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Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Expenditures

Description: This report reviews the legislative history of the Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) and legal challenges to it, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative funding mechanisms, and describes the commercial context of current dredging activity.
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding

Description: This report discusses the harbor maintenance trust fund (HMTF), which receives revenue from taxes on waterborne cargo and on cruise ship passengers. The future of the HMTF is a major issue in consideration of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA), which is now pending in Congress.
Date: September 11, 2013
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Expenditures

Description: In 1986, the Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) was enacted to fund U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE or the Corps) activities related to the routine operation and maintenance (O&M) of harbors, namely the dredging of harbor channels to their authorized depths and widths. Economic and equity issues related to HMT expenditures and collections are the main focus of this report. Before analyzing these issues, the report reviews the legislative history of the tax and legal challenges to it, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative funding mechanisms, and describes the commercial context of current dredging activity. The last section identifies legislation related to harbor maintenance funding.
Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA): Overview of Workers' Compensation for Certain Private- Sector Maritime Workers

Description: This report discusses the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA), a federal workers' compensation program that covers certain private-sector maritime workers. More than $980 million in LHWCA benefits are paid each year. The LHWCA is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) and all benefit costs are paid by employers and their insurance carriers.
Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Szymendera, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

View discovery in OLAP databases through statistical combinatorial optimization

Description: OnLine Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a relational database technology providing users with rapid access to summary, aggregated views of a single large database, and is widely recognized for knowledge representation and discovery in high-dimensional relational databases. OLAP technologies provide intuitive and graphical access to the massively complex set of possible summary views available in large relational (SQL) structured data repositories. The capability of OLAP database software systems to handle data complexity comes at a high price for analysts, presenting them a combinatorially vast space of views of a relational database. We respond to the need to deploy technologies sufficient to allow users to guide themselves to areas of local structure by casting the space of 'views' of an OLAP database as a combinatorial object of all projections and subsets, and 'view discovery' as an search process over that lattice. We equip the view lattice with statistical information theoretical measures sufficient to support a combinatorial optimization process. We outline 'hop-chaining' as a particular view discovery algorithm over this object, wherein users are guided across a permutation of the dimensions by searching for successive two-dimensional views, pushing seen dimensions into an increasingly large background filter in a 'spiraling' search process. We illustrate this work in the context of data cubes recording summary statistics for radiation portal monitors at US ports.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Hengartner, Nick W; Burke, John; Critchlow, Terence; Joslyn, Cliff & Hogan, Emilie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment Neutronics Analysis using the ATTILA Discrete Ordinates Code

Description: Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of the ECH heating system were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture (ECH). The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA® and SEVERIAN® (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER “Brand Model” MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and ECH cases. The ECH or Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 μSv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 μSv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 μSv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture or ECH style ...
Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Yousef, Russell Feder and Mahmoud Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.
Date: July 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.
Date: June 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).
Date: May 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This work focuses on the investigation of the distribution of contaminants in individual sediment particles from the New York/New Jersey Harbor. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the contaminants within the particles is needed to enable (1) more sophisticated approaches to the understanding of the fate and transport of the contaminants in the environment and (2) more refined methods for cleaning the sediments. The size of the investigated particles ranges from 30-80 microns. Due to the low concentration of the elements of interest and the microscopic size of the environmental particles in these measurements, the small size and high intensity of the analyzing X-ray beam was critical. The high photon flux at the ESRF Microfocus beam line (ID13) was used as the basis for fluorescence tomography to investigate whether the inorganic compounds are taken upon the surface organic coating or whether they are distributed through the volume of the grains being analyzed. The experiments were done using a 13 keV monochromatic beam of approximately 2 {micro}m in size having an intensity of 10{sup 10} ph/s, allowing absolute detection limits on the 0.04-1 fg level for Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.
Date: July 29, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Effective operation of the multi-state Port ofNew York/New Jersey (Port), which contributes $20 billion to the regional economy and generates nearly 250,000 jobs, is dependent on yearly navigational dredging of several million m{sup 3} of sediment for channel maintenance and deepening. Further dredging is required for remediation of environmentally sensitive areas. However, more stringent ocean placement testing regulations in the Port region have necessitated a search for other means of handling the most contaminated dredged materials. Here, we describe a dredged material decontamination program for the Port aimed at the creation of sediment decontamination facilities that produce a beneficial use product to obviate the need for ocean placement. These facilities, to be a viable component of an overall dredged material management plan, must be environmentally balanced and economically feasible with the predictable ability to process large volumes of dredged materials with rapid turn-around. Our program recognizes that the responsible management of contaminated dredged materials is a complex problem that requires the effective application and coordination of a variety of cross-cutting skills to make decontamination facilities a reality. Participants do not come from a single agency, but are ad hoc teams of scientists, engineers, regulators, port authorities and operators, technology development firms, federal/state/local governments, business interests and community groups, among others, who are brought together by the need to solve the complex problem of managing dredged material in the Port region.
Date: May 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and ...
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: COOK,Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

