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Outcomes of Supervisory Communication Competence

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the communication competence of supervisors upon an employee's job satisfaction. Results obtained supported the 5 hypotheses proposed. Findings indicated the importance of supervisory communication responsiveness in areas of listening, sensitivity, and expression of interest in subordinate's ideas and concerns in ensuring satisfaction with supervision received. Support was also generated for the value of an "open" communication climate where continual feedback and idea exchange interact to produce organizational identification. Significant relationships were found to exist between communication climate and dimensions of the JDI: satisfaction with supervisor, work satisfaction, pay satisfaction, satisfaction with promotion opportunities, satisfaction with coworkers. Finally, communication skills training for supervisors was recommended to animate organizational growth and development.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Wallace, Sandra K. (Sandra Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

What Do You Say After You've Said "I'm Sorry"? The Development of a Measure of Supportive Communication

Description: Missing from extant social support literature is a measure of what support providers say to other individuals with problems. To address this void, a two-stage study focused on the messages of potential support providers and how recipients perceived those messages as Helpful, Comforting, and Appropriate. Responses elicited from subjects (n=587) in Stage I were coded according to content (emotional, cognitive, emotional/cognitive) and given to Stage 2 subjects (n=433) for assessment. The results indicate that supporters and recipients react discriminately according to relationship, problem type, and sex. The Measure of Supportive Communication developed in this study demonstrated better than adequate reliability.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Olson, J. Jeanene (Joyce Jeanene)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Test of the Degree of Association Among Selected Communication Characteristics and Innate Innovativeness

Description: The present study used regression procedures to investigate the relationships between selected communication variables and innate innovativeness. The three general types of variables examined in this study were communication anxiety, communicator style, and selfdisclosiveness. Ten hypotheses were tested together with a descriptive model which was based on the communication variables and their ability to predict innate innovativeness. Results of the tests of the model were confirmed as were the ten hypothesized relationships. The results of the regression analyses performed on the data indicated that receiver apprehension and honesty of self-disclosiveness were negatively and positively associated with innate innovativeness respectively, and were the variables which most significantly impacted the variance of innate innovativeness scores.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Judice, Steven C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Exchange Under Fire: Direct and Moderated Effects of Job Insecurity on Social Exchange

Description: This study is concerned with the impact of job insecurity on the vital social exchange relationship between employee and employer. Specifically, it explored the relationship between job insecurity and two important social exchange outcomes—organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Moreover, it assessed the moderating effects of individual factors (communal orientation and powerlessness) and situational factors (trust in management, procedural fairness, and organizational support) on these relationships.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Bultena, Charles D. (Charles Dean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Drug Usage Among Community College Students: Their Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

Description: The problem of this study concerned illicit psychoactive drug use among community college students. A non-experimental design methodology, a survey, was used in this study. The population consisted of 149 students at 14 randomly selected public community college institutions throughout the United States. Three waves of mailings took place to increase response rate. Community college students appear to be knowledgeable regarding the deleterious physical and mental impact upon those who use drugs. Community college students appear to have a negative attitude toward drug use and toward those who use them. Community college students have an aversion to actual drug use. The illicit psychoactive drug of choice among community college students is marijuana.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Reid, Sandra S. (Sandra Sue)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Communication Based Model of Power

Description: We are affected greatly by power, and often do not understand what power is, how it is used, and its many other facets. Power and communication are interrelated, but how they relate to each other has been hard to understand. The model presented in this thesis explicates the relationship between the two critical variables. Power is portrayed as a hierarchical structure that is based on influence (communication) where the intensity and likelihood of success of power attempts increase as the level of power increases. The hierarchical structure has four levels, including influence at its base, and prominence, authority and control at the higher levels.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Keefer, Larry D. (Larry Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of Behavioral Perceptions and Values Among Staff and User Groups of the Junior High Schools within an Independent School District

