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Stable attributions of child behavior and parenting stress in parents of ADHD children.

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in how parents of ADHD children and non-ADHD parents attribute undesirable and prosocial child behavior, and to determine if attributions about undesirable child behavior influence parents' perceived levels of parenting stress. Parent attributions from 69 parent-child dyads, half with a child ADHD diagnosis, were measured coding videotaped interactions. Results indicated that parents of ADHD children do not make significantly more stable attributions about undesirable child behavior than non-ADHD parents. Additionally, compared to non-ADHD parents, parents of ADHD children did not make significantly more unstable attributions about their children's prosocial behaviors. Regarding parenting stress, individuals who generated higher frequencies of stable attributions also appeared to maintain more negative views of their children's behaviors in comparison to other children.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Besly, Katherine Dobbs
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of Group Supervision Versus Combined Group and Individual Supervision with Masters-Level Counselor Trainees

Description: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of large group supervision, small group supervision, and combined group and individual supervision on counselor trainees. Specifically, instruments were used to measure the progress in counselor efficacy and counselor development. Analyses of Covariance revealed that all supervision formats produced similar progress in counselor effectiveness and counselor development. Large group supervision, small group supervision, and combined group and individual supervision appear to be equivalent in their effectiveness.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Ray, Dee C. (Deanne Castleberry)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior

Description: The influences of family relationship variables on motivations for adolescent sexual risk-taking were investigated. Previous research has linked these variables to adolescent sexual behavior, however, the nature of these links has not been specifically examined. Family variables were operationalized as child attachment to mother, parental support of each other, parental conflict strategies, and parental monitoring. Emotional motivations were operationalized as attachment and affiliation needs. The sample consisted of 40 single females ages 18 to22 recruited from a local pregnancy care center. Predictions that parent-child relationship and parental influence would predict emotional motivations for sexual risk-taking were not supported. The variable most highly related to sexual risk-taking, though not included in the model tested, was father's destructive conflict strategies. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Barrett, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mutual Influences in Romantic Attachment, Religious Coping, and Marital Adjustment

Description: This study examined associations among romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance, positive and negative religious coping, and marital adjustment in a community sample of 81 heterosexual couples. Both spouses completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), a brief measure of religious coping (Brief RCOPE), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a demographic questionnaire as part of a larger study. Multilevel modeling (MLM) for the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used. Attachment avoidance was inversely related to positive religious coping. In contrast, attachment anxiety was directly related to negative religious coping. Positive religious coping buffered the relationship between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment. In contrast, attachment anxiety was detrimental to marital adjustment regardless of positive religious coping, and positive religious coping was related to higher marital adjustment only in the context of low attachment anxiety. Surprisingly, the spouse's attachment anxiety was inversely related to the respondent's marital adjustment only when the respondent reported low levels of negative religious coping, whereas in the context of high negative religious coping, the partner's attachment anxiety was related to higher marital adjustment. Results support using attachment theory to conceptualize religious coping and the consideration of both attachment and religious coping constructs in counseling.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Pollard, Sara E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Gender Differences in Narrative Descriptions of Date Rape

Description: This study was conducted to examine the experience of unwanted sexual aggression from both the male and female perspectives. Questionnaires were distributed to 325 students, and of these, 142 wrote free-response narratives describing their most sexually aggressive experience. Two raters scored and analyzed the narratives on the basis of 19 categories for male responses and 16 categories for female responses. Differences between the male and female perception of the experience of unwanted sexual aggression were found on several categories. The results of this study suggest that date rape awareness and prevention programs should emphasize the point that dating and sexual encounters can easily be fraught with miscommunication and misinterpretation, and encourage clearer communication and better understanding.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Wade, John Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Characteristics of Psychological Safety in Group Counseling

