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Frame work on an on-line regulations expert permit server, Semi-annual technical progress report, September 25, 1996--March 24, 1997

Description: The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission and its member states have become increasingly concerned about environmental compliance costs for the petroleum exploration and production industry with estimated costs for 1990 at about $2 billion. Over the last decade, these costs have increased at a rate of 3 to 5% per year. At a time when regulatory and environmental needs and costs are increasing, major oil companies are restructuring and reducing staffs. The places an increased burden on the remaining personnel charged with regulatory compliance duties. As major oil producers have begun to concentrate on their more profitable overseas properties, they have created a greater role for the approximately 8000 independent oil and gas producers in the U.S. with many being small independent producers with limited staff. With small staffs, the independents lack the infrastructure to address an increasingly important aspect of production operations: compliance with environmental regulations. Depending on the level of industry activity, the oil and gas industry could incur an additional $16 to $24 billion in increased environmental compliance expenditures by the end of the 1990`s. At current oil prices, the abandonment of remaining resources in known oil reservoirs could be accelerated by approximately ten years, and up to 30% of currently producing resources could be immediately abandoned because of increased regulations. Transferring new and innovative technologies to the industry can help defer reservoir abandonments, improve regulatory compliance, lower the costs of compliance, reduce risk, and help assure the development of new domestic resources.
Date: March 24, 1997
Creator: Hansen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Framework on an On-Line Regulations Expert Permit Server

Description: This is a cooperative project between the Oil and Gas Compact Commission (OIGCC) and the oil and gas industry to use computerized communication technology as a means of providing information from state agencies. A major effort is the development of a framework for an on-line regulatory compliance and permit server system. Other aspects included provide feedback to state regulatory agencies with recommendations suggesting where procedures or regulations could be simplified or streamlined, identifying overlapping regulations, and surveying the needs of the IOGCC states in the area of emerging issues where sharing of regulatory procedures among the states might be useful.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Hansen, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

Description: This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hansen, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Description: The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Ebinger, M.H. & Hansen, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The conflict of interest problem in EIS preparation

Description: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federal agencies prepare environmental impact statements (EISs) on proposals for major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations require that EISs be prepared directly by the lead agency or a contractor it selects. EIS contractors must execute a disclosure statement specifying that they have ``no financial or other interest`` in the outcome of the project. The intent of the ``conflict of interest`` prohibition is to ensure that the EIS is defensible, free of self-serving bias, and credible to the public. Those coming to the federal government for money, permits, or project approvals must not be placed in the position of analyzing the environmental consequences of their own proposals. This paper analyzes the conflict of interest problem faced by government contractors who maintain and operate government-owned or-controlled facilities for which EISs are required. In the US Department of Energy (DOE) system, these are referred to as ``M and O`` contractors. It also examines organizational conflicts presented by current or prospective government contractors who have a financial or other interest in the outcome of a project or program for which an EIS is prepared. In responding to these and related questions, the paper discusses and interprets the CEQ regulations and guidance on EIS preparation conflict of interest as well as leading federal court opinions. It also distinguishes ``preparers`` from ``participants`` in the EIS preparation process.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hansen, R.P.; Wolff, T.A. & McCold, L.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and evaluation of a mechanistically based conceptual model for spall

Description: A mechanistically based model for a possible spall event at the WIPP site is developed and evaluated in this report. Release of waste material to the surface during an inadvertent borehole intrusion is possible if future states of the repository include high gas pressure and waste material consisting of fine particulates having low mechanical strength. The conceptual model incorporates the physics of wellbore hydraulics coupled to transient gas flow to the intrusion borehole, and mechanical response of the waste. Degraded waste properties using of the model. The evaluations include both numerical and analytical implementations of the conceptual model. A tensile failure criterion is assumed appropriate for calculation of volumes of waste experiencing fragmentation. Calculations show that for repository gas pressures less than 12 MPa, no tensile failure occurs. Minimal volumes of material experience failure below gas pressure of 14 MPa. Repository conditions dictate that the probability of gas pressures exceeding 14 MPa is approximately 1%. For these conditions, a maximum failed volume of 0.25 m{sup 3} is calculated.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K. & Thompson, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved accuracy for low-cost solar irradiance sensors

Description: Accurate measurements of broadband (full spectrum) solar irradiance are fundamental to the successful implementation of solar power systems, both photovoltaic and solar thermal. Historically, acceptable measurement accuracy has been achieved using expensive thermopile-based pyranometers and pyrheliometers. The measurement limitations and sensitivities of these expensive radiometers are a topic that has been addressed elsewhere. This paper demonstrates how to achieve acceptable accuracy ({+-}3) in irradiance measurements using photodiodes or photovoltaic cells as sensors, and in addition to low-cost, have several operational advantages.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: King, D.L.; Boyson, W.E. & Hansen, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkins bar configuration. Phase 2

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 {mu}{epsilon} peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold ({minus}65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the ...
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A. & Hansen, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

Description: The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department`s (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997.
Date: February 20, 1997
Creator: Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Hansen, E.K. & Whitehouse, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves

Description: In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.
Date: June 1997
Creator: Howse, J. W.; Hansen, G. A.; Cagliostro, D. J. & Muske, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RERTR fuel fabrication glovebox and facility development at ANL-W

Description: In order to support fuel plate production and physical metallurgy studies at ANL-W for the RERTR program, extensive facility modifications and equipment installation are underway. The particulate nature of the uranium alloys used in the fuel plate production requires glovebox isolation for several of the processing steps. A small glovebox was installed to meet the short-term powder processing needs of the project. A larger glovebox has been designed to handle the expanding needs of the project. In addition, a rolling mill and furnace were installed to allow hot rolling of the fuel plates. An arc-melting furnace will provide feedstock for powder production and metallurgy studies on uranium alloys. Future plans include the potential installation of a gas atomizer to aid in powder production.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Clark, C.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Lawrence, J.D. & Meyer, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dark current-voltage measurements on photovoltaic modules as a diagnostic or manufacturing tool

Description: Dark current-voltage (dark I-V) measurements are commonly used to analyze the electrical characteristics of solar cells, providing an effective way to determine fundamental performance parameters without the need for a solar simulator. The dark I-V measurement procedure does not provide information regarding short-circuit current, but is more sensitive than light I-V measurements in determining the other parameters (series resistance, shunt resistance, diode factor, and diode saturation currents) that dictate the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. The work documented here extends the use of dark I-V measurements to photovoltaic modules, illustrates their use in diagnosing module performance losses, and proposes their use for process monitoring during manufacturing.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: King, D.L.; Hansen, B.R.; Quintana, M.A. & Kratochvil, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational models to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques -- A comparison of measured and synthetic gamma-ray detector response functions

Description: As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories have developed quantitative models to simulate the response of detection equipment when looking for lost or stolen nuclear material. SYNTH, a code written to synthesize typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments, and QUEST, a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques, calculate the response functions of gamma-ray detectors for arbitrary source types and shielding configurations. In addition, QUEST provides an interactive, three-dimensional user interface supporting the virtual quest for nuclear materials, making possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and inspection methodologies. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during an inspection is a function of many different variables, including source type, structure geometry (including shielding), inspection dynamics (path and speed), detector (type, size, and resolution), and analysis algorithms. The authors present the results of their study comparing the synthetic Sodium Iodide (NaI) and Germanium (Ge) detector responses generated by both SYNTH and QUEST with those generated by real detectors deployed in the field. Quantitative models, such as the ones presented here, are important since they, (1) allow inspection teams to maximize the probability of finding materials of interest, (2) aid in the development of new instruments and detection techniques, and (3) support other diverse applications including environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and radiation safety responder training.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Wilcox, W.B.; Hensley, W.K. & Hansen, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

Description: This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S. & Hansen, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

Description: Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Craig, D.K.; Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J.; Davis, J.S.; Dukes, L.L.; Hansen, D.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct fast neutron detection: A status report

Description: This report describes the status of efforts to develop direct fast-neutron detection via proton recoil within plastic scintillator. Since recording proton recoil events is of little practical use without a means to discriminate effectively against gamma-ray interactions, the present effort is concentrated on demonstrating a method that distinguishes between pulse types. The proposed method exploits the different pulse shapes that are to be expected primarily on the basis of the slower speed of the recoiling fission neutrons. Should this effort ultimately prove successful, the resulting novel technology will have the potential to significantly lower cost and increase capability for a number of critical neutron-detection applications. Considerable progress has been made toward a clear and compelling demonstration of this new technique. An exhaustive theoretical and numerical investigation of the method has been completed. The authors have been able to better understand the laboratory results and estimate the performance that could ultimately be achieved using the proposed technique. They have assessed the performance of a number of different algorithms for discriminating between neutron and gamma ray events. The results of this assessment will be critical when the construction of low-cost, field-portable neutron detectors becomes necessary. Finally, a laboratory effort to realize effective discrimination is well underway and has resulted in partial success.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Peurrung, A.J.; Hansen, R.R.; Craig, R.A.; Hensley, W.K.; Hubbard, C.W.; Keller, P.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics as a stabilization and solidification agent for incinerator ash contaminated with transuranic and RCRA metals

Description: Incineration of combustible Mixed Transuranic Waste yields an ash residue that contains oxides of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and transuranic metals. In order to dispose of this ash safely, it has to be solidified and stabilized to satisfy appropriate requirements for repository disposal. This paper describes a new method for solidification of incinerator ash, using room temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics, and includes fabrication procedures for these waste forms as well as results of the MCC-1 static leach test, XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy studies and density measurements of the solidified waste form produced.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Medvedev, P.G.; Hansen, M.; Wood, E.L.; Frank, S.M.; Sidwell, R.W.; Giglio, J.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deuteron photodisintegration : new results from TJNAF.

Description: The first measurements of the differential cross section from d({gamma},p)n up to 4.0 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF, formerly CEBAF). Bremsstrahlung photons from electron beam impinging on a copper radiator and a liquid deuterium target were employed for this experiment. The experiment was performed in Hall C where the photoprotons at forward angles in the center-of-mass were detected in the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) and photoprotons at backward angles were detected in the Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS). The bremsstrahlung photon energy was reconstructed from the measured proton momentum and angle using the two-body kinematics. We report the cross section results at the proton center-of-mass angles of 37{degree} and 90{degree}. These results are in good agreement with previous lower energy measurements. The 90{degree} data continue to show the constituent-counting-rule behavior up to 4 GeV. The results will be compared with models based on QCD as well as those based on meson-exchange theory.
Date: November 18, 1997
Creator: Abbott, D. J.; Ahmidouch, A.; Armstrong, C. S.; Arrington, J.; Cummings, W. J.; Geesaman, D. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department