Description: This research was designed to determine if significant differences exist among the behavioral perceptions and values held by staff and user groups of all junior high schools in a selected independent school district. This study also evaluates the applicability of social profiles to describe perceived organizational behavioral characteristics. Two published, validated survey instruments were used to collect the data. The questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected teachers (staff group) and parents and Parent-Teacher Association officers (user group) from each of the five junior high schools. Of 206 sets of questionnaires distributed, 166 (80.5 percent were returned. Computer analyses of these raw data provided both individual perceptions and descriptions for each junior high school in addition to individual values for each school's staff and user group. The data results show that the social profiles of two of the five schools are perceived differently by both their staff and user groups; furthermore, there are significant differences between the values held by the staff and user groups for each of these schools. For the other three schools, there are minor differences of perception by staff and user groups of their schools' social profiles and also among the values held by the staff and user groups. The data analysis presented in this study led to three primary conclusions. These are that (1) the instruments used complement each other in an analysis of the overall description of an organization; (2) three schools, although perceived by their staff and user groups to have minor differences in behaviors and user-group values held, are similar in organizational characteristics, methods of operation, and overall perceptions; and (3) for two of the schools which are perceived to reflect significant differences in behaviors and values held by staff and user groups, the influence of these differences may require exceptionally proficient administration ...
Date: December 1984
Creator: Myers, James Arue
Partner: UNT Libraries

Budget-Related Prediction Models in the Business Environment with Special Reference to Spot Price Predictions

Description: The purpose of this research is to study and improve decision accuracy in the real world. Spot price prediction of petroleum products, in a budgeting context, is the task chosen to study prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy of executives in a multinational oil company is examined. The Brunswik Lens Model framework is used to evaluate prediction accuracy. Predictions of the individuals, the composite group (mathematical average of the individuals), the interacting group, and the environmental model were compared. Predictions of the individuals were obtained through a laboratory experiment in which experts were used as subjects. The subjects were required to make spot price predictions for two petroleum products. Eight predictor variables that were actually used by the subjects in real-world predictions were elicited through an interview process. Data for a 15 month period were used to construct 31 cases for each of the two products. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by comparing predictions with the actual spot prices. Predictions of the composite group were obtained by averaging the predictions of the individuals. Interacting group predictions were obtained ex post from the company's records. The study found the interacting group to be the least accurate. The implication of this finding is that even though an interacting group may be desirable for information synthesis, evaluation, or working toward group consensus, it is undesirable if prediction accuracy is critical. The accuracy of the environmental model was found to be the highest. This suggests that apart from random error, misweighting of cues by individuals and groups affects prediction accuracy. Another implication of this study is that the environmental model can also be used as an additional input in the prediction process to improve accuracy.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Kumar, Akhil
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study to Determine the Relationship of Versatile Behavior to Individual Demographics, Job Characteristics, Organizational Climate Performance Feedback and Job Satisfaction

Description: The behavioral characteristics of leaders have been subjects of study for centuries. The scope of these studies has grown to encompass task analysis, follower needs and situational requirements. Current leadership theories consistently recognize the need for a successful leader to adjust behavior to meet the needs of the task, followers and situation. The problem of this research is to define this ability to modify one's behavior, measure it and test its relationship to demographic and job characteristics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of individuals" ability to modify their behavior to job function, hierarchy, climate, feedback, satisfaction and their demographic characteristics. The hypotheses held that high ability to modify behavior would correlate positively with job characteristics, climate, feedback and satisfaction and show no correlation to individual demographics. Data were collected through the administration of three research instruments to 138 managers of three business firms. The instruments were the Participant Data Form providing job and demographic characteristics, Descriptive Adjective Questionnaire measuring an individual ability to modify behavior, and Climate and Satisfaction Evaluation Index measuring climate, feedback and satisfaction. Perason's correlation coefficients were calculated to identify possible relationship between the manager's ability to modify behavior, called versatility, and all other independent variables, and linear and multiple regressions were utilized to verify the relationship. No significant statistical correlation was found. Conclusions are that the ability of a manager to vary behavior does not influence job climate, feedback or satisfaction, that the versatile behavior is not derived from job or demographic characteristics, and that job satisfaction is directly and positively related to performance feedback and climate.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Ackerman, Raymond L. (Ramond Lorens)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact on the Buyer-Seller Relationship of Firms Using Electronic Data Interchange

Description: This research investigated whether the buyer-seller interorganizational relationship (IOR) differed between a firm and two classes of customers. The first class used electronic data interchange (EDI) with the firm and the second class used the traditional paper-based purchasing system. IOR characteristics included reputation, skill, direct power, indirect power, reciprocity, and efficiency.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Poole, Robyn R. (Robyn Ryan)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of the Leadership Role of Deans of Students in the Public Universities of Kenya

