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Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Description: This report provides a discussion of the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements (REEs), their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position.
Date: December 16, 2013
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report covers concerns that Congress has expressed over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security.
Date: December 23, 2013
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Description: This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position.
Date: July 28, 2010
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Specialty Metal Provision and the Berry Amendment: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the specialty metal provision which was originally part of the Berry Amendment; the potential oversight issues for Congress, and options that Congress may wish to consider. The debate over the specialty metal provision may also renew interest in the debate over the viability of other domestic source restrictions. There is congressional interest in the specialty metal provision because: (1) the specialty metal restriction affects major defense contractors who produce components for commercial airplanes; (2) some prime defense contractors as well as subcontractors on the second, third, and fourth tiers have stated that they were unable to comply with the Berry Amendment specialty metal requirement; (3) the Department of Defense (DOD) has authorized the use of waivers to purchase non-compliant items (non-compliant specialty metal are metal that do not meet the 100% domestic source requirement of the Berry Amendment); and (4) the long-term impact of the specialty metal provision on the costs of defense equipment and programs, particularly on the requirement that weapon system components be certified as made in the United States.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Specialty Metal Provision and the Berry Amendment: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the specialty metal provision which was originally part of the Berry Amendment; the potential oversight issues for Congress, and options that Congress may wish to consider. The debate over the specialty metal provision may also renew interest in the debate over the viability of other domestic source restrictions. There is congressional interest in the specialty metal provision because: (1) the specialty metal restriction affects major defense contractors who produce components for commercial airplanes; (2) some prime defense contractors as well as subcontractors on the second, third, and fourth tiers have stated that they were unable to comply with the Berry Amendment specialty metal requirement; (3) DOD has authorized the use of waivers to purchase non-compliant items (non-compliant specialty metal are metal that do not meet the 100% domestic source requirement of the Berry Amendment); and (4) the long-term impact of the specialty metal provision on the costs of defense equipment and programs, particularly on the requirement that weapon system components be certified as made in the United States.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

Description: Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S. & Sikora, F.J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cs--U--O Phase Diagram and its Application to Uranium--Plutonium Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel Pins

Description: Portions of the cesium-uranium-oxygen system have been investigated between 873 and 1273°K and a phase diagram has been constructed using our data and the data of other workers in the field. Thermodynamic and kinetic data have been used to examine the reactions that occur in fast-reactor fuel pins between fission-product cesium and the uranium oxide blanket. It was concluded that at the low oxygen potentials existing at the interface between the uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide and the uranium oxide blanket, Cs₂UO₄ is the only Cs-U-O compound expected to be formed in the uranium oxide blanket.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Davis, S. A.; Johnson, C. E.; Johnson, I.; Fee, D. C.; Shinn, W. A. & Staahl, G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Specialty Metal Provision and the Berry Amendment: Issues for Congress

Description: In order to protect the U.S. industrial base during periods of adversity and war, Congress passed a set of domestic source restrictions which became known as the Berry Amendment. Specialty metal represented one of fourteen items previously covered under the Berry Amendment. Congress took action in the FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act to move the specialty metal provision from the Berry Amendmgent into a separate section of Title 10. This report examines the specialty metal provision, potential oversight issues for Congress, and options that Congress may choose to consider.
Date: October 5, 2010
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

Description: The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.
Date: February 29, 1996
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: Some Members of Congress have expressed concern over U.S. acquisition of rare earth materials composed of rare earth elements used in various components of defense weapon systems. On March 13, 2012, President Obama announced that the United States had joined with Japan and the European Union to bring a World Trade Organization joint dispute resolution case against China because of China's restrictive policies on rare earths and other minerals. Congress may encourage DOD to develop a collaborative, long-term, well-thought-out strategy designed to identify any material weaknesses and vulnerabilities associated with rare earths and to protect long-term U.S. national security interests.
Date: April 11, 2012
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.
Date: December 23, 1999
Creator: Office, US Department of Energy Nevada Operations
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report covers concerns that Congress has expressed over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security.
Date: September 17, 2013
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Description: The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the important issue of supply vulnerability. REEs are used for new energy technologies and national security applications. This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Description: This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the important issue of supply vulnerability, since they are used for new energy technologies and national security applications.
Date: June 8, 2012
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report covers concerns that Congress has expresses over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Bailey Grasso, Valerie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report covers concerns that Congress has expressed over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Bailey Grasso, Valerie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of toxic metallic emissions formed during the combustion of Ohio coals. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: The objective of the project was to characterize metallic emissions from representative coals and develop strategies for their control. Though metallic emissions from coal combustors have been extensively studied, more studies need to be performed to better characterize the interaction of various species which is required for the selection and design of sorbents for effective control of these emissions. Some coals are rich in sulfur, and utilities using these coals will have to use some form of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). A technique for FGD is the use of calcium based sorbents, and the degree of metals capture of these sorbents under different conditions will be researched. The objective of the first year of the study was to understand the evolution of metallic aerosol size distributions and the capture characteristics of various sorbents. Also, the metallic emissions resulting from the combustion of two seams of Ohio coals were to be characterized. Studies on the evolution of the metallic aerosol size distributions have been completed and the use of silicon and calcium based sorbents for capture of lead species has been examined. Co-injection of metallic compounds along with organometallic silicon indicated a high degree of capture of lead in a certain temperature regime. Preliminary results with calcium based sorbents also indicate capture of metallic species. To gain a further understanding of the capture processes, in situ optical diagnostic studies were performed in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Spectroscopic studies (laser induced fluorescence coupled with particle scattering) were performed to help understand the mechanisms of metallic species capture.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Biswas, P.; Owens, T.M. & Wu, Chang-Yu
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selenium emission control at high temperatures with mineral sorbents, Final report, September 1, 1993--August 13, 1994