Description: There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.
Date: December 31, 1971
Creator: Zodtner, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long range plan - Plowshare excavation program (Book 1 - 1966/1967 excavation program binder)

Description: The purpose of this report is to present a proposed five-year program for the Plowshare Excavation Program. In preparing this study we proceed as follows: (a) Review the significant advances (since 1963) in nuclear excavation technology, and (b) identify the key uncertainties in that technology. After completing these two steps, we then proceed to identify key experiments and any new measurements that may be required to increase our predictive capability and/or to resolve the major uncertainties. It is probably clear that if one proceeds in this fashion one may not necessarily arrive at the existing long range excavation program (e.g., the definitions of experiments beyond Cabriolet and Buggy). In fact, one might expect to derive a significantly different long range plan.
Date: September 7, 1967
Creator: Knox, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass composition development for stabilization of New York Harbor sediment

Description: Sediment from the New York Harbor must be periodically dredged in order to maintain adequate water depths for navigation. In the past, disposal of the sediment in the ocean was routine. Recently, the sediment was found to contain organics and heavy metals which may prevent direct ocean disposal. Methods are currently being evaluated for decontamination and disposal of the sediment. Vitrification is a technology being investigated. As part of this effort the appropriate glass formulations for stabilization of the sediment were developed. Crucible melting tests were used to identify and `optimized` glass composition for stabilization of the harbor sediment. Criteria to assess the suitability of the glass compositions included: waste loading, homogeneity, raw material cost and melt viscosity.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Marra, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

Description: Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

Description: Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Sebo, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and real-time optimal scheduling: a framework for integration

Description: Traditional scheduling and simulation models of the same system differ in several fundamental respects. These include the definition of a schedule, the existence of an objective function which orders schedules and indicates the performance of a given schedule according to specific criteria, and the level of fidelity at which the items are represented and processed through he system. This paper presents a conceptual, object-oriented, architecture for combining a traditional, high-level, scheduling system with a detailed, process- level, discrete-event simulation. A multi-echelon planning framework is established in the context of modeling end-to-end military deployments with the focus on detailed seaport operations.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Macal, C.M.; Nevins, M.R.; Williams, M.K. & Joines, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

Description: This Functional Description for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) documents the purpose of and requirements for the ICDB in order to ensure a mutual understanding between the development group and the user group of the system. This Functional Description defines ICDB and provides a clear statement of the initial operational capability to be developed.
Date: December 15, 1995
Creator: Truett, L.F.; Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, W.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PORTSIM: An object-oriented port simulation

Description: The development of an object-oriented port simulation (PORTSIM) that addresses military mobility issues will be described, with a brief description of the tool selection process. This system provides users with (1) a graphical user interface, (2) the ability to simulate military units through a specified port, with each individual cargo item (i.e. piece of equipment) represented, (3) utilization statistics for all port resources e.g. gates, staging areas, berths, inspectors, and material handling equipments, (4) utilization statistics for ships that arrive at the port, and (5) a graphical dynamic animation that allows for identification of bottlenecks and facilitates the playing of what-if scenarios to maximize throughput. Cargo is simulated from the time it arrives at a gate or end ramp to the time it is loaded onto a ship. Animation is directly integrated with the simulation to allow for modifications to the scenario while the simulation is running and to have the new parameters used from that point forward in time. The simulation is flexible and allows for multiple cargo types (breakbulk, container, and roll-on/roll-off) and multiple ship types.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Nevins, M.R.; Macal, C.M. & Joines, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

Description: The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Godfrey, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department