Description: Psychological safety is a concept mentioned throughout the literature as a necessary component in the process of change in group counseling. Despite its frequent mention, no study has examined the characteristics of psychological safety. The purpose of this study was to lay the groundwork for a definition of the concept of psychological safety using self reports of group leaders and group members on a constructed Likert format psychological safety questionnaire of three attributional categories: self, other members, and leader. The study utilized group members (n = 44) and group leaders (n = 4) participating in laboratory groups as a part of a counseling related masters curriculum. The questionnaires were filled out on the first, eighth (middle), and fourteenth (last) sessions. Hierarchies for characteristics and attribution were constructed by using a summing procedure of the Likert responses. Results on the attribution of psychological safety by group members showed a consistent pattern over the three time measures. Group members reported leaders as the most attributed to facilitating psychological safety, other members as second, and self as least attributed to facilitate psychological safety. Group leaders showed no apparent agreement between groups, but each group leader attributed psychological safety consistently over time within one's own group. Results on the characteristics of psychological safety yielded a comprehensive list of characteristics, arranged in hierarchical format, as reported by both group members and leaders. Results indicated that psychological safety has some core concepts in each of the attributional categories. For group members, the characteristics of "warmth and support" and "active listening" were stable across every attributional category and time measure. For group leaders, "self disclosing feelings", "warmth and support", and "responding in an emotional, feeling manner" were reported in every time measure and attributional category. Characteristics that had a negative effect on psychological safety and recommendations for ...
Date: May 1997
Creator: Fall, Kevin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differentiation of Central Auditory Processing Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) can be distinguished from one another on the basis of both objective and subjective assessment of attention and behavior. First, children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, CAPD, and concomitant ADHD/CAPD were compared to participants with emotional problems on measures of attention/concentration, depression, anxiety, and parental reports of internalzing and externalizing behaviors. Overall, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between performances of children diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed with CAPD. However, clinical comparisons across groups of children diagnosed with ADHD, CAPD, comorbid ADHD/CAPD and Affective Disorders revealed condition-specific clinical profiles, thus providing some support for CAPD as a distinct clinical entity. Second, exploratory cluster analysis was performed to further investigate the relationship between ADHD and CAPD. This procedure lead to the identification of four distinct clusters. However, analyses of these clusters revealed no distinct pattern of performance for children diagnosed with either ADHD or CAPD. Rather, participants with these diagnoses were evenly distributed throughout the clusters. Additionally, no cluster clearly represented the expected clinical profile for a diagnosis of CAPD- namely, significant auditory attentional/processing problems in the absence of other attentional difficulties. Implications for the assessment and treatment of childhood attentional disorders are discussed and recommendations for future research provided.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Austin, Laura J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population

Description: The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is a relatively new instrument used in the assessment of memory in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the WRAML by comparing the performance of children on both the WRAML and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJTCA-R). Subjects for the study were children in treatment for a brain tumor at a regional children's medical center. Fifty children participated in the study ranging from ages 6 to 17. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which of four selected clusters from the WJTCA-R would have the highest correlation with the Verbal Memory Index (VERI) from the WRAML. The Short-Term Memory (GSM) cluster had the highest correlation ( r = .82) as predicted. A Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was conducted between the Visual Processing (GV) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Visual Memory Index (VISI) from the WRAML. GV was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .63) with VISI. A similar analysis was conducted between the Long-Term Retrieval (GLR) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Learning Index (LRNI) from the WRAML. GLR was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .81) with LRNI. Finally, a correlational analysis was conducted between the Broad Cognitive Ability (BCA) scale from the WJTCA-R and the General Memory Index (GENI) from the WRAML. A high positive correlation ( r = .87) was found between these most global measures from the two batteries. The observed correlation between BCA and GENI was much higher than anticipated. The author concluded that neurological impairment had affected subject memory and intellectual functioning in similar ways. The results do not generalize to children who have not had similar decrements in cognitive functioning. Future research should establish a baseline ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Rochelle, Gary B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Structural Equation Model of Contributing Factors to Adolescent Social Interest

Description: The focus of the present study was to test through SEM the relationships between family influences (FI) and school influences (SI) on factors hypothesized to be associated with adolescent social interest: school belonging (SB), extracurricular participation (EP), and peer/romantic involvement (PRI). The final model consisted of FI and SI that contributed to the expression of adolescent social interest. FI included parental communication and parental caring. SI consisted of teacher fairness. SB consisted of a child's self-reported feelings of belonging at school, EP included self-reported involvement in sports or academic clubs, and PRI consisted of self-reported desire for romantic involvement or desire for participation with others. The proposed model suggested that FI contributed significantly to self-reported SB, EP, and PRI. Additionally, it was hypothesized that SI would contribute significantly to SB and EP, but not to PRI. The data used in the current study were part of an existing data set collected as part of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. The total sample size for the present study was 2,561 male and female adolescents aged 12-19 years. The data consisted of adolescent and parent self-report information. Results suggested a significant relationship between FI and self-reported SB and PRI. As expected, a significant relationship existed between SI and SB. Also as expected, no significant relationship existed between SI and PRI. Neither the relationship between FI and EP nor SI and EP were significant. When analyzed separately, a significant relationship existed between SB and PRI; however, no significant relationship was found between SB and EP. Results also indicated several of the fit indices, including the average off-diagonal absolute standardized residual, the comparative fit index (CFI), and the Bentler-Bonett non-normed fit index (BBNFI), were a low to moderate fit. However, the final model was highly skewed and the model chi-square and chi-square ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Craig, Stephen E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sexual Identity Development and Heterosexual Mistrust: An Exploratory Study

