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THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUSSOLUTIONS DATABASE

Description: Tables of consistent thermodynamic property values for nuclear waste isolation are given. The tables include critically assessed values for Gibbs energy of formation. enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for minerals; solids; aqueous ions; ion pairs and complex ions of selected actinide and fission decay products at 25{sup o}C and zero ionic strength. These intrinsic data are used to calculate equilibrium constants and standard potentials which are compared with typical experimental measurements and other work. Recommendations for additional research are given.
Date: May 1, 1988
Creator: Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V. & Silvester, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMODYNAMIC AND MASS BALANCE ANALYSIS OF EXPANSIVE PHASE PRECIPITATION IN SALTSTONE

Description: This report assesses the potential for future precipitation of expansive phases that could cause fracturing in saltstone. It examines the equilibrium case using The Geochemist's Workbench{reg_sign} reaction path model. The scenarios simulated examine the effects of different possible infiltrating fluids, different saltstone formulations, and different amounts of minerals available for reaction. Mineralogy of the vault cement and saltstone were estimated using reported chemical compositions of each. The infiltrating fluid was assumed to be either rainwater equilibrated with vault cement or rainwater itself. The simulations assumed that minerals were homogeneously distributed in saltstone and that each pore volume of infiltration reached equilibrium with the mineral assemblage. Fracturing that initiates in pores by expansive phase precipitation is unlikely to occur in saltstone because the maximum amount of porosity filled is 34%. If less than 100% of the saltstone minerals are available for reaction, less porosity will be lost to expansive phases. Likewise, the formulation of saltstone used will affect the amount of porosity filled by expansive phases.
Date: May 6, 2008
Creator: Denham, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REMOVAL OF Cs{sup 137}, Sr{sup 90}, AND Ru{sup 106} FROM ORNL PLANT WASTES BY SORPTION ON VARIOUS MINERALS

Description: A series of minerals (120) were tested as to their efficiency in removing Cs/sup 137/, Sr/sup 90/, and Ru/sup 106/ from dilute alkaline wastes prior to ground disposal. Strontium-90 exchanged rapidly with calcium in Florida pebble phosphate. The best results were obtained with Tennessee phosphate heated to 600 deg C for one hour, but part of the increase in sorption of strontium was due to ion exchange. Heating Tennessee phosphate resulted in a material with excellent hydraulic properties that sorbed Cs/sup 137/ and Sr/sup 90/ from dilute alkaline solutions. Other calcium minerals such as calcite or dolomite were activated to adsorb Sr/sup 90/ by heating or by treating with caustic or phosphate solutions. Cesium-137 in dilute alkaline solutions exchanged preferentially with the potassium present in a number of mica schists and mica minerals which possess a layer lattice type of structure. The high selectivity for cesium of Tennessee phosphate heated to 600 deg C for one hour ts ascribed to the presence of bentonitic impurities present in this material. The kinetics and adsorption of Ru/sup 106/ are shown to be complex and slow due to tbe large number of chemical forms and complexes of ruthenium which can exist under varying conditions. Copper in conglomerate, various sulfide minerals containing copper, cuprite (cuprous oxide), and descloizite (basic zinc lead vanadate) removed 90% of the ruthenium under reducing conditions at a pH of 7 when heated at 60 deg C for 16 hours. At lower tempenatures (25 deg C) the removal of ruthenium from aged solutions took days or even weeks. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Rimshaw, S J & Winkley, D C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EFFECT OF HEAT FLUX ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM BY WATER. PART IV. TESTS RELATIVE TO THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR AND CORRELATION WITH PREVIOUS RESULTS

