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PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

Description: The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Hansen, E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Purgatorio calculations of Zbar at melt

Description: Purgatorio calculates self-consistent bound and continuum electron densities {rho}{sub bound}(r) and {rho}{sub continuum}(r) in a neutral ion sphere with radius R{sub ion} by populating relativistic wave functions P(r) and Q(r) according to their statistical weights and the Fermi distribution function f({var_epsilon},{mu}) = (1+e{sup {var_epsilon}-{mu}/{tau}}){sup -1}.
Date: August 31, 2007
Creator: Hansen, S B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Framework on an On-Line Regulations Expert Permit Server

Description: This is a cooperative project between the Oil and Gas Compact Commission (OIGCC) and the oil and gas industry to use computerized communication technology as a means of providing information from state agencies. A major effort is the development of a framework for an on-line regulatory compliance and permit server system. Other aspects included provide feedback to state regulatory agencies with recommendations suggesting where procedures or regulations could be simplified or streamlined, identifying overlapping regulations, and surveying the needs of the IOGCC states in the area of emerging issues where sharing of regulatory procedures among the states might be useful.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Hansen, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e}, e{prime})X and the neutron electromagnetic form factors

Description: Recent data for the spin-dependent A{sub T}, and A{sub TL}, asymmetries in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e}, e{prime}) quasielastic scattering are reviewed. The neutron electric and magnetic form factors are extracted from the data using a plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) model, and the model uncertainties are estimated. The extracted G{sub M}{sup n} is in agreement with the dipole prediction as well as with other recent experiments. No meaningful result for G{sub E}{sup n} is obtained due to large uncertainties and possible final-state interaction effects. At higher Q{sup 2}, the determination of G{sub E}{sup n} in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) does appear feasible based on the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) predictions.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hansen, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2012 SRNL-EM VANE RHEOLOGY RESULTS

Description: The vane method has been shown to be an effective tool in measuring the yield stress of both settled and mixed slurries in laboratory bench scale conditions in supporting assessments of both actual and simulant waste slurries. The vane has also been used to characterize dry powders and granular solids, the effect of non-cohesive solids with interstitial fluids and used as a guide to determine if slip is present in the geometries typically used to perform rheological flow curve measurements. The vane has been extensively characterized for measuring the shear strength in soils in both field and laboratory studies. The objectives for this task are: Fabricate vane instrument; Bench top testing to further characterize the effect of cohesive, non-cohesive, and blends of cohesive/non-cohesive simple simulants; Data from measurement of homogenized and settled bed of Kaolin sludge and assessment of the technology. In this document, the assessment using bench scale measurements of non-cohesive materials (beads) and cohesive materials (kaolin) is discussed. The non-cohesive materials include various size beads and the vane was assessed for depth and deaeration (or packing) via tapping measurements. For the cohesive (or non-Newtonian) materials, flow curves and yield stress measurements are performed using the vane and this data is compared to the traditional concentric cylinder flow curve measurement. Finally, a large scale vane was designed, fabricated, and tested with the cohesive (or non-Newtonian) materials to determine how a larger vane performs in measuring the yield stress and flow curve of settled cohesive solids.
Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Hansen, E.; Marzolf, A. & Hera, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

Description: Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Wolff, T.A. & Hansen, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short rotation woody crop trials for energy production in north central U.S.

Description: Tree plantations at several sites have numerous clones with heights greater than 45 feet and diameters of 6+ inches in eight years. The fastest growth rates have been attained in a plantation on a wet site at Milaca, MN, a plantation at Granite Falls, WI, and a plantation at Mondovi, WI, where the largest trees are up to 8 inches DBH at age 8. Mean annual production ranges from 4 to 5+ dry tons per acre in the best clonal blocks, and up to 8.1 tons per acre for the best new hybrids. Reduced growth at some sites was related primarily to insufficient soil water during the growing season, and susceptibility to the disease Septoria musiva. Most tree mortality (36 percent) occurred during the establishment year with only an additional 2 percent mortality over the next 7 years. Leaf tissue nitrogen (N) levels decreased as trees aged and approached the hypothesized 3 percent critical level as trees reached 5- and 6-years old. Fertilization at 75 and 150 lbs/acre N resulted in significant increases in leaf tissue. However, no significant increase in tree growth has been detected. There are significant clonal differences in leaf tissue nitrogen. Hybrid poplar plantations planted on agricultural fields produce significant increases in soil carbon, although there may be carbon loss during the early years of plantation establishment. Septoria musiva is the major pathogen affecting survival and growth of hybrid poplar plantations. A collection of 859 Septoria musiva and Septoria populicola isolates has shown considerably variability in the microorganism. Tissue culture techniques are being used to increase resistance to Septoria in clone NE-308. Over 200 generation 2 plants are ready for field testing in 1995.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hansen, E.; Netzer, D.; Ostry, M.; Tolsted, D. & Ward, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved accuracy for low-cost solar irradiance sensors