Description: The sexual identity development process in gay men was the focus of this study. It was theorized that, as a result of negative experiences with the dominant heterosexual culture, gay men might feel mistrustful of heterosexuals in various settings. A new theoretical construct, that of heterosexual mistrust, was identified and explored. A new scale, the Heterosexual Mistrust Inventory (HMI), was created to measure this construct. Gay male subjects' stage of homosexual identity formation (HIF) was also determined. Results indicated that heterosexual mistrust existed to a significantly stronger degree among gay men than among heterosexual men. Heterosexual mistrust was strongly related to stage of HIF. The various settings in which heterosexual mistrust was found to occur were discussed. Implications for current knowledge about HIF and about cultural belief systems unique to gay men were identified and explored.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Shepard, William D., 1965-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of False Self Behavior to Object Relations, Attachment, and Adjustment

Description: The focus of this investigation is to assess the relationship between false self behavior, object relations and attachment variables, and adjustment. Theory suggests that object relations and attachment are interrelated, and have been independently linked to psychological consequences. Theory also postulates a relationship between false self behavior and object relations theory. Given the interrelatedness of object relations and attachment theory it is possible that false self behavior may also be linked to attachment variables. While the relationship between object relations and false self behavior seems to have been established object relations theory and attachment theory have not been studied in tandem as related to false self behavior. In addition, this investigation will explore the relationship of adjustment variables to attachment and object relations variables. Undergraduate males and females will be solicited for participation, and will be asked to complete self-report questionnaires measuring false self behavior, object relations, attachment, and adjustment. The primary research hypothesis is that less false self behavior will be related to mature object relations, secure attachment, and fewer symptoms.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Selby, Christine Louise Buntrock
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prevalence of Undiagnosed Dissociative Disorders in an Inpatient Setting

Description: This study examined the prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in a sample of 201 adult patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital in a major metropolitan city in the south-central United States, over an eight-month period. A screening measure, two blind structured interviews, and a blind clinical interview were employed. The lifetime prevalence of dissociate disorders among the interviewed subjects was 40.8%. More specifically, 7.5% were diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, 15.4% with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 13.4% with dissociative amnesia, and 4.5% with depersonalization disorder. Dissociative fugue was not found in this sample. Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were computed between the three interview measures, resulting in significant findings for the presence of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified versus no dissociative disorder. The Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were as follows: DDIS-DES-T = 0.81; SCID-D-DES-T = 0.76; Clinician-DES-T = 0.74, DDIS-SCID-D = 0.74; DDIS-Clinician = 0.71, and SCID-D-Clinician = 0.56. A meeting was conducted at the end of all subject interviews to discuss discrepant findings between measures. Four additional sub-analyses were performed between dissociative and non-dissociative subjects on DSM-IV variables. Patients diagnosed with a dissociative disorder had higher rates of comorbid major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, and childhood history of physical and/or sexual abuse. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed as they relate to these findings.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Duffy, Colleen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Attractiveness and Personality Attributes: A Gender and Racial Analysis

Description: Subjects rated 12 female body shapes with respect to their physical attractiveness, and the extent to which they would be expected to possess various personality characteristics. The shapes were varied using 3 levels of overall weight and 4 levels of body shapeliness. The sample was modified to control for socioeconomic factors and results are based on 297 undergraduates from Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic racial backgrounds. Loglinear analyses revealed that men and women, regardless of racial background, rated shapely underweight females as most physically attractive, sexy, and ideal for a woman, followed by normal weight figures of similar proportion. African Americans, women in particular, judged the shapely normal weight figures more favorably than the other subjects. Multidimensional scaling and subsequent frequency analyses showed that those figures judged as most attractive, sexy, and ideal were also expected to be fairly emotionally stable, and most successful and interpersonally competitive, but least faithful, kind, and family-oriented. Overweight female shapes, while rated as least physically attractive, sexy, and emotionally stable, were expected to be most family-oriented, kind, and faithful. Shapely normal weight figures were judged to be attractive and sexy, and were assumed to possess a moderate amount of the personality traits in question. The results suggest that Caucasian and Hispanic subjects prefer shapely underweight women, while African Americans, particularly women, find shapely underweight and shapely normal weight women to be physically appealing. African American women also rate shapely normal weight women favorably with respect to personality traits. This perceptual difference may help inoculate them from developing eating disturbances and account for the low prevalence rate of eating disorders in African Americans compared to women of other racial backgrounds. It is suggested that future research identify those beliefs, values or behaviors that seem to inoculate African American women from developing eating disorders. Once identified, ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Olby, Brian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Father Absence, Onset of Menarche, and Body Dissatisfaction: Importance of Father Absence