Description: This study concerns the leadership behavior of the deans of students in the four public universities of Kenya and their constituent colleges. Both the real and ideal versions of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire and the demographic questionnaire developed under the auspices of faculty advisors were used to collect data from 10 deans of students, 55 student affairs staff members, and 130 student leaders--who constituted the sample of 195 who responded from the chosen population. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of variance utilizing the f test of statistical difference. Fisher's least significant difference test, a multiple comparison procedure, was utilized to make all pairwise comparisons which were detected by the ANOVA to differ significantly from one-another among the respective mean ratings of the three groups surveyed. Twelve hypotheses were developed and tested, and the major findings included: There were significant differences among the perceptions of the deans of students, student affairs staff members, and student leaders regarding the real and ideal leadership behavior of the deans of students concerning initiating structure and consideration--the two leadership dimensions surveyed on the questionnaire.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Maronga, Geoffrey Bosire
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography to Indicate Neurotoxicity in Cases of Pesticide and Solvent Exposures

Description: This study examined the effect of neurotoxic chemical exposures on brain processes using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). A control group carefully screened for good health and minimal chemical exposures was compared to two groups of patients diagnosed with health problems following exposure to pesticides or to organic solvents.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Fincher, Cynthia Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Occupationally Injured Employee: Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes from Psychosocial Stressors

Description: This research explores whether a firm's psychosocial stressors contribute to strains or outcomes important to the organization. The psychosocial stressors chosen for study include: role conflict and ambiguity, workload (qualitative and quantitative), participative decision making, autonomy, and security. Independent variables were the emotional strains of job satisfaction and job commitment. The independent variables for behavioral strains included injury, lost days, workers' compensation claims, and absenteeism. Three moderators: age, gender, and social support were evaluated for interaction effects. The study sampled 77 occupationally injured and 81 non-injured employees from one medium sized Army community hospital. This study uses multivariate hierarchical multiple set regression as its principal analytical method. The hierarchial procedure orders the sets into an a priori hierarchy and enters each set sequentially from the hierarchy, evaluating the increase in $\rm R\sp2.$ The results suggest that psychosocial stressors are significant variables to consider when investigating workers' emotional and behavioral strains. For example, age, participation, and satisfaction were found statistically significant in differentiating between the occupationally injured and the non-injured samples. The study also found that ambiguity, participation, and autonomy influenced emotional strains. Additionally, age and social support appear to moderate the relationship between some psychosocial factors and emotional and behavioral strains. Age moderated the relationship with only emotional strains, while social support moderated both emotional and behavioral strains. Further, social support was found to have a main effect on the emotional strains of satisfaction and commitment, but not on any behavioral ones. Age was found to have a direct effect on the behavioral strains of workers' compensation claims. Finally, although not statistically significant when entered as a set and evaluated using the statistical analysis techniques in this study, a relationship between age and workers' compensation claims and qualitative workload and absenteeism were suggested. The economic and human costs associated with ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Mosesman, Leonard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Service Quality and the Small Apparel Speciality Store : Perceptions of Female Consumers

Description: Service quality defined by the customer is an important element in satisfying customers and may determine retail survival. The SERVQUAL instrument measured desired and minimum expectations and perceptions of service quality in a small apparel specialty store. Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in three dimensions of service quality for both desired and minimum levels of expectations and perceptions: (a) Personal Attention, (b) Reliability, and (c) Tangibles. Regression analyses determined the relationship between overall service quality (OSQ) and various predictor variables. Based on gap scores between desired expectations and perceptions, the Personal Attention and Tangibles dimensions were significant in predicting OSQ. SERVQUAL is a managerial tool that small apparel retailers may use to improve service quality.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Knight, Delores Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of a Mentoring Program on the Self-Esteem of College-Age Women

Description: The fact that girls and women suffer a loss of self-esteem disproportionate to boys and men is without argument. There are an increasing number of books, magazine articles, and resource kits being made available to begin to comprehensively address the issue with young girls. However, less effort is being directed toward the older adolescent, the college-age woman. The problem with which this study was concerned was that of determining the impact of a mentoring program on the self-esteem of college-age women. The Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI) was administered as a pre- and posttest, to 40 sophomore women, 20 of whom were in a control group and 20 who participated in the structured mentoring program. Using the MSEI, it was possible to gain statistically significant data which indicated that the self-esteem of the women could be positively impacted as a result of the mentoring experience. In addition to the instrument, the participants kept journals about their mentoring experience. Therefore, this research was able to report both qualitative and quantitative findings. The findings regarding the control group were not statistically significant for any of the 11 characteristics on the inventory. The findings from the mentored group however, were determined to be statistically significant for 5 characteristics: global self-esteem, competence, lovability, body appearance, and identity integration. From the statistical findings, as well as, from the journal entries it appeared that mentoring is a valuable experience. Also it was determined that there was a pattern to a positive mentoring experience. The women felt that their mentors were individuals in whom they could place their trust, the women felt the mentors could be helpful to them because of the wisdom that comes from life experience.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Higgins, Lynda Kay Burton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Exemplary Teaching Attributes of Adjunct Faculty in the Dallas County Community College District: a Case Study

