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Rheological and Physical Properties of Hanford Radioactive LAW AZ-102 Pretreated Waste and Melter Feed

Description: The purpose and objective of this task was to measure and report the physical and rheological properties, pH, and PSD of a radioactive Hanford tank sample, 241-AZ-102 pretreated by the reference RPP-WTP pretreatment process at SRTC. The LAW pretreated wastes and melter feeds were characterized at two different sodium molarities in accordance with RPP-WTP R and T guidelines for characterization. The initial AZ-102 pretreated waste was received at a concentration of 4.38M Na. This pretreated waste was then diluted to two different sodium molarities of 1.0M Na and 1.3M Na. After the 1.0M Na and 1.3M Na pretreated wastes were characterized, these waste streams were blended with the project approved GFCs to make melter feeds. The physical and rheological properties and pH of the resulting melter feeds were measured using the methods outlined in the RPP-WTP guidelines, unless otherwise stated in this document.
Date: April 30, 2004
Creator: HANSEN, ERICHK
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

Description: The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain to be defined. In all cases, the facility modifications represent functional changes to existing systems or capabilities. ...
Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Hansen, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of the shielding performances of the AT-400A, Model FL and Model AL-R8 containers

Description: A comparison of the neutron and photon dose rates at different locations on the outside surface of the Model AL-RB, Model FL and the AT-400A containers for a given pit load has been done in order to understand the shielding characteristics of these containers. The Model AL-R8 is not certified for transport and is only used for storage of pits, while the Model FL is a certified Type B pit transportation container. The AT-400A is being developed as a type B pit storage and transportation container. The W48, W56 and B83 pits were chosen for this study because of their encompassing features with regard to other pits presently being stored. A detailed description of the geometry and materials of these containers and of the neutron and photon emission spectra from the actinide materials present in the pit have been used in the calculations of the total dose rates. The calculations have been done using the three-dimensional, neutron-photon Monte Carlo code MCNP. The results indicate the need for a containment vessel (CV), as is found in the Model FL and AT-400A containers, in order to assure compliance with 10 CFR 71 regulations. The absence of a CV in the AL-R8 container results in total dose rates well above of the 200mr/hr allowed by the regulations for the W56 pit. Similar behavior will be expected for other pits with configuration similar to the W56 in which the main contribution to the dose rate is from the fission photons.
Date: April 28, 1995
Creator: Hansen, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Nucleon Form Factors with 12 GeV CEBAF and SuperBigBite

Description: The elastic electromagnetic form factors are among the most fundamental quantities that describe the ground-state structure of the proton and neutron. Precision data of the form factors over a wide kinematical range provide a powerful test of current theories of hadron structure. A number of experiments aiming to measure the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the neutron, G{sub E}{sup n} and G{sub M}{sup n}, and proton, G{sub E}{sup p}, at very high momentum transfer, up to the range of Q{sup 2} = 10-14 (GeV/c){sup 2}, are planned to be carried out with the future 11 GeV electron beam of the upgraded CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. These experiments will determine the nucleon form factors with unprecedented precision to Q{sup 2}-values up to three times higher than those of existing data. We review the approved proposals and the conceptual design of a new spectrometer, SuperBigBite, that will be used in these and other future experiments at Jefferson Lab.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Hansen, Jens-Ole
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUSY dark matter and non-universal gaugino masses

Description: In this talk the authors investigate the dark matter prospects for supersymmetric models with non-universal gaugino masses. They motivate the use of non-universal gaugino masses from several directions, including problems, with the current favorite scenario, the cMSSM. They then display new corridors of parameter space that allow an acceptable dark matter relic density once gaugino mass universality is relaxed. They finish with a specific string-derived model that allows this universality relaxation and then use the dark matter constraint to make specific statements about the hidden sector of the model.
Date: April 15, 2002
Creator: Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

Description: We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.
Date: April 22, 2004
Creator: Novakov, T. & Hansen, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Description: The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Ebinger, M.H. & Hansen, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.
Date: April 26, 2013
Creator: Pareizs, J. M. & Hansen, E. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M. & Levitt, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stagnation-point heat transfer to blunt shapes in hypersonic flight, including effects of yaw

Description: An approximate theory is developed for predicting the rate of heat transfer to the stagnation region of blunt bodies in hypersonic flight. Attention is focused on the case where wall temperature is small compared to stagnation temperature. The theoretical heat-transfer rate at the stagnation point of a hemispherical body is found to agree with available experimental data. The effect of yaw on heat transfer to a cylindrical stagnation region is treated at some length, and it is predicted that large yaw should cause sizable reductions in heat-transfer rate.
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Eggers, A J , Jr; Hansen, C Frederick & Cunningham, Bernard E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

Description: Porous-walled hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) of a modified alkali borosilicate composition have been successfully fabricated by combining the technology of producing hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) with the knowledge associated with porous glasses. HGMs are first formed by a powder glass--flame process, which are then transformed to PWHGMs by heat treatment and subsequent treatment in acid. Pore diameter and pore volume are most influenced by heat treatment temperature. Pore diameter is increased by a factor of 10 when samples are heat treated prior to acid leaching; 100 {angstrom} in non-heat treated samples to 1000 {angstrom} in samples heat treated at 600 C for 8 hours. As heat treatment time is increased from 8 hours to 24 hours there is a slight shift increase in pore diameter and little or no change in pore volume.
Date: April 21, 2008
Creator: Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R & David Peeler, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

Description: The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).
Date: April 30, 2009
Creator: Dennis J. Hansen, David C. Anderson, Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, W. Kent Ostler
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

Description: Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E. & Hansen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass-stripping analysis of an interstellar cloud by a supernova shock

Description: The interaction of supernova shocks and interstellar clouds is an important astrophysical phenomenon since it can result in stellar and planetary formation. Our experiments attempt to simulate this mass-loading as it occurs when a shock passes through interstellar clouds. We drive a strong shock using the Omega laser ({approx} 5 kJ) into a foam-filled cylinder with an embedded Al sphere (diameter D = 120 {micro}m) simulating an interstellar cloud. The density ratio between Al and foam is {approx}9. We have previously reported on the interaction between shock and cloud, the ensuing Kelvin-Helmholtz and Widnall instabilities, and the rapid stripping of all mass from the cloud. We now present a theory that explains the rapid mass-stripping. The theory combines (1) the integral momentum equations for a viscous boundary layer, (2) the equations for a potential flow past a sphere, (3) Spalding's law of the wall for turbulent boundary layers, and (4) the skin friction coefficient for a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The theory gives as its final result the mass stripped from a sphere in a turbulent high Reynolds number flow, and it agrees very well with our experimental observations.
Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Hansen, J F; Robey, H F; Miles, A R; Klein, R I & McKee, C F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory observation of secondary shock formation ahead of a strongly radiative blast wave

Description: We have previously reported the experimental discovery of a second shock forming ahead of a radiative shock propagating in Xe. The initial shock is spherical, radiative, with a high Mach number, and it sends a supersonic radiative heat far ahead of itself. The heat wave rapidly slows to a transonic regime and when its Mach number drops to two with respect to the downstream plasma, the heat wave drives a second shock ahead of itself to satisfy mass and momentum conservation in the heat wave reference frame. We now show experimental data from a range of mixtures of Xe and N{sub 2}, gradually changing the properties of the initial shock and the environment into which the shock moves and radiates (the radiative conductivity and the heat capacity). We have successfully observed second shock formation over the entire range from 100% Xe mass fraction to 100% N{sub 2}. The formation radius of the second shock as a function of Xe mass fraction is consistent with an analytical estimate.
Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Froula, D H; Edens, A D; Gregori, G & Ditmire, T R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department