Description: Relationships between body dissatisfaction, dieting methods, father absence, and puberty timing were investigated in this study. Participants included adolescent females from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression results indicated that girls without a biological father in the home were significantly more likely to have an early onset of puberty than on-time or late. Girls who experienced early puberty exhibited higher levels of body dissatisfaction, but didn't use more dieting methods. Early onset girls more likely used dieting methods if their biological father was present than absent; however, no significant difference in body dissatisfaction was shown. A negative relationship with fathers indicated more body dissatisfaction. None of the attained findings were found when the biological mother was absent, and having a stepfather did not seem to matter. Evidence was revealed that fathers play a role in their daughters' view of their own bodies.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Gartrell, Stacey R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of an Oral History Interview on Counselor Trainees' Confidence and Couples' Intimacy

Description: A major concern many counselor trainees face when preparing to see their first couple-client is that of confidence because they have had little to no experience in interacting in a professional capacity with couples. Many beginning counselors experience anxiety, which can inhibit their effectiveness with clients (Scanlon & Baille, 1994). Introducing counselor trainees to a relatively non-threatening interaction with couples might reduce the initial anxiety that characterizes the neophyte counselor venturing into new clinical territory. The interaction may also enhance feelings of warmth and closeness of the couples. John Gottman's Oral History Interview (Gottman, 1999) was the protocol used in the interaction between trainee and couple. An instrument developed for this study to measure couple counseling confidence, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (Schaefer & Olson, 1981) were used to assess levels of counselor confidence, counselor anxiety, and couple intimacy, respectively. The confidence instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 37 students who were enrolled in four graduate level introductory couple counseling classes and who interviewed couples, as well as to 34 counselor-trainees who were enrolled in five graduate level counseling courses other than couple counseling and who did not interview couples. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in confidence between trainees who interviewed a couple and trainees who did not interview a couple. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. The Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships was administered to 67 individual couple participants who were interviewed by counselor trainees, and 35 individual couple participants who were not interviewed by counselor-trainees. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in couples who participated in the Oral History Interview and those who did not. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. Regarding ...
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Toler, Jane K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relation of Attachment, Adjustment and Narcissism to Masculine Gender Role Conflict

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between masculine gender role conflict, attachment variables, narcissism, and adjustment. It was expected that men who reported higher masculine gender role conflict would also report unhealthy attachment, have a greater degree of narcissism and poorer adjustment. This study employed a sample of undergraduate males who completed self-report questionnaires measuring masculine gender role conflict, narcissism, adjustment, and attachment. Hypotheses were tested using canonical correlation techniques. Results indicated that healthy attachment was related to low masculine gender role conflict; however, unhealthy attachment was not related to high masculine gender role conflict. In terms of narcissism, higher amounts of narcissism were related to high amounts of gender role conflict, but in a subset of results individuals who reported low masculine gender role conflict also reported higher narcissism in areas that are assumed to relate to positive self regard. Results related to adjustment indicated that high masculine gender role conflict was related to less psychological well-being replicating past studies. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed in light of these findings.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Selby, Brian W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory: a Predictive Validity Study with Criminal Offenders Mandated to Rehabilitative Treatment

Description: The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory was constructed to screen for substance abuse patterns despite non-admittance of respondents. Predictive validity studies of the SASSI are limited, and are not available for probationers. Participants were 147 male and 54 female probationers mandated to treatment. Overall differences among SASSI scales were significant for treatment compliance and outcome. Higher SASSI scales were found among those probationers who were compliant/successful. Individual scales were not significantly different, however, a trend was revealed; those respondents who scored higher tended to comply/succeed in treatment. The SASSI alone accurately classified 59.7% of respondents. In summary, the SASSI's use in predicting treatment outcome is limited and should be employed with concomitant data.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Flores, Johnny Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Exercise Duration to Disordered Eating, Physical Self-Esteem, and Beliefs About Attractiveness

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise duration and level of disordered eating, physical self-esteem, and endorsement of societal mores about attractiveness. Two hundred twenty-nine female college students completed the Bulimia-Test Revised, the Physical Self Perception Profile, the Beliefs About Attractiveness Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Subjects were classified into one of four levels of exercise duration based on the number of hours they reported engaging in planned exercise per week. Significant differences were identified among the four exercise groups in relation to physical self-esteem. The amount of exercise activity individuals engaged in per week, however, was not indicative of their eating disorder symptomatology or beliefs about attractiveness.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Helmcamp, Annette Marguerite
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Correlates of Anorexia Nervosa in a Nonclinical Sample

