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DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

Description: The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated ...
Date: January 12, 2011
Creator: McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant & de la Ru du Can, Stephane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

Description: Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make ...
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Abhyankar, Nikit & Phadke, Amol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

Description: Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.
Date: August 10, 2011
Creator: Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin & Phadke, Amol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

Description: Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion ...
Date: May 25, 2011
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

Description: The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.
Date: January 1, 2014
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

Description: Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Living Arrangements of Elderly Widows in India: Family Convention, Bad Luck and Abandonment

Description: In India, issues of gender discrimination and female empowerment have become more prominent in the last several years. Elderly women, specifically widows, are often abandoned or not well cared for by family members and are typically marginalized within Indian society, vulnerable, and susceptible to poverty. This is an exploratory analysis with a research hypothesis asking, who are the caregivers of elderly widows? Statistics indicate that women may be taking on more of a care giving role with elderly widows which in turn may exacerbate the already existing issues of poverty and neglect for this population. The purpose of this study was to examine in more depth the factors related to living arrangements of elderly Indian widows using the NFHS-3 (2005-2006) data set. Quantitative methods of secondary data analysis and systematic literature review are employed in this research. sociological factors related to family self-reported living arrangement, age of widow, education, caste, socioeconomic level, religion, and geographic region were analyzed using data from the respondents identified as older widows (N=2,176). Findings indicate 78% report living alone or in non-familial households while 22% reported living in various familial constellations. The odds of living with a relative versus not living with a relative were found to be significant for three variables: age, religion Muslim, and region Northern. Living arrangements for elderly widows in Indian society are determined based on a complex system of logic embedded in a patrilineal descent, family convention, religion, and regional cultural practices. Understanding these complex factors is important in predicting the needs and available services for this population of vulnerable elderly women.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Wilder, Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Status of the mechanical design of the 650 MHz cavities for Project X

Description: In the high-energy section of the Project X Linac, acceleration of H{sup -} ions takes place in superconducting cavities operating at 650 MHz. Two families of five-cell elliptical cavities are planned: beta = 0.61 and beta = 0.9. A specific feature of the Project X Linac is low beam loading, and thus, low bandwidth and higher sensitivity to microphonics. Efforts to optimize the mechanical design of the cavities to improve their mechanical stability in response to the helium bath pressure fluctuations will be presented. These efforts take into account constraints such as cost and ease of fabrication. Also discussed will be the overall design status of the cavities and their helium jackets. The proposed design of the 3 GeV Project X superconducting (SC) Linac employs 650 MHz five-cell elliptical cavities to accelerate 1.0 mA of average H-beam current in the 160-3000 MeV energy range. The 650 MHz region of the Linac is divided into two sections with two different geometric phase velocity factors: beta = 0.61 to cover the 160-520 MeV range and beta = 0.9 to cover the 520-3000 MeV range. Approximately 40 beta = 0.61 and 150 beta = 0.9 cavities are currently planned for the project. An R&D program is in progress at FNAL, in collaboration with TJNAF and India, to develop the 650 MHz cavities for the proposed Linac design. This R&D program includes the design and fabrication of several beta = 0.61 and beta = 0.9 single-cell prototypes for evaluation prior to production of the five-cell cavities. FNAL has contracted AES to fabricate the beta = 0.9 prototypes, while TJNAF is building beta = 0.61 prototypes of their own design. In the remainder of this paper we will restrict our discussion to the five-cell beta = 0.9 cavities.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Barbanotti, S.; Grimm, C.; Champion, M.; Foley, M.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gonin, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

Description: Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the ...
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D & Dale, Virginia H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

Description: The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the ...
Date: June 30, 2011
Creator: Trehu, Anne & Kannberg, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Morphochronology to the Active Tectonics of Tibet

