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The Preliminary Development of a Sentence Completion Inventory to Assess Psychologically Unhealthy Religious Beliefs

Description: To assess psychologically unhealthy Protestant beliefs a Religious Sentence Completion Inventory (RSCI), and scoring Manual, were developed from a pilot study. In the main study 103 undergraduate students were subjects. Interscorer reliability for the RSCI was .83. Results revealed significant positive correlations between the RSCI, and maladjustment validity criteria: a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) total weighted score; and MPI clinical scales 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8; but not validity scale F; for females. Only MMPI scale 6 correlated with the RSCI for males. These data appear to partially support the proposition that whether Protestant beliefs hinder or do not hinder mental health depends upon the particular kind of beliefs a Protestant holds.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Gardiner, Joseph R. (Joseph Rowe)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Elimination of Subvocalization with Electromyographic Feedback on Reading Speed and Comprehension

Description: The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of audio feedback from an electromyograph on reading speed and comprehension. The subject reduced as much audio feedback, and thus laryngeal tension, as possible, thus permitting more efficient reading. After baseline, the subject received twelve half-hour practice sessions, six ten-minute testing sessions on easy, or light, material and six ten-minute testing sessions on difficult material. A post-test without feedback was given after training and a follow-up test, without feedback, was given. This method of training permits a higher rate of reading speed, while allowing the subject to process complex information and maintain a constant level of recall.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Ninness, H. A. Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factor Analysis of the Clinical Scales on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, Form II

Description: The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) was published in 1980 as an attempt to provide clinicians with a standardized version of the neuropsychological assessment and diagnostic procedures proposed by A. R. Luria and A, L. Christensen. Research on the LNNB included a series of factor analyses for each of eleven clinical scales. The analyses were completed on the combined scores obtained from a sample of normal, brain-damaged, and psychiatric populations. A second version of the LNNB was published in 1985 as a largely parallel version of Form I, but included changes in stimulus materials, administration procedures, and scoring procedures. The present study completed factor analyses on same eleven clinical scales using data generated with the newer LNNB Form II. The statistical procedures and criteria employed in the present investigation were identical to those used earlier on Form I to allow for comparisons between the two resulting sets of factor structures. The patient populations were different, however, in that all subjects in the current study were receiving inpatient care in a private psychiatric hospital which specializes in long-term treatment. Despite the changes in materials and procedures and the difference in subject parameters, the factors identified in the present investigation are similar to those seen in the Form I studies. However, two trends were observed when comparing the two sets of factor structures. First, in the present study several items were excluded from the statistical procedures because they were performed perfectly by almost everyone and the resulting scores lacked statistical variance. Second, more homogenous factors were obtained with the Form II analysis. That is, some of the complex LNNB Form I factors were reduced to two or more simpler factors. The results of the study lend support to Luna's conceptual model of higher cortical function and to the reliability of the LNNB as ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Von Seggern, Heather Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

One Session of Flooding as Treatment for Conditioned Avoidance Responding in Humans: the Effect of Individualization of Treatment Duration

Description: An avoidance response was conditioned to three stimuli presented in serial order. Following conditioning, each group of subjects received a different treatment procedure. The group I procedure involved distributed CS trials, contingent, non-anxious CS terminations, and individualized treatment durations. Group 2 subjects received massed CS trials, non-contingent CS terminations, and non-individualized treatment durations. Group 3 subjects experienced distributed CS trials, contingent non-anxious CS terminations, and non-individualized treatment durations. Individual izing treatment duration (termination contingent upon operational ized measure of anxiety dissipation) was found to significantly hasten the extinction of avoidance responses. Implications for the effective practice of implosive therapy were discussed. Yoked control methods were criticized for confounding the variable of individualization of the yoked variable.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Holder, Bobby D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Some Characteristics and Attitudes of Self-Described Future Mothers versus Non-Mothers

Description: This study compared women with a highly positive interest in becoming mothers with women having little interest in having children,with respect to biographical data, childrearing attitudes, and personality characteristics. One hundred twenty-one undergraduate college women were administered a biographical questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the Adjective Check List, and an attitude index designed to assess level of interest in having children. A statistical analysis revealed the remarkable similarity of the two groups of women, as the groups differed significantly in only two areas. Women with little interest in having children scored higher on the subscale Ascendancy of the Mother, and the women also differed in their view of the ideal situation for an adult woman.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Cofer, Jeanne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness, Locus of Control, and Academic Achievement

Description: To determine the relationship among learned helplessness, locus of control, and academic achievement, data from 86 sixth graders were gathered and intercorrelated. Contingency of teacher-administered rewards and punishments as perceived by school children, and helpless behavior of students as judged by their teachers were measured. The Children's Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was used to measure locus of control orientation. A positive relationship between academic achievement and locus of control was found. The contingency of reward scale was found to be predictive of academic achievement and helpless behavior. Virtually no significant relationships were found between any of the other variables and the contingency of punishment scale. Helpless behavior was found to be predictive of low academic success and an external locus of control.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Mount, Suzanne Amidon
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Effects of Deep Muscle Relaxation and the Tranquilizing Agent Chlordiazepoxide on Hospitalized Alcoholics