Description: The corrosion of 8081 and X-8001 aluminum alloys and the resultant formation of an adherent corrosion product on the corroding surface were investigated under conditions (except radiation) comparable to those that will exist on the surface of fuel-element cladding during operation of the Advanced Test Reactor. Since previous experiments indicated that corrosion penetration of the aluminum clad was unlikely during a reactor cycle provided the water chemistry is properly controlled, most of the studies in this investigation were concerned with the effect of variables on the rate of formation of corrosion- product films. These films have low thermal conductivity and can be a major factor in producing high fuel-element temperatures which lead to fuel-plate instabilities. The experimental procedures were the same as used in a similar study for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, but the ranges of variables investigated were greater than in previous studies. The 6061 and X-8001 alloys corroded to the same extent under the same test conditions until the corrosion product (boehmite) that formed on the surface bccame thick enough to spall spontaneously from the surface, usually about 2 mils thick. Spallation from the surface of the 6061 alloy was always accompanled by localized attack of the underlying metal, whereas only uniform attack was observed with the X-8001 alloy under all conditions. Previously it was shown that the 1100 aluminum alloy behaved like the 6061 alloy in all respects. All three alloys developed corrosion-product coatings at the same rate when tested under the same conditions. The thermal conductivity of the corrosion product was determined to be 1.3 Btu hr/sup -1/ ft/ sup -1/ ( deg F)/sup -1/. The pH of the water was an important variable in determining the rate of corrosion-product buildup on aluminum. Under the same conditions the rate of oxide formation was 2.7 times ...
Date: February 1, 1964
Creator: Griess, J.C.; Savage, H.C. & English, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Operating Window Assessments fo Scenarios Leading Up to the Selected Preparation Plan for SB4

Description: The objective of this report is to document technical information that has been provided to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Closure Business Unit (CBU) personnel as part of the frit development support for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The information presented in this report includes projected operating windows (expressed in terms of waste loading) for various sludge blending and/or washing options coupled with candidate frits of interest. Although the Nominal Stage assessment serves as the primary tool for these evaluations, select systems were also evaluated using a Variation Stage assessment in which compositional variations were introduced. In addition, assessments of the impacts of nepheline formation potential and the SO{sub 4}{sup -} solubility limit on the projected operating windows are also provided. Although this information was used as part of the technical basis leading to CBU's development of the preferred SB4 preparation plan, none of the options presented in this report was selected as the preferred plan. Therefore, the information is presented without significant interpretation of the resulting operating windows, but the projected windows are provided so additional insight can be explored if desired. Detailed assessments of the projected operating windows (using both Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) of the preferred sludge preparation plan with candidate frits are to be documented elsewhere. The information provided in this report is focused solely on model-based projections of the operating windows for various SB4 blending strategies of interest. Although nepheline formation potential is monitored via model predictions as a part of this assessment, experimental work investigating the impact of nepheline on glass quality is also being addressed in a parallel study. The results of this paper study and the experimental assessments of melt rate, SO{sub 4} solubility, and/or nepheline formation potential are all critical components of the inputs into the frit selection process for ...
Date: March 21, 2006
Creator: Peeler, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

Description: The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Prothro, Lance
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

Description: To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T. (BNL) & Bour, D. (AltaRock Energy, Inc.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GEOQUÌMICO : an interactive tool for comparing sorption conceptual models (surface complexation modeling verus K[D]).

Description: Within reactive geochemical transport, several conceptual models exist for simulating sorption processes in the subsurface. Historically, the K{sub D} approach has been the method of choice due to ease of implementation within a reactive transport model and straightforward comparison with experimental data. However, for modeling complex sorption phenomenon (e.g. sorption of radionuclides onto mineral surfaces), this approach does not systematically account for variations in location, time, or chemical conditions, and more sophisticated methods such as a surface complexation model (SCM) must be utilized. It is critical to determine which conceptual model to use; that is, when the material variation becomes important to regulatory decisions. The geochemical transport tool GEOQUIMICO has been developed to assist in this decision-making process. GEOQUIMICO provides a user-friendly framework for comparing the accuracy and performance of sorption conceptual models. The model currently supports the K{sub D} and SCM conceptual models. The code is written in the object-oriented Java programming language to facilitate model development and improve code portability. The basic theory underlying geochemical transport and the sorption conceptual models noted above is presented in this report. Explanations are provided of how these physicochemical processes are instrumented in GEOQUIMICO and a brief verification study comparing GEOQUIMICO results to data found in the literature is given.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Hammond, Glenn E. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA) & Cygan, Randall Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular-Level Investigations of Nucleation Mechanisms and Kinetics of Formation of Environmental Nanoparticles

