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The Evolution of Survival as Theme in Contemporary Native American Literature: from Alienation to Laughter

Description: With the publication of his Pulitzer Prize winning novel, House Made of Dawn. N. Scott Momaday ended a three-decade hiatus in the production of works written by Native American writers, and contributed to the renaissance of a rich literature. The critical acclaim that the novel received helped to establish Native American literature as a legitimate addition to American literature at large and inspired other Native Americans to write. Contemporary Native American literature from 1969 to 1974 focuses on the themes of the alienated mixed-blood protagonist and his struggle to survive, and the progressive return to a forgotten or rejected Indian identity. For example, works such as Leslie Silko's Ceremony and James Welch's Winter in the Blood illustrate this dual focal point. As a result, scholarly attention on these works has focused on the theme of struggle to the extent that Native American literature can be perceived as necessarily presenting victimized characters. Yet, Native American literature is essentially a literature of survival and continuance, and not a literature of defeat. New writers such as Louise Erdrich, Hanay Geiogamah, and Simon Ortiz write to celebrate their Indian heritage and the survival of their people, even though they still use the themes of alienation and struggle. The difference lies in what they consider to be the key to survival: humor. These writers posit that in order to survive, Native Americans must learn to laugh at themselves and at their fate, as well as at those who have victimized them through centuries of oppression. Thus, humor becomes a coping mechanism that empowers Native Americans and brings them from survival to continuance.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Schein, Marie-Madeleine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Early Settlement of the Concho Country

Description: Early general history up to 1900. "I have listened to the stories told about it by the old time cowboys, by the old settlers, and by some of the old Fort Concho soldiers themselves. As a result of this experience, I have wanted to go into its past more carefully and search for more facts regarding the region, its first inhabitants, and its early history in general."-- leaf iii.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Allen, S. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Fall 2000

Description: This issue of Buildings for the 21st Century, a quarterly newsletter on the DOE building programs and technology, highlights the new high-performance visitor center at Zion National Park, Maryland's new Clean Energy Incentive Act, the Ohio State Weatherization Program, the Rebuild America Program and Native American communities joining forces, and Energy Star{reg_sign} clothes washers.
Date: October 19, 2000
Creator: Tromly, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Elizabeth Simpson Cooper Memoir]

Description: Photocopy of Elizabeth Simpson Cooper's memoir about her childhood in Virginia and later her time in Kansas after moving westward with her family. In the text of her memoir, she describes her school days in Virginia, church, Cooper family history, "Bleeding Kansas" (the period of conflict over deciding if Kansas would be a free or a slave state), and the Civil War in Kansas as well as her personal encounters with Native Americans in Kansas.
Date: 1931-02-24/1932
Creator: Cooper, Elizabeth Simpson, 1840-
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Ours is the Kingdom of Heaven: Racial Construction of Early American Christian Identities

Description: This project interrogates how religious performance, either authentic or contrived, aids in the quest for freedom for oppressed peoples; how the rhetoric of the Enlightenment era pervades literatures delivered or written by Native Americans and African Americans; and how religious modes, such as evoking scripture, performing sacrifices, or relying upon providence, assist oppressed populations in their roles as early American authors and speakers. Even though the African American and Native American populations of early America before the eighteenth century were denied access to rights and freedom, they learned to manipulate these imposed constraints--renouncing the expectation that they should be subordinate and silent--to assert their independent bodies, voices, and spiritual identities through the use of literary expression. These performative strategies, such as self-fashioning, commanding language, destabilizing republican rhetoric, or revising narrative forms, become the tools used to present three significant strands of identity: the individual person, the racialized person, and the spiritual person. As each author resists the imposed restrictions of early American ideology and the resulting expectation of inferior behavior, he/she displays abilities within literature (oral and written forms) denied him/her by the political systems of the early republican and early national eras. Specifically, they each represent themselves in three ways: first, as a unique individual with differentiated abilities, exceptionalities, and personality; second, as a person with distinct value, regardless of skin color, cultural difference, or gender; and third, as a sanctified and redeemed Christian, guaranteed agency and inheritance through the family of God. Furthermore, the use of religion and spirituality allows these authors the opportunity to function as active agents who were adapting specific verbal and physical methods of self-fashioning through particular literary strategies. Doing so demonstrates that they were not the unrefined and unfeeling individuals that early American political and social restrictions had made them--that instead they were ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Robinson, Heather L
Partner: UNT Libraries

Land, Property, and the Chickasaws: The Indian Territory Experience

Description: At a very early date, it must have been apparent to the Chickasaws that their only hope of survival in the face of a steadily encroaching white man's world would be to imitate and emulate the latter's society, his Constitution, and his laws. Long before Andrew Jackson signed the Removal Act destined to uproot large numbers of peoples and result in some of the greatest mass migrations in the history of the United States, the Chickasaws, largely by a process of trial and error, attempted to sow the seeds for their plan of survival in keeping with their realization of this all-important fact. After arriving in the new land soon to be known as Indian Territory, they continued this process in the hope that their identity as a tribe and a Nation might never be lost. The Chickasaw experience in Indian Territory became indicative of a culture confronted with possible extermination by a larger and more powerful culture. Their story illustrates an intense struggle on the part of the Chickasaws to utilize and regulate the land on a tribal basis of ownership in the face of a fast encircling world which favored the concept of individual private property. One of the major problems that concerned the Chickasaws during this crucial period was how to absorb some of the white man's institutions and way of life, and still cling to tradition and remain basically Chickasaw.
Date: August 1968
Creator: Graffham, Beverly Jean Wood
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Correlation Between Societal Attitudes and Those of American Fictional Authors in the Depiction of American Indians

