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FT-NMR and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids

Description: NMR relaxation and Raman lineshape analysis are well known methods for the study of molecular reorientational dynamics in liquids. The combination of these two methods provides another approach to tackle the characterization of molecular dynamics in liquids. Investigations presented here include (1) NMR relaxation study of polycyclic compounds in solution, (2) the study of nitromethane reorientational dynamics using the NMR and Raman methods, and (3) Raman lineshape analysis of reorientation hexafluorobenzene/benzene mixtures.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Wang, Kuen-Shian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Raman and NMR Relaxation Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids

Description: Raman vibrational bands are sensitive to fluctuations in the molecular environment. Variations in the bandwidth and peak position can then be utilized to monitor molecular forces and interactions present in condense phases. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids since nuclear spin relaxation times are dependent on the details of molecular motion. Presented here is the solvent study of the Raman bandwidths and frequency displacements of the mode of the compounds CH3MCI3 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn) in a number of solvents of widely varying molecular structure. Also, a detailed isotope dilution study of the modes in CH2CI2/CD2CI2 mixtures is presented. In this set of experiments, I observed broadening of the v1 mode of CH2C12 upon dilution,which is the first experimental observation of such behavior. The temperature-dependent carbon-13 relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements in neat dichloromethane were measured. In this study we found that the molecular reorientation of this molecule was highly anisotropic, but could be well characterized assuming quasi-symmetric top behavior. In addition, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the reorientational dynamics in dichloromethane, we analyzed the 13-C NMR relaxation of CH2CI2 both in "inert" solvents of differing viscosities and in interactive solvents of varying Lewis basicities. Various theoretical models were also applied in order to characterize dichloromethane1s reorientational dynamics.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Rodriguez, Arturo A. (Arturo Angel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular Dynamics in the Liquid Phase by FT-NMR, FT-IR and Laser Raman Lineshape Analysis

Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids because nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are dependent upon the details of molecular motion. The combined application of Raman and Infrared (IR) lineshape analysis can furnish more complete information to characterize the anisotropic rotation of molecules. Presented here are the studies of NMR relaxation times, together with Raman/IR Mneshape analysis of the solvent and temperature dependence of rotational diffusion in 1,3,5-tribromobenzene and 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene. In these experiments, it was found that the rotational diffusion constants calculated from Perrin's stick model were two to three times smaller than the measured values of D, and D,,. Similarly, rotational diffusion constants predicted by the Hu-Zwanzig slip model were too large by a factor of 2. Application of the newer Hynes-Kapral-Weinberg model furnished rotational diffusion constants that were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The vibrational peak frequencies and relaxation times of the isotropic Raman spectra of the υ1 modes of CD2Br2 and CHBr3 were studied in solution. The frequency shifts in non-interactive solvents were explained well on the basis of solution variations in the dispersion energy. In Lewis bases, the displacements were in some, but not all, cases greater than predicted. On the other hand, it was found that the vibrational relaxation times of the C-H/C-D modes decreased dramatically in all Lewis base solvents. Therefore, it was concluded that relaxation times of the υ1 modes, rather than frequency shifts, furnish a more reliable measure of hydrogen bonding interactions of halomethanes in solution.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Chen, Fu-Tseng Andy
Partner: UNT Libraries

NMR Study of the Reorientational and Exchange Dynamics of Organometallic Complexes

Description: Investigations presented here are (a) the study of reorientational dynamics and internal rotation in transition metal complexes by NMR relaxation experiments, and (b) the study of ligand exchange dynamics in transition metal complexes by exchange NMR experiments. The phenyl ring rotation in Ru3(CO)9(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh) and Re(Co)2(CO)10(μ3- CPh) was monitored by 13C NMR relaxation experiments to probe intramolecular electronic and/or steric interactions. It was found that the rotation is relatively free in the first complex, but is restrained in the second one. The steric interactions in the complexes were ascertained by the measurement of the closest approach intramolecular distances. The rotational energy barriers in the two complexes were also calculated by using both the Extended Hiickel and Fenske-Hall methods. The study suggests that the barrier is due mainly to the steric interactions. The exchange NMR study revealed two carbonyl exchange processes in both Ru3(CO)9(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh) and Ru3(CO)8(PPh3)(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh). The lower energy process is a tripodal rotation of the terminal carbonyls. The higher energy process, resulting in the exchange between the equatorial and bridging carbonyls, but not between the axial and bridging carbonyls, involves the concerted formation of edge-bridging μ2-CO moieties. The effect of the PPh3 ligand on the carbonyl exchange rates has been discussed. A combination of relaxation and exchange NMR found that PPh3 ligand rotation about the Ru-P bond is slow on the exchange NMR time scale and the phenyl rotation about the P-Cipso bond is fast on the exchange NMR time scale but is slow on the NMR relaxation time scale.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Wang, Dongqing
Partner: UNT Libraries

Raman and NMR Investigation of Molecular Reorientation and Internal Rotation in Liquids

Description: Molecular rotational motions are known to influence both Raman scattering of light and nuclear spin relaxation. Therefore, the application of Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation time measurements to probe molecular dynamics in liquids will provide us with a deeper understanding of the dynamical behavior and structure of molecules in the liquid phase. Presented here are (i) studies of molecular reorientation of acetonitrile in the neat liquid phase and in solution by Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation; (ii) studies of reorientational dynamics and internal rotation in transition metal clusters by NMR relaxation.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Yuan, Peng
Partner: UNT Libraries

Atomistic Simulations of Deformation Mechanisms in Ultra-Light Weight Mg-Li Alloys

