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Integrated monitoring and reviewing systems for the Rokkasho Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage Facility

Description: The Rokkasho Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (RSFS) Facility at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) in Japan is expected to begin operations in 1998. Effective safeguarding by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Bureau (JAEB) inspectors requires monitoring the time of transfer, direction of movement, and number of spent fuel assemblies transferred. At peak throughput, up to 1,000 spent fuel assemblies will be accepted by the facility in a 90-day period. In order for the safeguards inspector to efficiently review the resulting large amounts of inspection information, an unattended monitoring system was developed that integrates containment and surveillance (C/S) video with radiation monitors. This allows for an integrated review of the facility`s radiation data, C/S video, and operator declaration data. This paper presents an outline of the integrated unattended monitoring hardware and associated data reviewing software. The hardware consists of a multicamera optical surveillance (MOS) system radiation monitoring gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRAND) electronics, and an intelligent local operating network (ILON). The ILON was used for time synchronization and MOS video triggers. The new software consists of a suite of tools, each one specific to a single data type: radiation data, surveillance video, and operator declarations. Each tool can be used in a stand-alone mode as a separate ion application or configured to communicate and match time-synchronized data with any of the other tools. A data summary and comparison application (Integrated Review System [IRS]) coordinates the use of all of the data-specific review tools under a single-user interface. It therefore automates and simplifies the importation of data and the data-specific analyses.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Yokota, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki & Matsuda, Yuji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating reprocessing plant in-process inventories by simulation

Description: The Safeguards Systems Group`s generic simulation program FacSim was used to model the operation of the proposed Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant during an operating cycle consisting of a start-up phase, a period of steady-state operation, and a flush-out phase. The simulation results give a detailed account of nuclear material inventories in various process vessels as a function of time. As expected, it is found that the pulsed columns and the concentrator determine the rate at which the system responds to feed variations and transients; but the in-process inventory is dominated by the contents of the concentrator and tanks, and particularly by the contents of the tanks downstream from the concentrator. The results of the simulation were used for statistical studies of diversion detection, as described elsewhere in the Proceedings.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Coulter, C.A.; Burr, T.L.; Hakkila, E.A.; Ai, H.; Kadokura, I. & Fujimaki, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

Description: PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ``The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation`` under the ``Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation``. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ``Development of Transparency Options.`` The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ``Technical Options for Transparency,`` was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical options for reprocessing, enrichment, ...
Date: January 1999
Creator: Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, Robin; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakhleh, Charles W.; Puckett, John M> & Stanbro, William D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

Description: Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Salazar, J. & Brown, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

Description: Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Tesar, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

Description: This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L. & Hayes, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

Description: The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F. & Menlove, H.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KEK ATF Injector Upgrade

Description: The main goal at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the KEK laboratory in Japan is to develop the technology that can stably supply the main linac with an extremely flat multi-bunch beam. The injector for this accelerator was upgraded to produce greater than 2 x 10{sup 10} in electrons a single bunch at 80 MeV in a very narrow bunch.
Date: March 24, 1999
Creator: Yeremian, anahid D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

Description: The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H. & Yamasaki, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japanese R&D on new cast alloys and materials

Description: On the basis of observations of the JTEC team, it appears that Japanese universities and research institutes are leading long-term R&D thrusts for development of new materials casting technologies. Significant efforts include amorphous metals, intermetallics, application of MHD in continuous casting of steel, and energy efficient furnace technology. Industrial R&D seems focused more on process improvements than on new product technologies, but significant efforts in new cast materials included cast metal matrix composites, materials substitutions for thinner wall products, and advanced ceramic products for foundry industry applications.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Hayden, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Virtual Library in Action

Description: The SLAC Library has for many years provided SPIRES-HEP, a 300,000 record bibliographic database, to the world particle physics community via the Internet as well as through clone sites in Europe and Japan. The 1991 introduction of the e-print archives at LANL coupled with the World-Wide-Web (WWW) from CERN suddenly made it possible to provide easy linkage between bibliographic database records and the actual full-text of papers. The SLAC Library has turned this possibility into reality by converting hundreds of TeX source documents each month into viewable postscript complete with figures. These (now more than 20,000) postscript files are linked to the HEP database, and the full-text is rendered universally visible via WWW. We discuss the project, the collaboration of physicists and librarians, what is easy, what is hard, and our vision for the future.
Date: July 2, 1999
Creator: Addis, Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International petroleum statistics report, June 1995

Description: The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.
Date: June 27, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

Description: In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B. & Santo Domingo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutrino Factory Designs and R&D

Description: The development of a very intense muon source capable of producing a millimole of muons per year would enable a Neutrino Factory [1], and perhaps eventually a Muon Collider [2], to be built. In the last two years Neutrino Factory physics studies [3] have mapped out an exciting Neutrino Factory physics program. In addition, Neutrino Factory feasibility studies [4-6] have yielded designs that appear to be ''realistic'' provided the performance parameters for the critical components can be achieved. Some of the key components will need a vigorous R&D program to meet the requirements. Neutrino Factory R&D activities in Europe [7], Japan [6,8], and the US [9] have resulted in three promising variants of the basic Neutrino Factory design. In the following the various Neutrino Factory schemes are briefly described. The main R&D issues and the ongoing R&D programs are summarized.
Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Geer, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Multi-rate Flowing Fluid Electric ConductivityLogging Method to Well DH-2, Tono Site, Japan