Description: This research examines the relationship between the attitudes of fictional writers and those of society toward American Indians from colonial America to the present. A content analysis was used to validate the hypothesis. In order to show changing attitudes and different schools of thought, this research was arranged into four time periods: "The Ethnocentric Conquerors," "The Ethnocentric Romantics," "The Ethnocentric Acculturationists," and "The Revisionists." The findings demonstrate that there is a close correlation between the attitudes of fictional authors and those of society during a given time period,
Date: May 1974
Creator: Turnbull, Wynette Lois H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A History of the Osage Indians Before Their Allotment in 1907

Description: The history of the Osages from 1808 to 1839 may be conveniently divided into three major sections, each separated by a cession treaty. The first begins with the cession treaty of 1808 and terminates with the cession of 1818. It covers the Osages' relations with the whites and the eastern tribes during that decade. The second section begins with the 1818 session treaty and ends with the land cession of 1825. It likewise covers the tribe's relations with the eastern tribes and the whites. The concluding division covers the period from the Osages' last major cession treaty to their removal to Kansas in 1839, and includes their relations with the eastern tribes, the western tribes, and the whites. These three sections combined cover the most turbulent period in Osage history, a period in which the United States Government and the powerful eastern tribes took the extensive Osage lands by right of conquest.
Date: June 1961
Creator: Reeves, Carroll Don
Partner: UNT Libraries

Wind Powering America Anemometer Loan Program: A Retrospective

Description: This white paper details the history, mechanics, status, and impact of the Native American Anemometer Loan Program (ALP) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. Originally conceived in 2000 and terminated (as a WPA activity) at the end of FY 2011, the ALP has resulted in the installation of anemometers at 90 locations. In addition, the ALP provided support for the installation of anemometers at 38 additional locations under a related ALP administered by the Western Area Power Administration.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Jimenez, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2008

Description: The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community. This issue features an interview with Steven J. Morello, director of DOE's newly formed Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, and a feature on the newly installed Vestas V-47 turbine at Turtle Mountain Community College.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Baranowski, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2006

Description: The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.
Date: June 1, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crossing the Pond: The Native American Effort in World War II

Description: A non-fiction book about Native Americans serving in the military during World War II, as well as Native American efforts on the home-front. The book also chronicles attempts by Nazi propagandists to exploit Native Americans for the Third Reich, and the postwar experiences of Native Americans. Includes photographs of Native American civilians and military personnel. Index starts on page 219.
Date: 1999
Creator: Franco, Jere' Bishop
Partner: UNT Press

A Study of Leisure Activities of Taos Pueblo Indian Children

Description: The purposes of this study were to analyze and describe leisure activities, in order to provide useful data for school administrators, teachers, and writers of textbooks for Indian children. Particular consideration will be given in this field research to the following questions: 1. What are Taos Indian children's preferences for leisure activities? 2. Do children of the same Pueblo but of different sex have similar leisure activities?
Date: June 1970
Creator: McCarty, Jacqueline Quinn, 1928-
Partner: UNT Libraries

North American Indians

Description: Two men and a woman wearing traditional Native American clothing are depicted in this group portrait.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1832~
Creator: Catlin, George
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

French-Indian interaction at an 18th century frontier post : the Roseborough Lake Site, Bowie County, Texas.

Description: A report on archaeological excavations at the Roseborough Lake Site, conducted with the help of Field School students at North Texas State University in 1976. The research explored the life of the villages in the vicinity of the site at the time of early European contact.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Gilmore, Kathleen.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Background in Longfellow's "The Song of Hiawatha"

Description: The background for "The Song of Hiawatha" is explicitly American, for Longfellow has preserved many legends, traditions, and customs of the aborigines with fidelity. As a whole, "The Song of Hiawatha" is a successful delineation of the aborigines of North America. Longfellow preserved the most interesting legends and supplemented them with accounts of Indian life.
Date: 1940
Creator: Doty, Fern Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

[Sweat Lodge]

Description: Photograph of several people at a Native American sweat lodge. Two men face the camera, standing next to two buckets. A wall of trees stands behind them.
Date: unknown
Creator: McAuley, Skeet
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Filial Therapy with Native Americans on the Flathead Reservation

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the 10-week filial therapy model as an intervention for Native American parents and their children residing on the Flathead Reservation in Montana. Filial therapy is an approach used by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents with their own children. Parents are taught basic child-centered play therapy skills and practice those skills during weekly play sessions with their children. The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: 1) increasing parental acceptance of Native Americans residing on the Flathead Reservation of their children; 2) reducing the stress level of those parents; 3) improving empathic behaviors of those parents toward their children; 4) changing the play behaviors of children with their parents who participated in the training; and, 5) enhancing the self-concept of those children. The experimental group parents (N=11) received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and participated in weekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group (N=10) received no treatment during the 10 weeks. All adult participants completed the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Child participants completed the Joseph Pre-school and Primary Self Concept Screening Test. Parent and child participants were videotaped playing together in 20-minute videotaped play sessions before and after the training to measure empathic behavior in parent-child interactions and desirable play behaviors in children. Analyses of Covariance revealed that the Native American parents in the experimental group significantly increased their level of empathy in their interactions with their children. Experimental group children significantly increased their level of desirable play behaviors with their parents. Although parental acceptance, parental stress, and children's self concept did not improve significantly, all measures indicated positive trends. In addition, this study gives rise to questions regarding the ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Glover, Geraldine J.
Partner: UNT Libraries