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Laboratory directed research and development program FY 2003

Description: The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. In FY03, Berkeley Lab was authorized by DOE to establish a funding ceiling for the LDRD program of $15.0 M, which equates to about 3.2% of Berkeley Lab's FY03 projected operating and capital equipment budgets. This funding level was provided to develop new scientific ideas and opportunities and allow the Berkeley Lab Director an opportunity to initiate new directions. Budget constraints limited available resources, however, so only $10.1 M was expended for operating and $0.6 M for capital equipment (2.4% of actual Berkeley Lab FY03 costs). In FY03, scientists submitted 168 proposals, requesting over $24.2 M in operating funding. Eighty-two projects were funded, with awards ranging from $45 K to $500 K. These projects are summarized in Table 1.
Date: March 27, 2004
Creator: Hansen, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Characterization of Florida International University Simulants

Description: Florida International University shipped Laponite, clay (bentonite and kaolin blend), and Quality Assurance Requirements Document AZ-101 simulants to the Savannah River Technology Center for physical characterization and to report the results. The objectives of the task were to measure the physical properties of the fluids provided by FIU and to report the results. The physical properties were measured using the approved River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant characterization procedure [Ref. 1]. This task was conducted in response to the work outlined in CCN066794 [Ref. 2], authored by Gary Smith and William Graves of RPP-WTP.
Date: August 19, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Properties of Kaolin/Sand Slurry Used During Submersible Mixer Pump Tests at TNX

Description: The purpose of this task is to characterize the physical properties of kaolin/sand slurry used to test the performance of a new submersible mixer pump which is undergoing performance testing at the TNT Waste Tank mockup facility. Three different sample locations, the SMP cooling water exit, the SMP fluid flow field, and SMP effective cleaning radius were used for sampling over the seven day test. The physical properties determinations for the kaolin/sand slurry samples include rheology, weight percent total solids (wt TS), density, and particle size distribution were requested, though not all these determinations were performed on all the samples. The physical properties determinations are described in more detail in section 1.0. Measurements were performed at Savannah River National Laboratory in accordance with the Technical Assistance Request (TAR)1. The data, average of two measurements, is shown in the table below. This data clearly shows that the SMP-CWE samples contained more so lids than those at other sample locations for a given sample day. The SMP-FFF and SMP-ECR were similar in solids content. The rheology of the samples is dependent on the wt solids concentration and are all within the bounds stated in the TAR.
Date: August 18, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheological and Physical Properties of Hanford Radioactive LAW AZ-102 Pretreated Waste and Melter Feed

Description: The purpose and objective of this task was to measure and report the physical and rheological properties, pH, and PSD of a radioactive Hanford tank sample, 241-AZ-102 pretreated by the reference RPP-WTP pretreatment process at SRTC. The LAW pretreated wastes and melter feeds were characterized at two different sodium molarities in accordance with RPP-WTP R and T guidelines for characterization. The initial AZ-102 pretreated waste was received at a concentration of 4.38M Na. This pretreated waste was then diluted to two different sodium molarities of 1.0M Na and 1.3M Na. After the 1.0M Na and 1.3M Na pretreated wastes were characterized, these waste streams were blended with the project approved GFCs to make melter feeds. The physical and rheological properties and pH of the resulting melter feeds were measured using the methods outlined in the RPP-WTP guidelines, unless otherwise stated in this document.
Date: April 30, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This article introduces a GOTHIC version 7.1 model of the Secondary Containment Reactor Building Post LOCA drawdown analysis for a BWR. GOTHIC is an EPRI sponsored thermal hydraulic code. This analysis is required by the Utility to demonstrate an ability to restore and maintain the Secondary Containment Reactor Building negative pressure condition. The technical and regulatory issues associated with this modeling are presented. The analysis includes the affect of wind, elevation and thermal impacts on pressure conditions. The model includes a multiple volume representation which includes the spent fuel pool. In addition, heat sources and sinks are modeled as one dimensional heat conductors. The leakage into the building is modeled to include both laminar as well as turbulent behavior as established by actual plant test data. The GOTHIC code provides components to model heat exchangers used to provide fuel pool cooling as well as area cooling via air coolers. The results of the evaluation are used to demonstrate the time that the Reactor Building is at a pressure that exceeds external conditions. This time period is established with the GOTHIC model based on the worst case pressure conditions on the building. For this time period the Utility must assume the primary containment leakage goes directly to the environment. Once the building pressure is restored below outside conditions the release to the environment can be credited as a filtered release.
Date: October 6, 2004
Creator: Hansen, P.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

Description: We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.
Date: April 22, 2004
Creator: Novakov, T. & Hansen, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of the pipe overpack to compute constitutive model parameters for use in WIPP room closure calculations.