Description: The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were formed as a result of the collision of India and Asia, and provide an excellent opportunity to study the mechanical response of the continental lithosphere to tectonic stress. Geophysicists are divided in their views on the nature of this response advocating either (1) homogeneously distributed deformation with the lithosphere deforming as a fluid continuum or (2) deformation is highly localized with the lithosphere that deforms as a system of blocks. The resolution of this issue has broad implications for understanding the tectonic response of continental lithosphere in general. Homogeneous deformation is supported by relatively low decadal, geodetic slip-rate estimates for the Altyn Tagh and Karakorum Faults. Localized deformation is supported by high millennial, geomorphic slip-rates constrained by both cosmogenic and radiocarbon dating on these faults. Based upon the agreement of rates determined by radiocarbon and cosmogenic dating, the overall linearity of offset versus age correlations, and on the plateau-wide correlation of landscape evolution and climate history, the disparity between geomorphic and geodetic slip-rate determinations is unlikely to be due to the effects of surface erosion on the cosmogenic age determinations. Similarly, based upon the consistency of slip-rates over various observation intervals, secular variations in slip-rate appear to persist no longer than 2000 years and are unlikely to provide reconciliation. Conversely, geodetic and geomorphic slip-rate estimates on the Kunlun fault, which does not have significant splays or associated thrust faults, are in good agreement, indicating that there is no fundamental reason why these complementary geodetic and geomorphic methods should disagree. Similarly, the geodetic and geomorphic estimates of shortening rates across the northeastern edge of the plateau are in reasonable agreement, and the geomorphic rates on individual thrust faults demonstrate a significant eastward decrease in the shortening rate. This rate decrease is consistent with the ...
Date: January 28, 2005
Creator: Ryerson, F J; Tapponnier, P; Finkel, R C; Meriaux, A; der Woerd, J V; Lasserre, C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A brief survey on climate change effects on the Indian Monsoon

Description: Each year, Indian summer monsoon season begins in June and ends in September. Surface winds blow from the southwest during this season. The Indian summer monsoon typically covers large areas of India with western and central India receiving more than 90% of their total annual precipitation during this period, and southern and northwestern India receiving 50%-75% of their total annual rainfall. Overall, monthly totals average 200-300 mm over the country as a whole, with the largest values observed during the heart of the monsoon season in July and August. In all total, India receives about 870 mm of rainfall in a normal summer monsoon season. This summary discusses the effects of climate change on the frequency, mean rainfall, duration and the variability of the Indian Monsoon. East Asian Monsoon in the southeastern part of Asia is not discussed in this summary. Changes in monsoon characteristics are mainly inferred from climate model simulations submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). It should be cautioned that there is a large range in the results from these models. For instance, the range of mean monsoon precipitation as simulated by the AR4 models over India is from 500 mm to 900 mm for the present-day climate (Kirpalani et al. 2006).
Date: February 6, 2007
Creator: Bala, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

From AGS-SPS and Onwards to the LHC

Description: The author reviews the history of the efforts using heavy ion collisions to make new forms of matter. Both the development of the theoretical ideas about such new forms of matter, and as well the past, present and planned experimental efforts are discussed. The development of this activity in both India and China are highlighted.
Date: February 4, 2008
Creator: McLerran,L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market-Based Indian Grid Integration Study Options: Preprint

Description: The Indian state of Gujarat is forecasting solar and wind generation expansion from 16% to 32% of installed generation capacity by 2015. Some states in India are already experiencing heavy wind power curtailment. Understanding how to integrate variable generation (VG) into the grid is of great interest to local transmission companies and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This paper describes the nature of a market-based integration study and how this approach, while new to Indian grid operation and planning, is necessary to understand how to operate and expand the grid to best accommodate the expansion of VG. Second, it discusses options in defining a study's scope, such as data granularity, generation modeling, and geographic scope. The paper also explores how Gujarat's method of grid operation and current system reliability will affect how an integration study can be performed.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Stoltenberg, B.; Clark, K. & Negi, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

Description: This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Bushe, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

Description: This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P. & Anderson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

Description: This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Kandt, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demilitarization of the Siachen conflict zone : concepts for implementation and monitoring.

Description: Pakistani and Indian militaries have been occupying the Siachen Glacier and surrounding regions for decades. Although a cease-fire is in place, continued occupation carries the risk of an inadvertent conflict, which could escalate into a full-fledged nuclear-backed confrontation. Political and military analysts in Pakistan and India now question the strategic significance of the Siachen Glacier and agree that under the right circumstances, military withdrawal from the Siachen Glacier region would not adversely affect either state. The difficulty lies in conducting the withdrawal in such a way that neither side feels vulnerable, and in maintaining the demilitarization in a way that can be verified. In this paper, the authors who have both held command responsibilities in the Siachen Glacier region present a process for conducting and verifying the demilitarization of the Siachen Glacier region. The authors discuss the role of monitoring and verification tools and their relevance to this border zone of conflict.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Kanwal, Gurmeet (Indian Army); Hakeem, Asad (Pakistan Army); Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey & Rajen, Gaurav
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South Asian Summer Monsoon and Its Relationship with ENSO in the IPCC AR4 Simulations

Description: In this paper we use the extensive integrations produced for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) to examine the relationship between ENSO and the monsoon at interannual and decadal timescales. We begin with an analysis of the monsoon simulation in the 20th century integrations. Six of the 18 models were found to have a reasonably realistic representation of monsoon precipitation climatology. For each of these six models SST and anomalous precipitation evolution along the equatorial Pacific during El Nino events display considerable differences when compared to observations. Out of these six models only four (GFDL{_}CM{_}2.0, GFDL{_}CM{_}2.1, MRI, and MPI{_}ECHAM5) exhibit a robust ENSO-monsoon contemporaneous teleconnection, including the known inverse relationship between ENSO and rainfall variations over India. Lagged correlations between the all-India rainfall (AIR) index and Nino3.4 SST reveal that three models represent the timing of the teleconnection, including the spring predictability barrier which is manifested as the transition from positive to negative correlations prior to the monsoon onset. Furthermore, only one of these three models (GFDL{_}CM{_}2.1) captures the observed phase lag with the strongest anticorrelation of SST peaking 2-3 months after the summer monsoon, which is partially attributable to the intensity of simulated El Nino itself. We find that the models that best capture the ENSO-monsoon teleconnection are those that correctly simulate the timing and location of SST and diabatic heating anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, and the associated changes to the equatorial Walker Circulation during El Nino events. The strength of the AIR-Nino3.4 SST correlation in the model runs waxes and wanes to some degree on decadal timescales. The overall magnitude and timescale for this decadal modulation in most of the models is similar to that seen in observations. However, there is little consistency in the phase among the realizations, suggesting a lack of predictability of the decadal ...
Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Annamalai, H.; Hamilton, K. & Sperber, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

Description: The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.
Date: February 5, 2007
Creator: Joeck, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

Description: Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.
Date: July 7, 2006
Creator: Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree & Sathaye, Jayant A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

Description: Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected countries. The paper discusses the lessons to belearned from these partnerships, and ways by which the APP could fostercooperation between India and the other member countries. It highlightsthe types of technologies that Indian public sector and private industrycould access from US national laboratories and also be able to ...
Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina & Padmanabhan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

Description: Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.
Date: September 5, 2006
Creator: Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C & Suresh, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Two US-India documents were signed in 2000 that provided new impetus for scientific and technical cooperation between the two countries. The first document is the US-India Science and Technology Agreement, which is aimed at 'promoting scientific and technological cooperation between the people of their two countries.' The second is the US-India Joint Statement on Energy and Environment, which states 'the United States and India believe that energy and environment could be one of the most important areas of cooperation between the two countries.' In addition to the work already underway as part of these two agreements, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a US-India Science and Technology Initiative to utilize the expertise of DOE national laboratories to conduct activities that support US policy objectives in South Asia. PNNL and LANL are working with US government agencies to identify appropriate non-sensitive, non-nuclear areas for US-Indian technical collaboration. The objectives of such collaboration are to address visible national and international problems, build trust between the United States and India, and contribute to regional stability in South Asia. This paper describes the approach for this engagement, the Indian scientific organization and infrastructure, potential areas for collaboration, and current status of the initiative.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Killinger, M. H. (Mark H.); Griggs, J. R. (James R.); Apt, Kenneth E. & Doyle, J. E. (James E.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department