Description: The purpose of this research study was to compare the treatment effects of relaxation therapy and the tranquilizing agent Chlordiazepoxide (Librium). The subjects were 37 hospitalized alcoholics who had been identified as anxious. Elevations of scales two and seven of the MMPI was used as a criterion of anxiety. Thirteen subjects were given Librium, 12 were given a placebo, 12 were given nine sessions of relaxation therapy. Although the results did not indicate significant differences among the three groups, the relaxation group showed the least amount of anxiety at post-testing. It was concluded that relaxation therapy was equal to drug therapy in effectiveness and thus more desirable due to the lack of undesirable side effects. Suggestions for further research were given.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Miller, Jimmie Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Amount of Postshift Training on Resistance to Extinction

Description: The investigation sought to examine resistance to extinction (Rn) as a function of previous experience with downward shifts in reward magnitude. It was suggested that previous research conducted within the framework of the Spence-Amsel frustration hypothesis and the sequential hypothesis failed to administer sufficient postshift trials to adequately establish the relationships that may exist. Under one condition, four groups of rats received twenty extinction trials following forty postshift trials. Under another condition, four groups were extinguished following eighty postshift trials. An inverse magnitude of reward effect occurred in the preshift phases, however, which prevented an adequate analysis of either the shift or the Rn data, This unexpected effect was discussed within the framework of Black's incentive-motivation interpretation of reinforcement.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Wheeler, Royce Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chemical Aversion Therapy for Morphine Addiction

Description: These studies led the experimenter to investigate the use of chemical aversion therapy using anectine as the aversive stimulus with a morphine addict. The success of Thomason and Rathod with heroin addicts suggested that their experimental method would be useful as a reference while designing this study. The treatment hypothesis was that the patient's use of intravenous narcotic drugs would be eliminated through the application of chemical aversion therapy. Chemical aversion therapy was operantly defined as the injection intravenously of anectine into the patient concurrent with his self-injection of his narcotic of choice.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differential Scores of Feminists and Traditional Women on the Ego Strength (ES) Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Description: Since women in the Women's Rights Movement (Feminists) tend to be educated, career- or goal-oriented, and typically middle-class it was anticipated that these aspects would be reflected in an elevation on the ego strength (Es) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). This anticipated elevation was felt to be functionally related not only to career- or goal-oriented behavior and intelligence, but to active participation on an autonomous basis in the Women's Rights Movement as well. Because of the different activities of various Feminist organization, i.e., women's studies programs, consciousness raising, investigations of inequities to women, confrontations with establishment hierarchies, and participation in career and other self-fulfilling activities, it was hypothesized that women who are active Feminists would score significantly higher on the Es scale than a similar group of active women who are not Feminists.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Logan, Ann Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learning Rates Between Introverts and Extroverts in EMG Biofeedback Training

Description: In order to test Eysenck's hypothesis that introverts would condition faster than extroverts, twenty undergraduates were given muscle tensing and muscle relaxing trials using a feedback myograph to obtain electrical activity levels of the frontalis muscle. The subjects were divided into two groups of ten each. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was used to select ten students classified as introverts and ten classified as extroverts. .Both groups were given forty thirty-second trials to learn muscle relaxing and tensing. Analysis of covariance indicated a significant within trials effect for both the relaxation and tensing trials. No significant differences were found, however, between the introverts and the extroverts in either the muscle relaxing or muscle tensing training.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Root, William Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect on Group IQ Test Performance of Modification of Verbal Repertoires Related to Motivation, Anxiety, and Test-Wiseness

Description: To investigate the efficacy of a cognitive approach applied to problems of motivation, anxiety, and test-wiseness in a group test situation, programmed texts were used to Condition a repertoire of verbal responses relevant to each of these problems. Five sixth grade classes composed of 118 Students total were administered Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Tests in a pretest-posttest design. For the five groups, ANCOVA demonstrated a significant effect on raw scores, but not on IQ. Significant IQ and raw score gains were found for the combination group over the control group. Due to treatment lower IQ level students of the combination group made greater raw score gains than upper IQ level students.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Petty, Nancy E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of a Free-Time Contingency on Peer Acceptance and Rate of Speed in Working Arithmetic Problems

Description: The primary concern in today's educational system is the rate of progress students achieve in the classroom. Research has shown token reinforcement programs to be an effective method of increasing rate of work in the classroom; however, token economies are time consuming and do not meet the needs of all classroom situations. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the use of free time as a reinforcer in increasing rate of speed in working arithmetic problems and peer acceptance (how well an individual is accepted by his peers). The data indicated that free time as a positive reinforcer did increase the rate of speed in working arithmetic problems correctly; however, it did not affect peer acceptance.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Rendón, Rubén
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Incentive and Frustrative Cues on the Acquisition of an Alleyway Running Response in Rats