Description: Environmental nanoparticles are often poorly-crystalline or metastable structures, whose kinetics of formation and growth are poorly understood. Further, the sorption or growth of nanoparticles on mineral surfaces may control the mineral surface's reactivity and modify its ability to influence contaminant transport. Due to the characteristic length scale, a holistic understanding of the nucleation mechanisms and kinetics of nanoparticle formation on mineral surfaces is difficult to achieve with traditional methodology. In this work, our intent is to determine the molecular nature of nucleation on surfaces, the kinetics of surface nucleation and growth, and the effect of crystal surface topology using new synchrotron-based techniques. We have approached these objectives by: (1) combining state-of-the-art crystal-truncation rod diffraction (CTR) and grazing incidence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (GIXAS) techniques to investigate the three-dimensional molecular-scale geometry of silicate monomer sorption on the r-plane of hematite; and (2) developing a new grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) setup at SSRL (0.08 nm{sup -1} < q < 8 nm{sup -1}) to explore the initial development of environmental nanoparticles on various mineral surfaces. This study also includes complementary techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), bulk SAXS, dynamic light scattering (DLS), XRD, and TEM.
Date: April 19, 2007
Creator: Jun, Young-Shin & Waychunas, Glenn A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Chemical-Mechanical Couplings that Define Permeability Modifications in Pressure-Sensitive Rock Fractures

Description: This work examined and quantified processes controlling changes in the transport characteristics of natural fractures, subjected to coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical (TMC) effects. Specifically, it examined the effects of mineral dissolution and precipitation mediated by mechanical effects, using laboratory through-flow experiments concurrently imaged by X-ray CT. These were conducted on natural and artificial fractures in cores using water as the permeant. Fluid and mineral mass balances are recorded and are correlated with in-sample saturation, porosity and fracture aperture maps, acquired in real-time by X-ray CT-imaging at a maximum spatial resolution of 15-50 microns per pixel. Post-test, the samples were resin-impregnated, thin-sectioned, and examined by microscopy to define the characteristics of dissolution and precipitation. The test-concurrent X-ray imaging, mass balances, and measurements of permeability, together with the post-test microscopy, were used to define dissolution/precipitation processes, and to constrain process-based models. These models define and quantify key processes of pressure solution, free-face dissolution, and shear-dilation, and the influence of temperature, stress level, and chemistry on the rate of dissolution, its distribution in space and time, and its influence on the mechanical and transport properties of the fracture.
Date: April 25, 2007
Creator: Elsworth, Derek; Grader, Abraham & Brantley, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INVENTION REPORT--DEVELOPMENT OF A SOLUTION TO OXIDIZE AND DISSOLVE URANIUM METAL AND ITS OXIDES

Description: Decontamination of a high-temperature pressurizedwater reactor core- coolant recirculation system following a fuel element cladding failure requires the dissolution of uranium oxides + uranium metal. An oxalic--peroxide-peracetic solution was developed which was found to be superior to other solutions for this task. The solution composition is: oxalic acid, 2.3 g/l: sodium oxalate, 32.0 g/ l; hydrogen peroxide, 15.0 g/l; 8-quinolinol, 1.0 g/l; and 40% peracetic acid, 12.5 g/l. 8-Quinolinol suppresses the decomposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in steel vessels. Corrosion data indicate that, of all the structural materials tested, only brass and brass alloys are corronded to any extent by this solution. This solution was used in the decontamination of the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. (D.L.C.)
Date: December 31, 1962
Creator: Weed, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid Numerical Methods for Multiscale Simulations of Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes

Description: Many subsurface flow and transport problems of importance today involve coupled non-linear flow, transport, and reaction in media exhibiting complex heterogeneity. In particular, problems involving biological mediation of reactions fall into this class of problems. Recent experimental research has revealed important details about the physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms involved in these processes at a variety of scales ranging from molecular to laboratory scales. However, it has not been practical or possible to translate detailed knowledge at small scales into reliable predictions of field-scale phenomena important for environmental management applications. A large assortment of numerical simulation tools have been developed, each with its own characteristic scale including molecular (e.g., molecular dynamics), microbial (e.g., cellular automata or particle individual-based models), pore (e.g., lattice-Boltzmann, pore network models, and discrete particle methods such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and continuum scales (e.g., traditional partial differential equations solved by finite difference or finite element methods). While many problems can be effectively addressed by one of these models at a single scale, some problems may require explicit integration of models across multiple scales. We are developing a hybrid multi-scale subsurface reactive transport modeling framework that integrates models with diverse representations of physics, chemistry and biology at different scales (sub-pore, pore and continuum). The modeling framework is being designed to take advantage of advanced computational technologies including parallel code components using the Common Component Architecture, parallel solvers, gridding, data and workflow management, and visualization. This paper describes the specific methods/codes being used at each scale, techniques used to directly and adaptively couple across model scales, and preliminary results of application to a multi-scale model of mineral precipitation at a solute mixing interface.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Scheibe, Timothy D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Redden, George D. & Meakin, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

Description: This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.
Date: March 2010
Creator: Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM-35 w/o URANIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING UP TO 3 w/o TIN OR ZIRCONIUM

Description: The effects of ternary additions of up to 3 wt.% Sn or Zr to an Al-35 wt.% U extrusion alloy were evaluated on the basis of casting characteristics, UAl/sub 3/ retention, extrusion behavior, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. Both additions increased the fluidity of the alloy, and both promoted retention of UAl/sub 3/. The best fluidity was obtained by a 2 wt.% Sn addition, while Zr was the more effective stabilizer of UAl/sub 3/. The retention of UAl/sub 3/ decreased the extrusion pressure needed for fabrication and caused a corresponding decrease in tensile and creep-rupture properties. Reductions in strength were most noticeable at elevated temperatures. The 1000- hr stress-rupture strength of the binary alloy at 200 deg C (8300 psi) was approximately 25 and 11% higher, respectively, than the alloys containing 3 wt.% tin (6200 psi and 3 wt.% zirconium (7400 psi). The additions either slightly improved or had no effect upon the resistance of the Al-35 wt.% alloy in 150 deg C demineralized water. (auth)
Date: July 29, 1960
Creator: Daniel, N.E.; Foster, E.L. Jr. & Dickerson, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

Description: This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and ...
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

Description: Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. The injected CO{sub 2} is expected to react with the host rocks and these reactions can potentially alter the porosity, permeability, and mechanical properties of the host or cap rocks. Reactions can also result in precipitation of carbonate-containing minerals that favorably and permanently trap CO{sub 2} underground. Many numerical models have been used to predict these reactions for the carbon sequestration program. However, a firm experimental basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO{sub 2} injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation of silicate dissolution rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In this four year research grant (three years plus a one year no cost extension), seven (7) laboratory experiments of CO{sub 2}-rock-water interactions were carried out. An experimental design allowed the collection of water samples during experiments in situ and thus prevented back reactions. Analysis of the in situ samples delineated the temporal evolution of aqueous chemistry because of CO{sub 2}-rock-water interactions. The solid products of the experiments were retrieved at the end of the experimental run, and analyzed with a suite of advanced analytical and electron microscopic techniques (i.e., atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)). As a result, the research project probably has produced one of the best data sets for CO{sub 2}-rock-water interactions in terms of both aqueous solution chemistry and solid characterization. Three experiments were performed using the Navajo sandstone. Navajo sandstone is geologically equivalent to the Nugget sandstone, which is ...
Date: August 31, 2008
Creator: Zhu, Chen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral-Surfactant Interaction for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

Description: In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanisms of the interactions between polymers/surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of structures of the surface active molecules on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. During this period, the wettability of alumina was tested using two-phase extraction at different pHs. The results were explained using the adsorption data obtain previously. It was found that the wettability is determined by both the nano-structure of the hemimicelles and the surface coverage. It was found that pH plays a critical role in controlling the total adsorption and the mineral wettability. At pH 4, the alumina surface remains hydrophilic in the surfactant concentration range tested because of the low surface coverage, even though hemimicelles are formed. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on alumina and silica, the component minerals reservoir rocks, was conducted at different pHs. The adsorption of SDS on silica is negligible, while the adsorption on alumina is high due to the different charge of the latter. Tests of adsorption of a modified polymer S-19703-35HT on alumina were also conducted at different pHs. Adsorption density decreases with pH. The results suggest that alkaline pH range is more cost-effective for a SDS/polymer system because of the low adsorption density. A new term, reagent loss index (RLI), was used to analyze the adsorption data for different surfactants and minerals. It was shown that the chemical loss is very high in the case of SDS on gypsum and limestone, while it is low in the case of silica. ...
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Somasundaran, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

Description: During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.
Date: April 30, 2006
Creator: Somasundaran, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department