Description: The regulatory compliance determination for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant includes the consideration of room closure. Elements of the geomechanical processes include salt creep, gas generation and mechanical deformation of the waste residing in the rooms. The WIPP was certified as complying with regulatory requirements based in part on the implementation of room closure and material models for the waste. Since the WIPP began receiving waste in 1999, waste packages have been identified that are appreciably more robust than the 55-gallon drums characterized for the initial calculations. The pipe overpack comprises one such waste package. This report develops material model parameters for the pipe overpack containers by using axisymmetrical finite element models. Known material properties and structural dimensions allow well constrained models to be completed for uniaxial, triaxial, and hydrostatic compression of the pipe overpack waste package. These analyses show that the pipe overpack waste package is far more rigid than the originally certified drum. The model parameters developed in this report are used subsequently to evaluate the implications to performance assessment calculations.
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Park, Byoung Yoon & Hansen, Francis D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An external gelation process was developed to produce spherical granules that contain metal hydride particles in a sol-gel matrix. Dimensionally stable granules containing metal hydrides are needed for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification that require columns containing metal hydrides. Gases must readily flow through the metal hydride beds in the columns. Metal hydrides reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes. This is accompanied by significant volume changes that cause the metal hydride to break apart or decrepitate. Repeated cycling results in very fine metal hydride particles that are difficult to handle and contain. Fine particles tend to settle and pack making it more difficult to flow gases through a metal hydride bed. Furthermore, the metal hydrides can exert a significant force on the containment vessel as they expand. These problems associated with metal hydrides can be eliminated with the granulation process described in this report. Small agglomerates of metal hydride particles and abietic acid (a pore former) were produced and dispersed in a colloidal silica/water suspension to form the feed slurry. Fumed silica was added to increase the viscosity of the feed slurry which helped to keep the agglomerates in suspension. Drops of the feed slurry were injected into a 27-foot tall column of hot ({approx}70 C), medium viscosity ({approx}3000 centistokes) silicone oil. Water was slowly evaporated from the drops as they settled. The drops gelled and eventually solidified to form spherical granules. This process is referred to as external gelation. Testing was completed to optimize the design of the column, the feed system, the feed slurry composition, and the operating parameters of the column. The critical process parameters can be controlled resulting in a reproducible fabrication technique. The residual silicone oil on the surface of the granules was removed by washing in mineral spirits. The ...
Date: February 23, 2004
Creator: Hansen, E; Eric Frickey, E & Leung Heung, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual Data Exploration and Analysis - Report of the VisualizationBreakout Session at the 2003 SCaLeS Workshop - Volume II

Description: This document is the report from the Visualization breakoutsession at the SCaLeS (Science Case for Large-scale Simulation) workshopheld in 2003 in Bethesda, MD. The document presents current researchchallenges in visualization of large-scale scientific data.
Date: January 12, 2004
Creator: Bethel, E. Wes; Frank, Randall; Fulcomer, Samuel; Hansen, Chuck; Joy, Ken; Kohl, Jim et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

Description: The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.
Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L. & Haller, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation, Rheology, And Vitrification Of A Pretreated Radioactive Hanford Tank 241-AN-104 Sample Mixed With Simulated Law SBS Recycle

Description: This study involved evaporation of the radioactive low activity waste AN-104 pretreated waste and a simulant LAW submerged bed scrubber recycle from Duratek blended at two different volume ratios. The AN104SBS35651 pretreated wastes were then blended with glass former chemicals, GFCs, and a single blend vitrified. The chemical and physical properties, during all phases of blending were characterized per Table 1-1. The AN-104 radioactive waste used for this study was initially characterized at SRNL, Hay 2003, followed by filtration to remove entrained solids, Poirier 2003, and put through ion exchange for cesium removal, Adu-Wusu 2003,. All the test objectives in Table 1-1 are from section 3 of the Test Specification, Sidibe 2003. The test exception listed in Table 1-2 deleted the vitrification objectives for vitrification product analyses and product testing of the AN-104 glass. Therefore, Table 1-1 does not list any vitrification product analyses and product testing objectives.
Date: October 2004
Creator: Crowder, Mark L.; Hansen, Erich K.; Crawford, Charles L.; Daniel, William E., Jr.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Burket, Paul R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

Description: The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.
Date: November 17, 2004
Creator: Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A step towards a computing grid for the LHC experiments: ATLAS Data Challenge 1

Description: The ATLAS Collaboration at CERN is preparing for the data taking and analysis at the LHC that will start in 2007. Therefore, a series of Data Challenges was started in 2002 whose goals are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. A major feature of the first Data Challenge was the preparation and the deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples as a worldwide-distributed activity. It should be noted that it was not an option to ''run everything at CERN'' even if we had wanted to; the resources were not available at CERN to carry out the production on a reasonable time-scale. The great challenge of organizing and then carrying out this large-scale production at a significant number of sites around the world had the refore to be faced. However, the benefits of this are manifold: apart from realizing the required computing resources, this exercise created worldwide momentum for ATLAS computing as a whole. This report describes in detail the main steps carried out in DC1 and what has been learned from them as a step towards a computing Grid for the LHC experiments.
Date: April 23, 2004
Creator: Sturrock, R.; Bischof, R.; Epp, B.; Ghete, V.M.; Kuhn, D.; Mello, A.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department