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Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

Description: This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).
Date: June 12, 2007
Creator: Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac & della Cava, Mirka
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.
Date: April 16, 2006
Creator: Saulnier, G. & Statham, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heterogeneity of the Liquid Phase, and Vapor Separation in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Reservoir

Description: Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres geothermal wells is interpreted in order to characterize the composition of the liquid phase, and to define the relation between this phase and fluids from steam-producing wells. Chemical and specific enthalpy data show that most wells considered are fed a mixture of steam and liquid. Thus, flashing occurs in the formation. This poses a problem on the interpretation of isotopic data, because the composition of the feeding mixture need not be representative of the composition of the liquid phase in the reservoir. Two extreme alternatives for the interpretation of isotopic data are considered. In the first alternative the composition of the total discharge is considered to be the same as that of the liquid in the reservoir. In the second alternative the feeding fluid is considered to be a mixture of the liquid phase in the reservoir and the calculated fraction of steam. In addition, this steam is assumed to separate from a much larger mass of that liquid phase at the downhole temperature. The contribution of steam is then subtracted from the total discharge to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Using data for silica concentration in total discharge and separated water, the chloride concentration in the reservoir liquid is calculated. This result is used to calculate the fraction of steam in the feeding mixture of each well. The isotopic data is then corrected as proposed for the second alternative, to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Comparison of the corrected and uncorrected isotopic values shows that the correction has an important effect only when the steam mass fraction in the feeding mixture is large (> 20%). The correction tends to reduce the dispersion of data points in a {delta} D vs {delta}{sup 18}O diagram. Points ...
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Nieva, D.; Quijano, L.; Garfias, A.; Barragan, R.M. & Laredo, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineralogy and Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Zones in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Field

Description: General features of the geometry of Los Azufres reservoir have been defined through the mapping of hydrothermal mineral alteration zones. Hydrothermal alteration has been studied in cuttings and drill cores from most of the active wells. X-ray diffraction microprobe analysis and classical optical methods have been employed for the identification of primary and authigenic minerals in fresh and altered samples. Observed patterns of alteration have been correlated with temperature and patterns of fluid circulation. The resulting model depicts a body of geothermal fluid at depth, which ascends and discharges through two main fracture systems. These two circulation zones are characterized by concentric aureoles of increasing hydrothermal alteration towards quasivertical axes. The overall pattern could be described as a dome structure produced by the abnormal thermal gradient, distorted by the effects of active upward circulation of the fluids.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Cathelineau, M.; Oliver, R.; Izquierdo, G.; Garfias, A.; Nieva, D. & Izaguirre, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

Description: Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the ...
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D & Dale, Virginia H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Cementing - The State of the Art

Description: Much emphasis today is being placed on the drilling and completion of steam wells. Success or failure depends greatly on the cementing process, which requires not only the selection of competent and durable materials but also the complete understanding of placement techniques. Immobile muds, crooked holes, lost circulation, poor centralization, and the inability to move pipe are some of the major areas which contribute to good or bad results. This presentation covers a ''state of the art'' of the various techniques, materials, and equipment being used in cementing steam wells in the US and Mexico.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Shryock, S. H. & Smith, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Lagrangian Dispersion Modeling to the Analysis of Changes in the Specific Absorption of Elemental Carbon

Description: We use a Lagrangian dispersion model driven by a mesoscale model with four-dimensional data assimilation to simulate the dispersion of elemental carbon (EC) over a region encompassing Mexico City and its surroundings, the study domain for the 2006 MAX-MEX experiment, which was a component of the MILAGRO campaign. The results are used to identify periods when biomass burning was likely to have had a significant impact on the concentrations of elemental carbon at two sites, T1 and T2, downwind of the city, and when emissions from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) were likely to have been more important. They are also used to estimate the median ages of EC affecting the specific absorption of light, aABS, at 870 nm as well as to identify periods when the urban plume from the MCMA was likely to have been advected over T1 and T2. Values of aABS at T1, the nearer of the two sites to Mexico City, were smaller at night and increased rapidly after mid-morning, peaking in the mid-afternoon. The behavior is attributed to the coating of aerosols with substances such as sulfate or organic carbon during daylight hours, but such coating appears to be limited or absent at night. Evidence for this is provided by scanning electron microscope images of aerosols collected at three sampling sites. During daylight hours the values of aABS did not increase with aerosol age for median ages in the range of 1-4 hours. There is some evidence for absorption increasing as aerosols were advected from T1 to T2 but the statistical significance of that result is not strong.
Date: March 7, 2008
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Laskin, Alexander; Desyaterik, Yury; Gilles, Marry K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boiling and condensation processes in the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir under exploitation

