Search Results

[Military man looking out the helicopter window]

Description: Photograph of an unidentified man looking out the window of a helicopter. The man is wearing a pilot's helmet and there is a dual propeller, Chinook, helicopter in the air outside of the window.
Date: 19uu
Creator: Clark, Joe & Clark, Joseph Wade Junebug
Item Type: Photograph
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

Description: Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and ...
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: McKay, Mark D. & Anderson, Matthew O.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

Description: Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly ...
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Versteeg, Roelof; Anderson, Matt; Beard, Les; Corban, Eric; Curley, Darryl; Gamey, Jeff et al.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

Description: In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Hammack, R.W.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helicopter Surveys for Locating Wells and Leaking Oilfield Infrastructure

Description: Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A. & Hodges, G. (Fugro Airborne Surveys)
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

Description: Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Hammack, R.W. & Veloski, G.A.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

Description: Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive ...
Date: December 28, 2006
Creator: Geosciences Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA & Hammack, R. W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

Description: Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary ...
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Versteeg, Roelof; McKay, Mark; Anderson, Matt; Johnson, Ross; Selfridge, Bob & Bennett, Jay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerial Neutron Detection of Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Earth's Surface

Description: We have demonstrated the ability to measure the neutron flux produced by the cosmic-ray interaction with nuclei in the ground surface using aerial neutron detection. High energy cosmic-rays (primarily muons with GeV energies) interact with the nuclei in the ground surface and produce energetic neutrons via spallation. At the air-surface interface, the neutrons produced by spallation will either scatter within the surface material, become thermalized and reabsorbed, or be emitted into the air. The mean free path of energetic neutrons in air can be hundreds of feet as opposed to a few feet in dense materials. As such, the flux of neutrons escaping into the air provides a measure of the surface nuclei composition. It has been demonstrated that this effect can be measured at long range using neutron detectors on low flying helicopters. Radiological survey measurements conducted at Government Wash in Las Vegas, Nevada, have shown that the neutron background from the cosmic-soil interactions is repeatable and directly correlated to the geological data. Government Wash has a very unique geology, spanning a wide variety of nuclide mixtures and formations. The results of the preliminary measurements are presented.
Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Maurer, Richard
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

Description: An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.
Date: August 1, 1995
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VH-71 Presidential Helicopter Program

Description: This report discusses VH-71 presidential helicopter, which has experienced noteworthy cost increases and schedule delays, which have generated controversy and scrutiny. The VH-71 is intended to replace the President's current operational fleet of helicopters, consisting of 11 VH-3D Sea Kings and 8 VH-60N Night Hawks.
Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

Description: The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Won, I.J. & Taylor, D.W.A.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

Description: Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Won, I.L. & Keiswetter, D.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--March 1995

Description: The objectives of the project are to construct a geophysical sensor system based on a remotely operated model helicopter (ROH) and to evaluate the efficacy of the system for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is a geophysical survey system that uses a ROH as the survey vehicle. We have selected the ROH because of its advantages over fixed wing and ground based vehicles. Lower air speed and superior maneuverability of the ROH make it better suited for geophysical surveys than a fixed wing model aircraft. The ROH can fly close to the ground, allowing detection of weak or subtle anomalies. Unlike ground based vehicles, the ROH can traverse difficult terrain while providing a stable sensor platform. ROH does not touch the ground during the course of a survey and is capable of functioning over water and surf zones. The ROH has been successfully used in the motion picture industry and by geology companies for payload bearing applications. The only constraint to use of the airborne system is that the ROH must remain visible to the pilot. Obstructed areas within a site can be characterized by relocating the base station to alternate positions. GAUSS consists of a ROH with radio controller, a data acquisition and processing (DAP) system, and lightweight digital sensor systems. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a DAP and sensors suitable for ROH operation. We have constructed these subsystems and integrated them to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system, referred to as the ``pre-prototype``. We have performed test surveys with the pre-prototype to determine the functionality of the and DAP and sensor subsystems and their suitability for airborne application. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to modify the existing subsystems and integrate them into ...
Date: March 1, 1995
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM experiments for computational model validation for AH-1S Cobra Helicopter

Description: The effort described here describes a set of outdoor experiments performed on the AH-1S Cobra helicopter in order to validate and compare to the computational electromagnetic models of the bulk structure of the airframe in the frequency bands up to 4 GHz. Also included in this were coupling measurements to wires and cables inside of the airframe and various cavity to HPM pulse in this frequency range as part of other activities. Additionally, the low power modeling compression will be completed in this time frame.
Date: April 6, 1997
Creator: Nelson, S.D.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Air Attenuation Effects on Gamma Detection at Altitude

Description: This paper focuses on modeling the detection capabilities of NaI sensor systems at high altitudes for ground sources. The modeling was done with the Monte Carlo N-Transport (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The specific systems modeled were the fixed wing and helicopter aircraft sensor systems, assets of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Aerial Measuring System (AMS). In previous (2001) modeling, Sodium Iodine (NaI) detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and altitude. For point sources, photo-peak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. To validate the calculations, benchmark measurements were made for simple source-detector configurations. The 2002 continuation of the modeling presented here includes checking models against available data, and modifications to allow more effective and accurate directional biasing of ground point and distributed sources. Fixed-wing data results will be shown for two point sources as a function of altitude.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Detwiler, R. S.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geometric Correction System Capabilities, Processing, and Application

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory developed the geometric correction system (GCS) as a state-of-the-art solution for removing distortions from multispectral line scanner data caused by aircraft motion. The system operates on Daedalus AADS-1268 scanner data acquired from fixed-wing and helicopter platforms. The aircraft attitude, altitude, acceleration, and location are recorded and applied to the data, thereby determining the location of the earth with respect to a given datum and projection. The GCS has yielded a positional accuracy of 0.5 meters when used with a 1-meter digital elevation model. Data at this level of accuracy are invaluable in making precise areal estimates and as input into a geographic information system. The combination of high-spatial resolution and accurate geo-rectification makes the GCS a unique tool in identifying and locating environmental conditions, finding targets of interest, and detecting changes as they occur over time.
Date: June 30, 1999
Creator: Brewster, S. B.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helicopter Crash Frequency

Description: The risk from helicopter crashes into K-Reactor structures and systems is found to be a negligible contributor to risk.
Date: March 1990
Creator: Brandyberry, M. D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

Description: This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of activity in August of 2000.
Date: May 9, 2002
Creator: Efroymson, R.A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM field and instrumentation diagnostics in support of the LFT&E HPM methodology testing

Description: The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, under the direction of the DOD LFT&E Office performed a series of HPM tests for the purpose of exercising the HPM methodology for LFT&E applications. An AH-1S Cobra helicopter was used as the canonical test bed. The Air Force Research Lab (formally Phillips Lab) provided the wide-band source and the Army Research Lab provided the narrow-band used in the tests. LLNL provided the EM diagnostics used at the site for both test series. Our mission was to measure the radiated field from the sources, measure the fields inside the helicopter and the coupling onto various signal lines inside the helicopter, and to monitor the various system signal levels for �bird health� purposes. These experiments were performed during June of 1997 and consisted of exposing the test bed to a series of narrow-band and wide-band pulses from HPM sources. This report covers the measured radiated fields, the fields inside the helicopter, and the coupled signal levels. The radiated fields were measured over a region which spans the physical body of the helicopter. The fields inside the helicopter and the coupled fields were measured using a series of probes inside the helicopter and connected to the outside measurement system using fiber-optic cables. The helicopter effects data are presented in the main China Lake report.
Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Anderson, R. A. & Nelson, S. D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department