Description: Mg alloys have spurred a renewed academic and industrial interest because of their ultra-light-weight and high specific strength properties. Hexagonal close packed Mg has low deformability and a high plastic anisotropy between basal and non-basal slip systems at room temperature. Alloying with Li and other elements is believed to counter this deficiency by activating non-basal slip by reducing their nucleation stress. In this work I study how Li addition affects deformation mechanisms in Mg using atomistic simulations. In the first part, I create a reliable and transferable concentration dependent embedded atom method (CD-EAM) potential for my molecular dynamics study of deformation. This potential describes the Mg-Li phase diagram, which accurately describes the phase stability as a function of Li concentration and temperature. Also, it reproduces the heat of mixing, lattice parameters, and bulk moduli of the alloy as a function of Li concentration. Most importantly, our CD-EAM potential reproduces the variation of stacking fault energy for basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slip systems that influences the deformation mechanisms as a function of Li concentration. This success of CD-EAM Mg-Li potential in reproducing different properties, as compared to literature data, shows its reliability and transferability. Next, I use this newly created potential to study the effect of Li addition on deformation mechanisms in Mg-Li nanocrystalline (NC) alloys. Mg-Li NC alloys show basal slip, pyramidal type-I slip, tension twinning, and two-compression twinning deformation modes. Li addition reduces the plastic anisotropy between basal and non-basal slip systems by modifying the energetics of Mg-Li alloys. This causes the solid solution softening. The inverse relationship between strength and ductility therefore suggests a concomitant increase in alloy ductility. A comparison of the NC results with single crystal deformation results helps to understand the qualitative and quantitative effect of Li addition in Mg on nucleation stress and fault ...
Date: May 2015
Creator: Karewar, Shivraj
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Modeling of Small Molecules

Description: Computational chemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer science, and can be used to explain the behavior of atoms and molecules, as well as to augment experiment. In this work, computational chemistry methods are used to predict structural and energetic properties of small molecules, i.e. molecules with less than 60 atoms. Different aspects of computational chemistry are examined in this work. The importance of examining the converged orbitals obtained in an electronic structure calculation is explained. The ability to more completely describe the orbital space through the extrapolation of energies obtained at increasing quality of basis set is investigated with the use of the Sapporo-nZP-2012 family of basis set. The correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is utilized to compute the enthalpies of formation of a set of molecules and the accuracy is compared with the target method, CCSD(T,FC1)/aug-cc-pCV∞Z-DK. Both methodologies are able to produce computed enthalpies of formation that are typically within 1 kcal mol-1 of reliable experiment. This demonstrates that ccCA can be used instead of much more computationally intensive methods (in terms of memory, processors, and time required for a calculation) with the expectation of similar accuracy yet at a reduced computational cost. The enthalpies of formation for systems containing s-block elements have been computed using the multireference variant of ccCA (MR-ccCA), which is designed specifically for systems that require an explicit treatment of nondynamical correlation. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used for the prediction of the structural properties of a set of lanthanide trihalide molecules as well as the reaction energetics for the rearrangement of diphosphine ligands around a triosmium cluster.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Weber, Rebecca J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mechanical behavior and performance of injection molded semi-crystalline polymers.

Description: I have used computer simulations to investigate the behavior of polymeric materials at the molecular level. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method with Lennard-Jones potentials defining the interactions between particles in the system. Significant effort was put into the creation of realistic materials on the computer. For this purpose, an algorithm was developed based on the step-wise polymerization process. The resulting computer-generated materials (CGMs) exhibit several features of real materials, such as molecular weight distribution and presence of chain entanglements. The effect of the addition of a liquid crystalline (LC) phase to the flexible matrix was also studied. The concentration and distribution of the second phase (2P) were found to influence the mechanical and tribological properties of the CGMs. The size of the 2P agglomerates was found to have negligible influence on the properties within the studied range. Moreover, although the 2P reinforcement increases the modulus, it favors crack formation and propagation. Regions of high LC concentration exhibit high probability of becoming part of the crack propagation path. Simulations of the tensile deformation under a uniaxial force have shown that the molecular deformation mechanisms developing in the material depend on several variables, such as the magnitude of the force, the force increase rate, and the level of orientation of the chains. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical visualization tools were developed for representation and analysis of the simulation results. These also present interesting educational possibilities. Computer simulations provide us information which is inaccessible experimentally. From the concomitant use of simulations and experiments, a better understanding of the molecular phenomena that take place during deformation of polymers has been established.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Simoes, Ricardo J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studying Interactions of Gas Molecules with Nanomaterials Loaded in a Microwave Resonant Cavity

Description: A resonant cavity operating in TE011 mode was used to study the adsorption response of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and other nanomaterials for different types of gas molecules. The range of the frequency signal as a probe was chosen as geometry dependent range between 9.1 -9.8 GHz. A highly specific range can be studied for further experiments dependent on the type of molecule being investigated. It was found that for different pressures of gases and for different types of nanomaterials, there was a different response in the shifts of the probe signal for each cycle of gassing and degassing of the cavity. This dissertation suggests that microwave spectroscopy of a complex medium of gases and carbon nanotubes can be used as a highly sensitive technique to determine the complex dielectric response of different polar as well as non-polar gases when subjected to intense electromagnetic fields within the cavity. Also, as part of the experimental work, a range of other micro-porous materials was tested using the residual gas analysis (RGA) technique to determine their intrinsic absorption/adsorption characteristics when under an ultra-high vacuum environment. The scientific results obtained from this investigation, led to the development of a chemical biological sensor prototype. The method proposed is to develop operational sensors to detect toxin gases for homeland security applications and also develop sniffers to detect toxin drugs for law enforcement agency personnel.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Anand, Aman
Partner: UNT Libraries