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Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Hansen, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional Plan FY 2003 - 2007

Description: The Fiscal Year (FY) 2003-2007 Institutional Plan describes the strategic directions and key issues that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory management must address with the Department of Energy (DOE) in charting its future as a multiprogram national laboratory. The Plan provides an overview of the Laboratory's mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Plan facilitates the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to strengthen the Integrated Laboratory System. Preparation and review of the Institutional Plan is one element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, implemented through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the President's Management Agenda and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The Plan complements the current performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California, and summarizes Best Management Practices for a potential future results-based contract as a basis for achieving DOE goals and the Laboratory's scientific and operations objectives. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Planning and Strategic Development Office from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions and DOE comments on prior years' plans. The Laboratory Mission section identifies the specific strengths of Berkeley Lab that contribute to the mission in general and the Integrated Laboratory System in particular. The Laboratory Strategic Plan section identifies the existing activities in support of DOE Office of Science and other sponsors; support for DOE goals; and the Laboratory Scientific Vision and operations goals. The Initiatives section describes some of the specific new research programs representing major long-term opportunities for the ...
Date: January 27, 2003
Creator: Chartock, Michael & Hansen, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

Description: The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Hansen, Francis D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

rSUGRA: Putting Nonuniversal Gaugino Masses on the (W)MAP

Description: In this talk, we investigate the relic density and direct detection prospects of rSUGRA, a simple paradigm for supersymmetry breaking that allows for nonuniversal gaugino masses. We present updated plots reflecting the latest cosmological measurements from WMAP.
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Two Wire Chamber Track Reconstruction Algorithms Used in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

Description: The Hall A collaboration at Jefferson Lab is currently in the process of redesigning and rewriting its physics analysis software in C++, using the ROOT libraries developed at CERN, to replace the Fortran-based ESPACE analyzer. In this paper, we carry out a detailed comparison of the wire chamber tracking results of both software packages. To this end, reconstruction of target quantities from detected tracks through the Vertical Drift Chambers (VDCs) in both spectrometer arms has been recently added to the C++ analyzer, to bring it to the same level as ESPACE. A study of the differences in the outputs of both analysis programs shows that while the output of the C++ analyzer is suitable for calibrations and studies that do not require high resolution, there are still many subtle differences that need to be resolved before it is ready for a productionquality release. The problems are most likely due to different cluster matching and track fitting algorithms used by both programs for tracks through the VDCs, as well as certain corrections missing from the C++ code. These problems and some possible solutions are discussed.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Dobbs, S. & Hansen, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scalar Dark Matter From Theory Space

Description: The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass {Omicron}(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than {Omicron}(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle).
Date: December 26, 2003
Creator: Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas & Wacker, Jay G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

Description: In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency ...
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Perry, Russlee; Farley, M. & Hansen, Gabriel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phenomenological aspects of heterotic orbifold models at one loop

Description: We provide a detailed study of the phenomenology of orbifold compactifications of the heterotic string within the context of supergravity effective theories. Our investigation focuses on those models where the soft Lagrangian is dominated by loop contributions to the various soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Such models typically predict non-universal soft masses and are thus significantly different from minimal supergravity and other universal models. We consider the pattern of masses that are governed by these soft terms and investigate the implications of certain indirect constraints on supersymmetric models, such as flavor-changing neutral currents, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and the density of thermal relic neutralinos. These string-motivated models show novel behavior that interpolates between the phenomenology of unified supergravity models and models dominated by the superconformal anomaly.
Date: August 5, 2003
Creator: Birkedal-Hansen, A.; Binetruy, P.; Mambrini, Y. & Nelson, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF ...
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Dikds, T.; Ikonen, A.; Niiranen, S. & Hansen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameter justification report for DRSPALL.

Description: A new conceptual model has been developed for drilling intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The model is implemented in a new code, DRSPALL, which captures the physics of the spallings release phenomena. The new conceptual model and code required parallel development of a family of parameters that adequately describe the properties of the system. This report introduces the various parameters implemented in the new spallings model, and provides justification for values and ranges of new parameters not currently in the performance assessment database.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Hansen, Francis D. & Lord, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buying Time: A User’s Manual for Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems

Description: This publication is meant for Protected Areas Managers. It gives detailed information about assessing occurring and possible damage from climate change and fending off the damage - buying time for our protected areas while the world works out the only long-term solution - reducing CO2 emissions.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hansen, L. J.; Biringer J.L. & Hoffman J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Visual Data Exploration and Analysis - Report on the Visualization Breakout Session of the SCaLeS Workshop

Description: Scientific visualization is the transformation of abstract information into images, and it plays an integral role in the scientific process by facilitating insight into observed or simulated phenomena. Visualization as a discipline spans many research areas from computer science, cognitive psychology and even art. Yet the most successful visualization applications are created when close synergistic interactions with domain scientists are part of the algorithmic design and implementation process, leading to visual representations with clear scientific meaning. Visualization is used to explore, to debug, to gain understanding, and as an analysis tool. Visualization is literally everywhere--images are present in this report, on television, on the web, in books and magazines--the common theme is the ability to present information visually that is rapidly assimilated by human observers, and transformed into understanding or insight. As an indispensable part a modern science laboratory, visualization is akin to the biologist's microscope or the electrical engineer's oscilloscope. Whereas the microscope is limited to small specimens or use of optics to focus light, the power of scientific visualization is virtually limitless: visualization provides the means to examine data that can be at galactic or atomic scales, or at any size in between. Unlike the traditional scientific tools for visual inspection, visualization offers the means to ''see the unseeable.'' Trends in demographics or changes in levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a function of greenhouse gas emissions are familiar examples of such unseeable phenomena. Over time, visualization techniques evolve in response to scientific need. Each scientific discipline has its ''own language,'' verbal and visual, used for communication. The visual language for depicting electrical circuits is much different than the visual language for depicting theoretical molecules or trends in the stock market. There is no ''one visualization too'' that can serve as a panacea for all science disciplines. Instead, ...
Date: July 14, 2003
Creator: Bethel, E. Wes; Frank, Randy; Fulcomer, Sam; Hansen, Chuck; Joy, Ken; Kohl, Jim et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous phosphorus and Si self-diffusion in extrinsic, isotopically controlled silicon heterostructures

Description: We present experimental results of impurity and self-diffusion in an isotopically controlled silicon heterostructure extrinsically doped with phosphorus. As a consequence of extrinsic doping, the concentration of singly negatively charged native defects is enhanced and the role of these native defect charge states in the simultaneous phosphorus and Si self-diffusion can be determined. Multilayers of isotopically controlled {sup 28}Si and natural silicon enable simultaneous analysis of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers and phosphorus diffusion throughout the multilayer structure. An amorphous 260 nm thick Si cap layer was deposited on top of the Si isotope heterostructure. The phosphorus ions were implanted to a depth such that all the radiation damage resided inside this amorphous cap layer, preventing the generation of excess native defects and enabling the determination of the Si self-diffusion coefficient and the phosphorus diffusivity under equilibrium conditions. These samples were annealed at temperatures between 950 and 1100 C to study the diffusion. Detailed analysis of the diffusion process was performed on the basis of a P diffusion model which involves neutral and positively charged mobile P species and neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitial.
Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Silvestri, Hughes H.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Sharp, Ian D.; Hansen, John; Nylandsted-Larsen, Arne & Haller, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of the design of Russian and US containers for plutonium oxide storage.

Description: The safe storage of plutonium in the form of plutonium oxide (Pu02) is a major concern in countries with significant plutonium inventories . The goal is to stabilize and package oxide in such a way that the possibility of leaks and failures are unlikely. Currently in Russia, Pu02 is stored 1 at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC, Zheleznogorsk) and at the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC, former Tomsk-7). (Plutonium metal is stored at PA 'Mayak' and is not addressed here) . Current storage containers for Russian Pu02 do not meet modern safety requirements . Further, every three years the gaskets have to be replaced . The containers can become over pressurized due to radiation processes and this results in possible container failures 1 . In the US, Pu02 is present at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites 2 . US reports of long time storage of Pu02 show a few cases of storage container failures 2 among thousand of intact cases. Major causes of malfunction are metal oxidation in non-airtight packages and gas pressurization from inadequately stabilized oxide . Because of these failures the US DOE adopted a standard 3 for stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing material that addresses these vulnerabilities .
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Mason, C. F. V. (Caroline F. V.); Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Wedman, Douglas E.; Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Erickson, R. M. (Randall M.); Hansen, W. J. (Walter J.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department