Description: The flowing fluid electric conductivity (FEC) logging method, wellbore fluid is replaced with de-ionized water, following which FEC profiles in the wellbore are measured at a series of times while the well is pumped at a constant rate. Locations were fluid enters the wellbore show peaks in the FEC logs, which may be analyzed to infer inflow strengths and salinities of permeable features intersected by the wellbore. In multi-rate flowing FEC logging, the flowing FEC logging method is repeated using two or more pumping rates, which enables the transmissivities and inherent pressure heads of these features to be estimated as well. We perform multi-rate FEC logging on a deep borehole in fractured granitic rock, using three different pumping rates. Results identify 19 hydraulically conducting fractures and indicate that transmissivity, pressure head, and salinity vary significantly among them. By using three pumping rates rather than the minimum number of two, we obtain an internal consistency check on the analysis that provides a measure of the uncertainty of the results. Good comparisons against static FEC profiles and against independent chemical, geological, and hydrogeological data have further enhanced confidence in the results of the multi-rate flowing FEC logging method.
Date: October 4, 2004
Creator: Doughty, Christine; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Shimo, Michito & Tsang, Chin-Fu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constraining hydrologic models using thermal analysis

Description: Starting with regional geographic, geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, and meteorological data for the Tono area in Gifu, Japan, we develop a numerical model to simulate subsurface flow and transport in a 4 km by 6 km by 3 km thick fractured granite rock mass overlain by sedimentary layers. Individual fractures are not modeled explicitly. Rather, continuum permeability and porosity distributions are assigned stochastically, based on well-test data and fracture density measurements. The primary goal of the study is to simulate steady-state groundwater flow through the site, then calculate travel times to the model boundaries from specified monitoring points. The lateral boundaries of the model follow topographic features such as ridgelines and rivers. Assigning lateral boundary conditions is a major point of uncertainty in model construction. We evaluate two models with opposing boundary conditions: mostly closed and mostly open boundaries. The two models show vastly different spatial distributions of groundwater flow, so we would like to find a means of choosing the more realistic model. Surface recharge is much larger for the closed model, but field recharge data are of too limited spatial extent to provide a definitive model constraint. Temperature profiles in 16 boreholes show consistent trends with conduction-dominated (linear) temperature profiles below depths of about 300 m. The open and closed models predict strongly different temperature versus depth profiles; with the closed model showing a strong convective signature produced by widespread surface recharge effects to the depth. The open model shows more linear temperature profiles, better agreeing with measurements from the field. Based on this data we can eliminate from consideration the closed model, at least in its present form in which surface recharge penetrates deep into the model.
Date: December 12, 2002
Creator: Doughty, Christine & Karasaki, Kenzi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a non-scaling FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

Description: In recent years there has been a revival of interest in Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators. In Japan a number have been built, or are under construction. A new non-scaling approach to the FFAG reduces the required orbit offsets during acceleration and the size of the required aperture, while maintaining the advantage of the low cost magnets associated with fixed fields. An advantage of the non-scaling FFAG accelerator, with respect to synchrotrons, is the fixed field and hence the possibility of high current and high repetition rate for spot scanning. There are possible advantages of the nonscaling design with respect to fixed-field cyclotrons. The non-scaling FFAG allows strong focusing and hence smaller aperture requirements compared to scaling designs, thus leading to very low losses and better control over the beam. We present, here, a non-scaling FFAG designed to be used for proton therapy.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Trbojevic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Keil, E.; Neskovic, N.; Belgrade, Vinca & Sessler, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive geothermal transport simulation to study the formation mechanism of impermeable barrier between acidic and neutral fluid zones in the Onikobe Geothermal Field, Japan

Description: Two types of fluids are encountered in the Onikobe geothermal reservoir, one is neutral and the other is acidic (pH=3). It is hypothesized that acidic fluid might be upwelling along a fault zone and that an impermeable barrier might be present between the acidic and neutral fluid zones. We carried out reactive geothermal transport simulations using TOUGHREACT (Xu and Pruess, 1998 and 2001) to test such a conceptual model. Mn-rich smectite precipitated near the mixing front and is likely to form an impermeable barrier between regions with acidic and neutral fluids.
Date: March 9, 2003
Creator: Todaka, Norifumi; Akasaka, Chitosi; Xu, Tianfu & Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-intrusive submetering of residential gas appliances

Description: A new technique was developed to non-intrusively monitor the use of individual gas appliances in homes. It relied on a very sensitive master gas meter equipped with a pulse meter, data logger, and software. The procedure involves two steps: decomposition and identification of the end uses. The technique is about 95% accurate but the algorithms can still be confused by some relatively common situations. Further improvements in the software are expected to improve accuracy. The procedure was applied to over 600 homes in Tokyo, Japan. The aggregate data allow more accurate estimates of energy consumption by the major residential gas appliances in addition to their hourly load profiles. Key factors affecting energy demand by each gas appliance were obtained by combining the energy and demographic data. These data are essential for more accurate forecasting of gas consumption, system sizing, and other marketing activities. The system will not necessarily be as successful in America due to the presence of pilot lights, more appliances per household, and variable-rate gas appliances. Nevertheless, the approach appears promising because it is economical and accurate.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Yamagami, Shin; Nakamura, Hajime & Meier, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

Description: Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Vine, E. & Murakoshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International nuclear waste management fact book

Description: The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Abrahms, C. W.; Patridge, M. D. & Widrig, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department