Description: The deep Cerro Prieto (Baja California, Mexico) beta reservoir is offset vertically by the southwest-northeast trending, normal H fault. Under exploitation pressures in the upthrown block have decreased strongly resulting in boiling and high-enthalpy production fluids. Significant differences in fluid chemical and isotopic compositions are observed in the two parts of the reservoir and particularly in an anomalous zone associated with the H fault. These differences result from intense boiling and adiabatic steam condensation, as well as from leakage of overlying cooler water along the fault.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Truesdell, Alfred; Manon, Alfredo; Quijano, Luis; Coplen, Tyler & Lippmann, Marcelo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of fluid geochemistry to indicate reservoir processes at Cerro Prieto, MX

Description: Regular chemical sampling and analysis of fluids produced from the hot-water geothermal system of Cerro Prieto, Mexico has provided early warning of reservoir processes. The changes in chloride concentration, sodium to potassium ratio and measured fluid enthalpy are shown in the figures for wells M-5, M-26, M-21A, and M-11 of the Cerro Prieto field. The concentration of chloride, a ''conservative'' constituent, is characteristic of different water masses and is affected by a change of water source, by mixing of waters and by boiling and steam loss but not by reaction with rock minerals. The ratio of sodium to potassium is a temperature-sensitive geothermal index resulting from rock-water reaction and is not affected by boiling and steam loss or by mixing of water masses provided these processes occur at constant temperature. The enthalpy is related to the fluid temperature and to boiling in the aquifer with ''excess'' steam entering the well. These indices provide a reasonably complete picture of major reservoir processes occurring in hot water system. Silica analyses have not been reliable from Cerro Prieto but should be used in addition to Na/K as a temperature indicator. Analysis of fluids from a producing geothermal field must of course include other constituents for study of environmental effects, scaling, corrosion, etc.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Truesdell, Alfred H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the Geothermal Development of Mexico

Description: Mexico, with a 60 million population has an extension of almost 2 million square kilometers. A large number of volcanoes and hydrothermal manifestations are found in the area, particularly along the Pacific Coast. The electricity needs of this country require its installed capacity to be doubled every eight-and-a-half years. Although its main energy source is the hydrocarbons, new sources of energy are being investigated and developed. In 1973, at Cerro Prieto, a 75 MW plant was inaugurated utilizing geothermal steam, initiating in this way commercial exploitation of this energy. From there on an uninterrupted program of exploration and development has been followed, along and across the country. Probably the region with the highest potential of geothermal energy is the New-volcanic Belt, a zone 300 kilometers wide which crosses the country from the Pacific Coast to the Gulf of Mexico Coast. In this zone, the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Los Negritos, Ixtlan de los Hervores, La Primavera and San Marcos are located. Sixteen wells have been drilled at Los Azufres, 14 good producers with an average temperature of 275 C. An area of 385 square kilometers is estimated can be exploited for steam production. By 1981, it is expected to have four wellhead turbogenerators rated 6 MW each. Two geothermal wells are now being drilled at La Primavera, with very good results. Temperatures of 275 C have been found at a depth of 800 m in the first well of the Rio Caliente module. The first two wells are now being drilled at Los Humeros geothermal zone. To date, 80 wells have been drilled at Cerro Prieto. In the last group of wells the producing stratum was found at a depth between 2000 and 3000 m. The temperature of this stratum is about 340 C, and each well has an ...
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Dominguez, B.; Bermejo, F. & Guiza, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

Description: The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Ghezzehei, T.A.; Dobson, P.F.; Rodriguez, J.A. & Cook, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial Measurements of Petrophysical Properties on Rocks from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

Description: Petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoir rocks are valuable information for many activities, including reservoir characterization, modeling, field test analysis and planning of exploitation techniques. Petrophysical data of rocks from geothermal reservoirs located in volcanic areas is in general very scarce. In particular, no petrophysical data of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field area has ever been published. This work presents the results of initial petrophysical studies on outcrop rocks and drill core samples from the Los Azufres geothermal field. These studies are the first part of an ongoing experimental program intended to establish a data-base about physical properties of the Los Azufres rocks, in support of the many reservoir engineering activities which require of such information. The experimental work carried out consisted of laboratory measurements of density, porosity, permeability, compressibility, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical resistivity and sonic wave velocities. Some of the experiments were aimed at investigation of the effects of temperature, pressure, saturation and other parameters on the physical properties of rocks.
Date: January 21, 1986
Creator: Contreras, E.; Iglesias, E. & Razo, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

Description: Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.
Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Watson, A.; Butheau, M. & Sandor, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Migration Information Gathering by Mexican-origin Immigrants in the Pre-migration Phase