Description: The problem of this study involved identifying and ranking perceptions of the attributes of exemplary teaching of adjunct faculty of the Dallas County Community College District. Data was collected by a 75 item opinionnaire and a demographic data sheet which was sent to a population of 3,000 employees of the Dallas County Community College District and 100 exemplary faculty from 39 of the 50 United States. The five chapters were titled Introduction, Review of Literature, Methods, Presentation and Analysis of Findings, and Summary, Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations. Revealed through the findings of Chapter 4 was the order of attributes as a Grand grand rank found through the combining of the grand rank order of the Dallas County Community Colleges' employees and the rank order of the nationally recognized exemplary faculty. Findings disclosed that a rank ordering of items represented by Kendall's W at .9654 with a chi-square of 142.8815 at the .001 level of significance. These findings led to the rejection of three null hypotheses and the following related conclusions: (1) perceptions of importance of teaching attributes, can be rank ordered, (2) while a high level of significant values of W may be interpreted as meaning that the observers and judges are applying essentially the same standard in ranking the variables, their pooled ordering may serve as a standard, (3) ordering of perceptions of exemplary teaching attributes is possible, and (4) rankings of attributes provides a usable list of variables that can be employed in evaluation. Recommendations for further study include design of an evaluation instrument incorporating all or part of the attributes for use in adjunct classrooms, and creation of a staff development program designed to help those who are less proficient in the classroom.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Picquet, James Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries

Site-based Management : A Study of the Changing Role of the Central Office in Decentralization

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of restructuring associated with site-based management and the change in roles of central office personnel. The study also attempted to determine if districts had a plan with definitions of responsibility and accountability in place. The study included relationships between the decentralization process of site-based management and central office personnel's perception of job satisfaction.
Date: August 1992
Creator: McCown, Gloria J. (Gloria Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Site Based Decision Making Implementation in the Irving Independent School District, Irving, Texas

Description: In 1983, the report A Nation at Risk catapulted school reform to the forefront of national attention. The State of Texas responded with legislation dictating curriculum and instructional time. Failure to accomplish the desired improvement in student achievement caused these mandates to be eased. In lieu of the mandates, the Texas legislature and the Texas Education Agency have set expectation standards called academic indicators. Local districts and campuses must utilize site based decision making (SBDM) to determine how each campus will meet the set standards. Dealing primarily with curriculum roles and responsibilities, this study details perceptions of principals and teachers as SBDM was being implemented in a suburban school district serving 25,000 students. Data were gathered utilizing a structured interview and a follow-up telephone interview. Addressed in the study are perceptions of: (a) role changes, (b) responsibility changes, (c) needed improvements in the implementation process, (d) teacher empowerment, (e) positive and negative elements, and (f) student achievement.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Watson, Larry (Larry Paul)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of an Intercultural Sensitizer for Cross-Cultural Training of American and Japanese Business Professionals

Description: Increasing globalization and transnational trends in business have resulted in greater contact with people from different cultures. However, in any cross-cultural encounter, miscommunication and misunderstandings are likely to occur. In a workplace setting, these can seriously undermine job performance and employee relations. The Intercultural Sensitizer is a cross-cultural training tool that is designed to increase the likelihood that trained individuals will make accurate interpretations concerning behavior observed in individuals from other cultural groups (Albert, 1983) . The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify cultural differences between Americans and Japanese that can lead to misunderstandings in the workplace and hinder communication, and (2) to construct an intercultural sensitizer that will enable the two cultural groups to interact more effectively with each other. The study's five-phase research design was based on Albert's (1983) delineation of the construction of an intercultural sensitizer. Twenty-four episodes were constructed and statistically analyzed to determine if there was a difference in the way the two cultural groups responded to a given situation. Nine episodes yielded critical values significant at the .05 level. The study concluded that there while there are differences in the cultural perspectives of American and Japanese business professionals, the two groups also share common cultural assumptions. The study's findings have numerous implications for cross-cultural corporate training and higher education.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Mehta, Gopika
Partner: UNT Libraries

Participation in Student Financial Aid Programs during the Freshman Year and Persistence in a Private University

