferation, and arms trafficking. Other U.S. objectives include promoting democratization, free markets, human rights, and energy development, as well as integrating these states into the international community.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of all the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the region. The Administration's diverse goals in Central Asia reflect the different characteristics of these states. U.S. interests in Kazakhstan include securing and eliminating Soviet-era nuclear and biological weapons materials and facilities. In Tajikistan, U.S. aid focuses on economic reconstruction. U.S. energy firms have invested in oil and natural gas development in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This report outlines the above, as well as several ongoing debates regarding general relations between the U.S. and Central Asia.
Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: Kazakhstan is an important power in Central Asia by virtue of its geographic location, large territory, ample natural resources, and economic growth, but it faces ethnic, political, and other challenges to stability. This report discusses U.S. policy and assistance. Basic facts and biographical data are provided. Related products include CRS Report RL33458, Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tajikstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report outlines challenges faced by Tajikistan since its five-year civil war ended in 1997. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance. Basic facts and biographical information are provided. This report may be updated. Related products include CRS Report RL33458, Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests, updated regularly.
Date: July 10, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uzbekistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: Uzbekistan is a potential Central Asian regional power by virtue of its relatively large population, energy and other resources, and location in the heart of the region. It has failed to make progress in economic and political reforms, and many observers criticize its human rights record. This report discusses U.S. policy and assistance. Basic facts and biographical information are provided.
Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department