Description: U.S. immigration procedures are complex and may elude the average individual seeking admission to the United States. Understanding this, the current study investigates how information resources are used by potential migrants to learn about the migratory process. Using a mixed-methods approach, I interviewed 30 Mexican immigrants with unauthorized immigration experience about the process of gathering migration information in the pre-migration phase. Qualitative data were coded using seven themes generated from the primary research questions, including: Information Resources, Resources Used During Migration, Motivation for Migration, Method of Migration, Lack of Information/Misinformation, Types of Help and Types of Information. Findings suggest that the factors motivating migrants to come to the U.S. are combined in complex ways and lack of information about legal alternatives to unauthorized migration is an important factor influencing method of migration. Also, while access to new information resources is increasing, these resources are not being tapped for migration information.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Hudson, Cassie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience: Current Status and Trends for Mexico

Description: Climate change alters different localities on the planet in different ways. The impact on each region depends mainly on the degree of vulnerability that natural ecosystems and human-made infrastructure have to changes in climate and extreme meteorological events, as well as on the coping and adaptation capacity towards new environmental conditions. This study assesses the current resilience of Mexico and Mexican states to such changes, as well as how this resilience will look in the future. In recent studies (Moss et al. 2000, Brenkert and Malone 2005, Malone and Brenket 2008, Ibarrarán et al. 2007), the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) is used to integrate a set of proxy variables that determine the resilience of a region to climate change. Resilience, or the ability of a region to respond to climate variations and natural events that result from climate change, is given by its adaptation and coping capacity and its sensitivity. On the one hand, the sensitivity of a region to climate change is assessed, emphasizing its infrastructure, food security, water resources, and the health of the population and regional ecosystems. On the other hand, coping and adaptation capacity is based on the availability of human resources, economic capacity and environmental capacity.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Ibarraran , Maria E.; Malone, Elizabeth L. & Brenkert, Antoinette L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Durability of various cements in a well of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

Description: The durability of each of 16 different cements was evaluated by both room temperature compressive strength and water permeability measurements, following various periods of treatment of the cements in flowing geothermal fluid of the Cerro Prieto field of Mexico. Some of these cements were selected through a Department of Energy program to develop improved cements for geothermal well completion while the others were contributed by several other institutions interested in the tests. Two types of specimens of the cements were used in the tests: (a) 50 mm cubes which were precured 1 da in molds under water in an autoclave at 200 C and 20 MPa and (b) cement slurries which were prepared and cast in sandstone cups at the field. Federal de Electricidad a set of both types of specimens was installed in baskets which were placed 700 m downhole a well at 214 C, and an identical set of specimens was installed in special aboveground vessels near the wellhead. Following periods of 1 da. 3 mo, 6 mo. and 12 mo, specimens were withdrawn from the geothermal treatment and divided evenly between the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the National Bureau of Standards for property measurements. This paper gives the downhole results by the latter laboratory. Final values will be published when the results of both laboratories are collated and reviewed.
Date: October 8, 1982
Creator: Krause, Ralph F., Jr. & Kukacka, Larry E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report on Information Technology Integration Activities For project to Enhance NASA Tools for Coastal Managers in the Gulf of Mexico and Support Technology Transfer to Mexico

Description: Deliverable to NASA Stennis Space Center summarizing summarizes accomplishments made by Battelle and its subcontractors to integrate NASA's COAST visualization tool with the Noesis search tool developed under the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative project.
Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Gulbransen, Thomas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Training Workshop on the Use of NASA tools for Coastal Resource Management in the Gulf of Mexico

Description: A two-day training workshop was held in Xalapa, Mexico from March 10-11 2009 with the goal of training end users from the southern Gulf of Mexico states of Campeche and Veracruz in the use of tools to support coastal resource management decision-making. The workshop was held at the computer laboratory of the Institute de Ecologia, A.C. (INECOL). This report summarizes the results of that workshop and is a deliverable to our NASA client.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Judd, Chaeli; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gulbransen, Thomas C. & Thom, Ronald M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

Description: On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants ...
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM) & Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paragenesis and Geochronology of the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Mexico

Description: Uranium deposits can, by analogy, provide important information on the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms and radioactive waste repositories. Their complex mineralogy and variable elemental and isotopic compositions can provide important information, provided that analyses are obtained on the scale of several micrometers. Here, we present a structural model of the Nopal I deposit as well as petrography at the nanoscale coupled with preliminary U-Th-Pb ages and O isotopic compositions of uranium-rich minerals obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This multi-technique approach promises to provide ''natural system'' data on the corrosion rate of uraninite, the natural analogue of spent nuclear fuel.
Date: February 14, 2007
Creator: Fayek, M. & Ren, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department