Description: The study determined the overall persistence rate of first-time full-time entrants into a mid-sized private university during the fall semesters 1989 to 1991 to the 2nd year (1990 to 1992). The study compared the retention rate of recipients and nonrecipients of a variety of financial aid programs. Included is a comparison of groups receiving various types of financial assistance and whether or not there are differences between the groups with respect to types of assistance, gender, ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, Anglo), high school grade point average, and national test scores (SAT, ACT). The types of assistance studied were categorized by academic scholarships, university-operated student employment, need-based grants, activity awards, entitlements, and loans. The question of whether renewal, elimination, or reduction in assistance relates to retention was also studied.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Munson, Leo W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measuring the Implementation of Employee Involvement in the Maquiladora Industry : A Matched-pairs Analysis of United States Parent Companies and Their Mexican Subsidiaries

Description: Participative management practices between United States parent companies in the maquiladora industry and their Mexico assembly plants were investigated for this study. It was hypothesized that managers of parent maquiladora companies in the United States encouraged greater levels of worker participation than did expatriate managers in Mexican subsidiaries. However, the findings of this study indicate that expatriate managers in a number of the Mexico subsidiaries are currently implementing employee involvement approaches. In some instances, highly participative team-based approaches are being used.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Stanford, Jane Herring
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Complexity in Group Performance and Satisfaction

Description: In this study, a comparison was made between the various levels of group cognitive complexity and its relationship to task performance and task satisfaction. The goal of this research is to answer the general question, "Should decision-making groups consist of individuals who are similar in the way they differentiate and/or integrate various stimuli in order to increase performance and satisfaction?" The preceding research problem was analyzed in a laboratory setting using a 2 X 2 factorial design blocked on the variable, cognitive complexity. The Repertory Grid was used to measure the cognitive complexity of 228 student subjects. These subjects were stratified into groups of three based on their cognitive complexity score on the Repertory Grid (Kelly, 1955). Each group was treated randomly with one of two levels of task complexity (complex or not complex). Moreover, the groups received an imposedgroup structure that incorporated centralized or decentralized decision-making. Results indicated that groups consisting of cognitively complex members outperformed groups consisting of noncomplex members. No support was obtained for the two-way interaction between group cognitive complexity and either task complexity or group structure. Support was obtained for the interaction between task complexity and group structure on both task satisfaction measures. The highest satisfaction levels occurred with a complex task in a decentralized structure. In addition, the three-way interaction effect on the task satisfaction scale between group structure, task complexity, and group cognitive complexity was significant. The means, however, were not in the predicted direction. For cognitively simple groups, a complex task with a decentralized structure lead to the highest task satisfaction level; whereas, a less complex task with a decentralized group structure lead to the lowest task satisfaction score for noncomplex members. There were no significant differences for cognitively complex groups when analyzing the three-way interaction between group cognitive complexity, task complexity, ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Mayer, Bradley Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Student Evaluation of Instruction and Selected Predictors

Description: The study attempted to determine the relationship between student evaluation of instruction and institutional performance ratings with the following predictors: faculty job satisfaction, faculty attitudes toward the evaluation process, faculty attitudes toward factors associated with the evaluation process, and faculty characteristics.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Anderson, S. Eric (Steven Eric)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Description: In an effort to determine whether job satisfaction and expectations in a group of workers undergoing major change in the workplace differ from groups of workers not undergoing major change, data were collected from three groups of workers at the operator level in a major U.S. electronics manufacturing company. Two of the groups were not undergoing a major work redesign and served as control groups. A group undergoing the early stages of a major work redesign, characterized primarily by their formation into a self-managed work team, served as the experimental group. The experimental group and one control group were located at the same manufacturing plant, while the other control group was located at another plant. It was hypothesized that the group of workers undergoing change would differ in job satisfaction and that over time, the difference would grow. It was also hypothesized that the group undergoing change would have different expectations about the nature of their jobs in the future. Data were collected from members of the three groups using a modified version of Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey, with two administrations of the survey seven months apart. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Groups) X 2 (Perception: "Now" versus "Near Future") x 2 (Administration) factorial design, with repeated measures Oil the Perception variable. Results revealed a difference in job satisfaction between the groups, as hypothesized. Results also revealed that members of the experimental group did have a few expectations for the future not held by members of the control groups; otherwise, expectations differed very little between the groups. Explanations for these findings are offered. This study suggests that those charged with implementing major change in the workplace should keep in mind that they may not see dramatic reactions from workers asked to make major changes, at least ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cheney, Alan B. (Alan Bruce)
Partner: UNT Libraries