Description: The focus of this project is on toxic heavy metal removal by sorbent injection in the upper-furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. Selenium is chosen as the candidate heavy metal to be studied because of its high volatility and associated difficulty in removal. The preliminary sorbent screening experiments were performed in a differential reactor, built in the first year of this project. A host of sorbents, such as, alumina, kaotinite, limestone and also hydrated lime were tested at a reaction temperature of 900{degrees}C, and for reaction duration of 4 hrs. The reason for choosing these minerals was because of their proven moderate to high capability of lead and cadmium capture, and also for moderate selenium capture at high temperatures, reported by recent studies. The sorbent screening experiments have used selenium dioxide as the Se source, since in the oxidizing atmosphere of the furnace, that is reported to be the existing form of selenium species. The preliminary sorbent screening experiments have shown that Ca(OH){sub 2} is the most promising sorbent for selenium capture out of all the sorbents tested. A careful review of the sorption results for Ca(OH){sub 2} has also revealed the strong possibility for occurrence of a chemical reaction. Since Se belongs to group VI of the periodic table along with sulfur, and shares many common properties with the latter, formation of a calcium selenite (CaSeO{sub 3}) or selenate (CaSeO{sub 4}) compound is likely by the reaction of CaO with SeO{sub 2}. The captured selenium has exhibited poor leachability in water, a property which is also shared by CaSeO{sub 4}. The presence of CaSeO{sub 4} is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis of the sorbent sample. Preliminary studies for investigating the effect of temperature on SeO{sub 2}/Ca(OH){sub 2} reaction have shown that the percent of water-leachable selenium increases with ...
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Fan, L.S.; Ghost-Dastidar, A.; Mahuli, S. & Agnihotri, R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

Description: 2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.
Date: February 6, 2008
Creator: Seitz, Michael & Raymond, Kenneth N.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CERAMIC TO METAL SEALS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMIONIC CONVERTERS

Description: A rather broad investigation was carried on in the materials and methods which are considered possibly useful in forming ceramic to metal seals and composite structures for use in the environment of cesium-plasma thermionic converters. Initially, studies of five specific meands of joining refractory metals to alumina were undertaken, as well as studies of metallizing methods, of forming graded tungsten-alumina composites, and of the possible metals and ceramics which could be utilized best in structures operated at 2000 deg C. The five joining methods studied are: (1) Formation of a continuous electroplated layer of refractory metal across the adjacent surfaces of metal and ceramic. (2) Welding of a metal member to the ceramic by ultrasonic welding techniques; i.e., without heat. (3) Use of high temperature brazing alloys. (4) Formation of a bond between metal and ceramic by the diffusion of compatible intermediate materials into both structural members. (5) Welding of single oxide ceramics directly to refractory metals using electron-beam welding equipment. The study of metallizing methods was started because the first three of the joining methods listed require the use of a metallized surface of the alumina. It was determined that three of the five methods for joining refractory metals to alumina which were under study were not practically fessible. The methods considered impractical are: formation of a continuous electroplated joint, welding by ultrasonic energy, and welding with electron beam techniques. The studies on these methods were ended. Significant achievements have been made in the other studies. A metallizing process has been developed by which a strongly adherent sintered tungsten film can be applied to commercially available, high-purity, silica-free alumina. No fluxing materials or active metals which are susceptible to attack by cesium are used in this process. Bonding of alumina to molybdenum has been successful by several methods developed ...
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Dring, M.L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF INCLUSIONS IN DINGOT URANIUM

Description: The nonmetallic inclusions in both as-reduced and fabricated dingot U were studied for comparison with those in ingot U. Special attention was paid to the hydride for the purpose of determining the amount and distribution in the various types of U. The types and distribution of other inclusions were also studied. It wss found tbat the dingot U was of a higher quality than ingot U and was comparable to as-reduced derby U on the basis of over-all inclusion count. The H content in dingot U, however, was found to be appreciably higher than in either ingot or derby U. (auth)
Date: January 11, 1957
Creator: Cheney, D.M. & Dickerson, R.F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDIES RELATING TO HYDROGEN IN DINGOT URANIUM

Description: The distribution of H/sub 2/ among feed materials and products in the thermite reaction producing dingot U was studied. The H/sub 2/ content of Mg, molten U, and molten and solid MgF/sub 2/ density oxide to 98 to 99% for the high specific surface, ow bulk density oxides. The observed values for properties of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ samples correlated better with conversion of U/ sub 3/O/sub to UF/sub 4/ than did the observed values for properties of the corresponding UO/sub 2/ intermediates. (auth)
Date: September 20, 1957
Creator: Trzeciak, M.J. & Mallett, M.W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorption of Atmospheric Gases on Pu Surfaces

Description: Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO{sub 2} resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.
Date: March 29, 2012
Creator: Nelson, A J; Holliday, K S; Stanford, J A; Grant, W K; Erler, R G; Allen, P G et al.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department