Description: The motivational properties of Longstreth's (1970) definitions of incentive and frustrative cues were tested using 32 rats in a two phase straight alleyway experiment. During pretraining, incentive cue Ss were presented a visual cue prior to reinforcement; frustrative cue Ss experienced the visual cue simultaneously with reinforcement. Ss encountered the same cue in mid-alley during 40 CRF training trials. Significant inhibition developed as frustrative cue Ss passed through the cue and postcue segments. Significant incentive effects occurred midway through training only in the postcue segment. Differential resistance to extinction was not found. The results did not support all of Longstreth's assumed functions. The motivational effects were interpreted using Spence's and Amsel's instrumental learning paradigms.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Morey, John Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Elimination of Cigarette Smoking, Employing a New Aversive Conditioning Procedure

Description: The study was designed to find a response on the behavioral level that would be an effective index across subjects for determining when conditioned aversive suppression of a response had been achieved. Ten male volunteers received shock during trials in which they had to smoke. Half of the subjects received a brief but more intense shock when they stopped smoking during a trial. A comparison of these subjects to the others showed their average amount of smoking suppression in pre- and post-treatment rates to be significantly (P < .025) greater. In addition, these subjects showed conditioned emotional responding. It was concluded that this behavioral level response was an effective index for determining when suppression of smoking would occur.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Himes, Jerome A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Behavioral-Technological Approach to Increasing Attention-to-Task Behavior in "Hyperactive" Children

Description: The present study sought to alleviate the response cost inefficiency of the behavioral approach to controlling classroom hyperactivity by increasing the observer-student ratio via behavioral-electronic technology. A portable, integrated-circuit, counting and timing device was developed to enable immediate time-sequenced data recording and reinforcing of eight target behaviors by a single observer. A multiple-baseline design, across matched individuals was utilized to demonstrate the reinforcing effects. The results indicated a significant increase over mean baseline frequency in attention-to-task behavior for the group of eight students. It was concluded that by utilizing the behavioral-technological intervention strategy applied in this study, one observer could accurately monitor and reinforce eight students simultaneously and subsequently increase task attentiveness.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Stevens, Larry Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Extraversion-Introversion and the Sexual Behavior of College Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between extraversion-introversion and the sexual behavior of college students. Five predictions were proposed based on previous research which indicated the possibility of a relationship of the personality types of extraversion and introversion with some aspects of sexual behavior.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Orgeron, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Deep Muscle Relaxation Obtained with Analog Electromyographic Information Feedback

Description: The purpose of the research study was to provide improved relaxation training with the use of an electromyography feedback device based on the design of Green et al. (1969). It was intended that this instrument would allow the training of deep muscle relaxation to the point of neuro-muscular silence, while remaining inexpensive enough to be applied in the clinical setting.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Bates, Charles Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Transcendental Meditation on Anxiety

Description: This study was concerned with the degree to which the practice of transcendental meditation (TM) aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), short form, was given to 16 Ss about to learn the technique of TM and to 16 control Ss. Eighteen weeks later, the TMAS was again administered to both groups. A significant difference was found in TMAS score reduction between the two groups, with the meditation group showing the greater reduction. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that TM aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. It is recommended that further research in this area be undertaken to further validate the results of this study.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Floyd, William T., III
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale Among Cardiac Patients

Description: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was originally designed as a measure for screening depression among elderly medical patients. Although this instrument is well validated among a general medical population, it has never been evaluated with specific regard to cardiac patients, the largest single group of medical patients over 40 years of age. A general cardiac sample of 655 patients completed the GDS within 10 weeks of the cardiac event. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on the main sample, then on several subgroups of participants with regard to diagnostic category, gender, and age. The GDS generally produces factor structures with several symptom domains with a high rate of total variance. The myocardial infarction group endorsed general symptoms of depression whereas the coronary artery bypass graft group reported greater levels of despair regarding their condition. Overall, males primarily reported agitation and hopelessness while females reported symptoms of depressed mood.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Hupp, Gregory S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Patterns of Relationship Violence among Low Income Women and Severely Psychologically Abused Women

Description: Little research has addressed the degree to which domestic violence is mutual and whether patterns are stable across women's relationships. Studies that exist have conflicting results. This study addressed these issues and the effects of sustaining past violence on women's expressions of violence in their current relationship. Archival data from a sample of severely psychologically abused community women (N = 92) and a sample of low-income community women (N = 836) were analyzed. Results showed the presence of mutual violence in women's current relationships which was not related to past partners' violence. Results regarding the stability of violence are weak, but indicate that the frequency and severity of violence across relationships sustained by women does not decrease across relationships. Overall, results supported the hypothesis that violence is mutual in the relationships of community women, although specific patterns may differ by ethnicity.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Weston, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries