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Shielding requirements for the transport of nuclear warhead components under decommissioning

Description: The requirements to carry out accurate shielding calculations involved with the safe off-site transportation of packages containing nuclear warhead components, special assemblies and radioactive materials are discussed. The need for (a) detailed information on the geometry and material composition of the packaging and radioactive load, (b) accurate representation of the differential energy spectra (dN/dE) for the neutron and gamma spectra emitted by the radioactive materials enclosed in the packaging, (c) well-tested neutron and photon cross section libraries, (d) and accurate three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes are illustrated. A brief discussion of the need for reliable dose measurements is presented.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Hansen, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

Description: Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Wolff, T.A. & Hansen, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short rotation woody crop trials for energy production in north central U.S.

Description: Tree plantations at several sites have numerous clones with heights greater than 45 feet and diameters of 6+ inches in eight years. The fastest growth rates have been attained in a plantation on a wet site at Milaca, MN, a plantation at Granite Falls, WI, and a plantation at Mondovi, WI, where the largest trees are up to 8 inches DBH at age 8. Mean annual production ranges from 4 to 5+ dry tons per acre in the best clonal blocks, and up to 8.1 tons per acre for the best new hybrids. Reduced growth at some sites was related primarily to insufficient soil water during the growing season, and susceptibility to the disease Septoria musiva. Most tree mortality (36 percent) occurred during the establishment year with only an additional 2 percent mortality over the next 7 years. Leaf tissue nitrogen (N) levels decreased as trees aged and approached the hypothesized 3 percent critical level as trees reached 5- and 6-years old. Fertilization at 75 and 150 lbs/acre N resulted in significant increases in leaf tissue. However, no significant increase in tree growth has been detected. There are significant clonal differences in leaf tissue nitrogen. Hybrid poplar plantations planted on agricultural fields produce significant increases in soil carbon, although there may be carbon loss during the early years of plantation establishment. Septoria musiva is the major pathogen affecting survival and growth of hybrid poplar plantations. A collection of 859 Septoria musiva and Septoria populicola isolates has shown considerably variability in the microorganism. Tissue culture techniques are being used to increase resistance to Septoria in clone NE-308. Over 200 generation 2 plants are ready for field testing in 1995.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hansen, E.; Netzer, D.; Ostry, M.; Tolsted, D. & Ward, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SR (Shift Register) COLLECT users manual. Version 2.00

Description: SR COLLECT is intended to be used by International Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors in facilities in Japan for remote unattended collection of data recorded by a shift register electronics unit. In addition, it will send a signal to a monitoring camera to record the occurrence of significant events. SR COLLECT organizes the collected data into a set of files that can be copied to floppy diskettes. The data copied to these diskettes can, in turn, be imported into the SR Review program for analysis. Unattended data collection requires a high degree of reliability. SR COLLECT is capable of restarting itself after loss of power to the collect computer. SR COLLECT is also capable of recovering from loss of communications with the shift electronics unit. Data is recorded in files on the hard disk immediately after it is collected. All significant events, called critical events, are recorded in a file. The set of parameters in effect is recorded in a file. Disk write caching is NOT used to prevent the loss of data caused by a sudden power failure.
Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Hansen, W.; Painter, J.A. & Augustson, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic compaction of salt: Initial demonstration and performance testing

Description: Reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as the sole long-term shaft seal between the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the biosphere. The concept for a long-term shaft seal for the WIPP repository is to place crushed salt in the four shafts and to develop an effective seal as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, reconsolidating the salt. Permeability of the salt components is calculated to achieve performance objectives at some acceptable time in the future, an expectation which is a key to performance assessment calculations for the WIPP. Such a seal has never been constructed, and until now no performance measurements have been made on an appropriately large scale. A full understanding of construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability and time-wise performance of reconsolidating salt is required. This paper discusses nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, preliminary measurements of density and permeability, and their variability within a relatively large volume of compacted material
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Tidwell, V.C.; Tillerson, J.R & Brodsky, N.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General safety basis development guidance for environmental restoration decontamination and decommissioning

Description: Safety analyses have the objective of contributing to two essential ingredients of a successful operation. The first is promoting the safety of the operation through worker involvement in information development (safety basis). The second is obtaining approval to conduct the operation (authorization). Typically these ingredients are assembled under separate programs covered by separate DOE requirements. DOE authorization relies on successful development of a document containing up to 21 topics written in terms and language suited to reviewers and approvers. Safety relies on successful training and procedures that convert the technical documented information into terms and language understandable to the worker. This separation can lead to successful incorporation of one ingredient independent of the other. At best, this separation may result in a safe but unauthorized operation; at worst, the separation may result in an unsafe operation authorized to proceed. This guide is based on experiences gained by contractors who have integrated rather than separated the safety and authorization. The short duration of ER/D&D activities, the uncertainties of hazards, and the publicly expressed desire for demonstrable progress in cleanup activities add emphasis to the need to integrate rather than separate and develop new programs. Experience-based information has been useful to workers, safety analysis practitioners, and reviewers in the following ways: (1) Acquiring or developing the needed information in a useful form; (2) Managing the uncertainties during activity development and operation; (3) Identifying the subset of applicable requirements for an activity; (4) Developing the appropriate level of documentation detail for a specific activity; and (5) Increasing the usefulness and use of safety analysis (ownership).
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Ellingson, D.R.; Kerr, N.; Bohlander, K.; Hansen, J. & Crowley, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department