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anorexia nervosa and several personality traits. Past research in this area has been contradictory for several reasons. Sociocultural theories have described the media's role in promoting eating disorders by portraying a thin body-type as the ideal. However, they have neglected to describe the personality ideal which our society promotes in women. It is proposed here that anorexics incorporate and oppose this ideal. Therefore, the anorexic personality is one filled with conflict.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Rogers, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Adjustment And Bereavement-Related Distress: A Longitudinal Study

Description: The current study assessed 125 conjugally bereaved persons using multiple self-report measures as indicators of personal adjustment and bereavement distress across three times of testing (initial, 6-month, and 3-year follow-up). Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to examine the causal relationships between adjustment and bereavement distress indicators and overall factors. Exploratory factor analyses indicate measures of adjustment load on a single Adjustment factor and measures of bereavement distress load on a single Grief factor. Considering results using composite scores for each variable, adjustment was significantly more predictive of bereavement distress than bereavement distress was predictive of adjustment for both Time 1 to Time 3 and Time 2 to Time 3. Adjustment issues measured by indicators such as the UCLA, POMS, HSC, BDI, and RSES significantly influenced the extent of grief symptoms as measure by the BEQ and the severity of scope of grief symptoms as assessed by the IOLQ.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Henderson, John Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parent Psychopathology, Marital Adjustment, and Child Psychological Dysfunction: The Mediating Role of Attachment and Sibling Relationship

Description: This study is part of a larger research project examining family attachment processes. The current study tests a family process model that postulates the mediating role of parent-child attachment and sibling relationship quality in the associations of parent psychopathology or marital adjustment to children's psychological dysfunction. A community sample of 86 families with at least one school-aged (8-12 years) child was recruited from area schools and organizations. Families came to the UNT Family Attachment Lab, where they participated in research tasks, including interviews, self-report instruments, and videotaped interaction tasks. Specific questionnaires used in this study included the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, the Security Scale, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Using a single indicator for each variable, path analyses tested three paternal models, three maternal models, and three systemic models using different informants' (i.e., father, mother, child) reports of child functioning as the outcome variable. Results of this study highlight the positive relationship between parent marital adjustment and parent-child attachment security, as well as the inverse relationship between maternal psychopathology and mother-child attachment security. In addition, the inverse relationship between parent-child attachment security and child psychological dysfunction was significant across nearly all paternal and maternal models. Particularly noteworthy was the consistent mediating influence of attachment security in the association between marital adjustment and child psychological dysfunction across paternal and maternal models.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Hindman, Jason M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

Description: Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between each of the older samples, but also that such connections were weaker among younger adults. These findings are important in revealing that sociocultural shifts in opportunities for continued cognitive growth influence the impact of noncognitive (personality) factors on intellectual functioning in later life. Limitations of the current study, implications of the results, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: O'Brien, Dina Paige Ragow
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Relationship of Alpha-Theta Amplitude Crossover during Neurofeedback to Emergence of Spontaneous Imagery and Biographical Memory

Description: I obtained 182 session graphs from 10 client records from a university-based neurotherapy clinic and from a private practitioner. These graphs were used to examine the relationship of therapeutic crossover activity (defined as at least 3 minutes in duration and at least 1μv in amplitude) with and without predetermined amplitude thresholds of beta (15-20Hz) to client reports of imagery and to treatment outcomes. Crosstab analysis revealed that significantly more reports of imagery were observed in the therapeutic crossover with beta condition and that higher amplitudes of slower brainwave activity correlated with progression to deeper states of consciousness. Multi-level modeling revealed a significant interaction between therapeutic crossover activity, higher beta frequency amplitude, and reported salient imagery. Due to small sample size, significance testing was not deemed appropriate. However, observation in change of pre-post scores suggested that individuals who experienced more therapeutic crossover with sufficient beta amplitude conditions had greater improvements on post-test measures (BAI, BDI, BHS, PSQI and MMPI) than those with no or few crossovers. Higher amplitudes of slower brainwave activity correlated with progression to deeper states of consciousness, with delta amplitude positively correlating with transpersonal states. Reports of imagery and/or biographical memory are much more likely to occur during theta-alpha crossover activity characterized by 3 minutes or more in duration, one microvolt or more in amplitude, and 3.75μv amplitude or more of beta. This defined therapeutic crossover condition does appear to facilitate recall of imagery and memories during alpha-theta neurofeedback and was related to better treatment outcomes.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Johnson, Mark Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries