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Parent Training and Guided Imagery: Comparison of a Traditional and a Modified STEP Program

Description: The effectiveness of guided imagery as an enhancement to the Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) program was explored during a shortened 8-week program using three parent groups of elementary-age students matched for parent training experience and couple participation: a) an imagery-modified STEP group (STEP-Im, n = 14); b) a traditional STEP group (STEP, n = 14); and c) a drop-out comparison group (n = 10). Guided imagery consisted of centering exercise(s) for focus and concentration; structured imagery of Adlerian concepts; and open-ended role-assumption imagery for clarifying personal values, the perspectives of others, and concept practice.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Smith, Dianne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Absorption, Relaxation, and Imagery Instruction Effects on Thermal Imagery Experience and Finger Temperature

Description: A skill instruction technique based on cognitive behavioral principles was applied to thermal imagery to determine if it could enhance either subjective or physiological responsiveness. The effects of imagery instruction were compared with the effects of muscle relaxation on imagery vividness, thermal imagery involvement, and the finger temperature response. The subjects were 39 male and 29 female volunteers from a minimum security federal prison. The personality characteristic of absorption was used as a classification variable to control for individual differences. It was hypothesized that high absorption individuals would reveal higher levels of imagery vividness, involvement, and finger temperature change; that imagery skill instruction and muscle relaxation would be more effective than a control condition; and that the low absorption group would derive the greatest benefit from the imagery task instruction condition. None of the hypotheses was supported. Finger temperature increased over time during the experimental procedure but remained stable during thermal imagery. The results suggest that nonspecific relaxation effects may best account for finger temperature increases during thermal imagery. Results were discussed in relation to cognitive-behavioral theory and the characteristic of absorption.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Durrenberger, Robert Earl, 1951-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Imagery Technology: Effects on a Chronic Pain Population

Description: The effects of a computer program (Health Imagery Technology Systems, HITS) designed to promote attitude and cognitive changes through elicitation of evoked response potentials were evaluated with chronic pain patients. A treatment and control group were used for comparison (52 patients, 22 females, 32 males, mean ages 47). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised subtests, a Semantic Differential scale, the Health Attribution Test, an imagery protocol, the McCoy-Lawlis Pain Drawing, and the Zung Depression scale were used at admission and discharge to measure change. A pre- post-mood thermometer was used with the treatment group. The hypotheses that the treatment group would show significant changes on these measures were tested with a two group repeated measures analysis of variance design. No significant changes were noted for either group on the intellectual measures, on health attitudes, or reports of pain. The similarities subscale showed significant within group variance (F = 5.46, p < .023). One bipolar adjective pair indicated significant differences (F = 4.79, p < .035), possibly a result of chance. One of seven imagery measures suggested a significant improvement in strength of imagery for the treatment group (F = 18.2, p < .00008). Both groups showed significantly improved imagery of body defenses (F = 4.58, £ < .037) and significantly reduced depression scores (F = 15.93, p < .000021). A mood thermometer was measured for the treatment group alone and five situational mood changes were significant in predicted directions. Post hoc discriminant analysis showed significant differences only on one adjective pair (F = 9.75, p < .0029). No combination of variables added to the prediction of group membership. Overall, the effects of the HITS program did not seem strong enough to indicate its value as a treatment modality in chronic pain populations beyond current treatment. It did indicate some significant situational mood ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wright, Sharon G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

Description: This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Freeman, James D. (James David Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Temperature Biofeedback and Visual Imagery in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches

Description: After an initial four week baseline period, during which headache activity and medication consumption were monitored, 28 migraineurs were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (a) the biofeedback temperature warming group, (b) the visual imagery group, (c) the combined treatment group, or (d) the comparison group. All four groups continued to monitor their headache activity and medication consumption during the eight week treatment period and the eight week follow-up period. A two way analysis of variance computed on groups over time indicated a significant decrease in headache activity and medication consumption. During the follow-up period (a) the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headaches than the biofeedback group or the comparison group and (b) the visual imagery group and the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headache hours than the biofeedback group or the comparison group. These results do not appear to be attributable to differences between groups on the amount of time spent in home practice or subjective ratings of relaxation. There was no consistent relationship between increases in finger temperature and headache activity improvement. Decreases in powerful other scores, as measured by the Health Attribution Test, and increases in subjective ratings of internal control were consistent with a reduction in headache activity and medication consumption.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Clark, Susan Matthews
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre
Partner: UNT Libraries

Imagery/Mental Practice: A Cognitive Technique for Teaching Adaptive Movement to Postoperative Spinal Patients

Description: Postoperative spinal patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and were taught five adaptive movements by occupational therapists. The Control group received routine hospital occupational therapy; the Placebo group participated in an imagery relaxation task unrelated to the mental practice task of the Imagery group, which was shown line drawings of the adaptive movements under study, provided movement instructions, and asked to mentally practice each movement in a familiar, daily living situation. Thirty-five patients returned for follow-up, and a measure of outcome was obtained through the use of a quantified movement assessment instrument. Subjective ratings for anxiety, rumination, and imagery were made by the occupational therapists. An occupational motoric-symbolic rating scale was developed to assess the symbolic portion of the patient's job experience. Statistical procedures including chi square, analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation were performed. Results were in the predicted direction although statistical significance was not achieved. Possible explanations for the obtained results were discussed.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Ransom, Kay Johnson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Cell-Specific, Music-Mediated Mental Imagery on Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA)

Description: This study was an investigation of the effects of physiologically-oriented mental imagery on immune functioning. College students with normal medical histories were randomly selected to one of three groups. Subjects in Group 1 participated in short educational training on the production of secretory immunoglobulin A. They were then tested on salivary IgA, skin temperature and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after listening to a 17-minute tape of imagery instructions with specially-composed background "entrainment" music, designed to enhance imagery. Subjects in Group 2 (placebo controls) listened to the same music but received no formal training on the immune system. Group 3 acted as a control and subjects were tested before and after 17 minutes of no activity. Treatment groups listened to their tapes at home on a bi-daily basis for six weeks. All groups were again tested at Weeks 3 and 6. Secretory IgA was analyzed using standard radial immuno-diffusion techniques. Repeated measures analyses of variance with planned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the data. Significant overall increases (p < .05) were found between pre- and posttests for all three trials. Groups 1 and 2 combined (treatment groups) yielded significantly greater increases in slgA over Group 3 (control) for all three trials. Group 1 (imagery) was significantly higher than Group 2 (music) in antibody production for Trials 2 and 3. No group differences were noted in saliva volume or skin temperature, indicating that autonomic physiological mechanisms were not responsible for differences in antibody production. POMS changes more often favored Group 1. Symptomatology, recorded by subjects at weeks three and six, was significantly lower for three symptoms (rapid heartbeat, breathing difficulty, and jaw clenching), again favoring both treatment groups over the control group. Conclusions were that CNS-mediated immunoenhancement through mental imagery is possible.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Rider, Mark Sterling
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Relaxation and Imagery on Karate Performance

Description: The present investigation attempted to determine whether imagery combined with relaxation (VMBR) facmlitated karate performance more effectively than either imagery or relaxation alone. Each subject (N=30) was randomly assigned to either a VMBR, relaxation, imagery or placebo control condition. Trait anxiety tests were administered at the beginning and the end of the six week test period. Performance tests were administered at the final class period along with precompetitive state anxiety. Trait anxiety results indicated a reduction in trait anxiety for all groups. State anxiety results indicated that the VIYBR and relaxation groups exhibited less state anxiety than the imagery and control groups. Performance results produced a main effect only for sparring with the VMBR group exhibiting better performance than all other groups.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Seabourne, Thomas G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Music on Vividness of Movement Imagery

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on self reported vividness of movement imagery. Eighty-four undergraduate kinesiology majors (42 males; 42 females) were subjects. Based on identical perceptions of precategorized music (classical and jazz), selected subjects were randomly assigned to one of three music treatment conditions (sedative, stimulative, and control) and administered the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire. A 3 x 2 x 2 (Treatment x Gender x Perspective) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor was employed. The results revealed that the two music conditions significantly enhanced the vividness of internal and external imagery perspectives when compared to the no music condition, and that music facilitated the vividness of males and females equally.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Tham, Edgar Kok Kuan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Affordances of External Representations in Instructional Design: The Effect of Narrative and Imagery in Learning.

Description: Consisting of both theoretical and empirical inquires, this study examines the primary functions of narrative and the relationship between narrative and mental imagery. The study proposes a new framework to interpret semiotic resources. Combining this with the linguistic functional theory of Halliday (1978), a functional method to empirically investigate semiotic representations was also developed. In the empirical inquiry, the study developed a latent construct method to empirically test the effects of narrative in a real learning situation. This study is the first to investigate the functional relationship between narrative and mental imagery, and among the first to suggest a theory and empirically investigate representations of a multimodal nature. The study is also among the first to use latent constructs to investigate the learning experience in a real educational setting. Data were collected from 190 library professionals who enrolled in three sections (two in narrative and one in plain text) of an online course administered through Vista 4.0 and who completed the course and responded to several instruments. Essay data (n = 82 x 2) were analyzed using content analysis based on the narrative analysis framework developed. Quantitative data analysis methods include univariate data analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling that tests the proposed model and verifies the relationships between the latent variables. Overall, the findings support the hypotheses about the functional effects of narrative identified, and narrative is found to provide a favorable and positive learning context which is tested by the proposed model of learning experience measured by several latent constructs (X2 = 31.67, df = 47, p = .9577, RMSEA = .00, SRMR = .047, NNFI = 1.05, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = .94). The results indicate that participants who enrolled in the narrative sections of the course gained higher creative scores and showed better results ...
Date: December 2008
Creator: Wu, Yan
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Application of Guided Mental Imagery as an Instructional Strategy

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to compare regular classroom instruction which used Guided Mental Imagery (GMI) to a non-GMI teaching method. This comparison was expected to yield data which would provide insights relating to the potential of GMI as a useful and effective instructional strategy. Quasi-experimental research methods were followed. The experimental design was a modified "post-test only control group design." Two-hundred-four students in naturally occurring in tact classes formed the experimental and control groups. All groups received instruction in identical science/health content. Two parallel post-tests were administered to all students. Post-test "A" was given immediately after instruction to measure learning acquisition. Post-test "B" was given four weeks later to measure retention of learning. Means for test scores were grouped according to treatment and sub-grouped by the variables: IQ, handedness, identified learning disability, and intellectual giftedness. T_ tests for differences between independent means were conducted. Students' acquisition of basic academic content, when instructed with GMI methodology, was found to differ significantly from students' acquisition of the same content with non-GMI instruction. No statistically significant differences based on instructional methodology were found for content retention. The investigator concluded that GMI instruction may increase learning. Although measures of retention did not show significant differences between groups, a review of the mean scores revealed a minimal difference. This was interpreted to indicate equality of retention between the two methods. Recommendations for further investigation were offered. Post-testing of subjects at additional intervals, and increased training of students and teachers in GMI prior to collection of data were suggested.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Burns, Frances D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mental Imagery: The Road to Construct Validity

Description: Internal consistency reliability and validity were established for a new 31 item Imagery Manipulation Scale. Previous attempts to correlate subjectively rated control of visual imagery with tests of spatial ability have been unsuccessful. However, no attempt to construct a subjectively rated control of imagery scale was located which tried to establish internal consistency reliability and both content and construct validity. Further, no research was located in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery ability utilized during the performance of the actual spatial tasks used to try to establish validity. A new scale of subjectively rated control of imagery was devised in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery while solving spatial tasks which involved visualizing the manipulation of geometric forms. Content validity was established by analyzing the transformation involved while solving the spatial problems. Internal consistency reliability for the 31 item scale was established across two samples. Validity was established with the second sample (100 university students: 26 male and 74 female). The task utilized to provide validity could be objectively scored, and was made up of four spatial subtests, which were adapted from the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test, the Kosslyn Directions Test, performed in both the forward and backward direction, and a block task utilized by Snyder. A convergent and discriminant validity analysis established construct validity. Further, the hypotheses of three investigators, Kosslyn, Shepard and his colleagues, and Snyder, were supported by the results of the present investigation, thus substantiating the conclusion that reported control of imagery processing can be operationalized with performance scores on spatial ability tasks.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Penk, Mildred Lotus
Partner: UNT Libraries