Description: Accurate measurements of broadband (full spectrum) solar irradiance are fundamental to the successful implementation of solar power systems, both photovoltaic and solar thermal. Historically, acceptable measurement accuracy has been achieved using expensive thermopile-based pyranometers and pyrheliometers. The measurement limitations and sensitivities of these expensive radiometers are a topic that has been addressed elsewhere. This paper demonstrates how to achieve acceptable accuracy ({+-}3) in irradiance measurements using photodiodes or photovoltaic cells as sensors, and in addition to low-cost, have several operational advantages.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: King, D.L.; Boyson, W.E. & Hansen, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock transmissibility of threaded joints

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with threaded joints that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration; drilling pipe strings that must survive rock-cutting, shock environments; and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact shock. This paper summarizes an analytical study and an experimental evaluation of compressive, one-dimensional, shock transmission through a threaded joint in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Thread geometries were scaled to simulate large diameter threaded joints with loadings parallel to the axis of the threads. Both strain and acceleration were evaluated with experimental measurements and analysis. Analytical results confirm the experimental conclusions that in this split Hopkinson bar configuration, the change in the one-dimensional shock wave by the threaded joint is localized to a length equal to a few diameters` length beyond the threaded joint.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Hansen, N.R.; Bateman, V.I. & Brown, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkins bar configuration. Phase 2

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 {mu}{epsilon} peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold ({minus}65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the ...
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A. & Hansen, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRITICAL ASSEMBLIES OF GRAPHITE AND ENRICHED URANIUM WITH BERYLLIUM REFLECTORS

Description: Data are given on properties of three sets of cylindrical Be reflected, graphite-mcderated critical assemblies. The first set was primarily to establish characteristics as functions of C/Oy atomic ratio of core with nearly constant reflector thickness. Fission distributions were determined. The second set consisted of three assemblies with fixed core to determine the effect of redistributing reflector from the ends to the cylindrical wall. This series was done to provide the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Theoretical Division checks for two-dimensional diffusion code. Flux distributions in the uniformlyreflected assembly were mapped extensively with bare and Cd-shielded foils of oralloy, Au, and In. The third set was to establish the minimum-volume core at C/Oy ~ 350 that could be made critical with available Be. Experimental critical data converted to equivalent spherical systems are compared with resuIts of S/sub 4/ calculations. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1958
Creator: Hansen, G.E.; Hoogterp, J.C.; Orndoff, J.D. & Paxton, N.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic compaction of salt: Initial demonstration and performance testing

Description: Reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as the sole long-term shaft seal between the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the biosphere. The concept for a long-term shaft seal for the WIPP repository is to place crushed salt in the four shafts and to develop an effective seal as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, reconsolidating the salt. Permeability of the salt components is calculated to achieve performance objectives at some acceptable time in the future, an expectation which is a key to performance assessment calculations for the WIPP. Such a seal has never been constructed, and until now no performance measurements have been made on an appropriately large scale. A full understanding of construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability and time-wise performance of reconsolidating salt is required. This paper discusses nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, preliminary measurements of density and permeability, and their variability within a relatively large volume of compacted material
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Tidwell, V.C.; Tillerson, J.R & Brodsky, N.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125-fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical system. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two part study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. This paper reports the first part of the shock mitigating materials study. A study to compare three thicknesses (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 in.) of seventeen, unconfined materials for their shock mitigating characteristics has been completed with a split Hopkinson bar configuration. The nominal input as measured by strain gages on the incident Hopkinson bar is 50 fps {at} 100 {micro}s for these tests. It is hypothesized that a shock mitigating material has four purposes: to lengthen the shock pulse, to attenuate the shock pulse, to mitigate high frequency content in the shock pulse, and to absorb energy. Both time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare the materials` achievement of these purposes.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Bateman, V.I.; Bell, R.G. III; Brown, F.A. & Hansen, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blast furnace stove control

Description: This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. & Chaubal, P.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Causes of Ocean Surface temperature Changes in Atlantic andPacific Topical Cyclogenesis Regions

Description: Previous research has identified links between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and hurricane intensity. We use climate models to study the possible causes of SST changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions. The observed SST increases in these regions range from 0.32 to 0.67 C over the 20th century. The 22 climate models examined here suggest that century-timescale SST changes of this magnitude cannot be explained solely by unforced variability of the climate system, even under conservative assumptions regarding the magnitude of this variability. Model simulations that include external forcing by combined anthropogenic and natural factors are generally capable of replicating observed SST changes in both tropical cyclogenesis regions.
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Gleckler, P.J.; Bonfils, C.; Wehner, M.F.; AchutaRao, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS BY INCORPORATING NIF FACILITY IMPACTS

Description: For experimental campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to be successful, they must obtain useful data without causing unacceptable impact on the facility. Of particular concern is excessive damage to optics and diagnostic components. There are 192 fused silica main debris shields (MDS) exposed to the potentially hostile target chamber environment on each shot. Damage in these optics results either from the interaction of laser light with contamination and pre-existing imperfections on the optic surface or from the impact of shrapnel fragments. Mitigation of this second damage source is possible by identifying shrapnel sources and shielding optics from them. It was recently demonstrated that the addition of 1.1-mm thick borosilicate disposable debris shields (DDS) block the majority of debris and shrapnel fragments from reaching the relatively expensive MDS's. However, DDS's cannot stop large, faster moving fragments. We have experimentally demonstrated one shrapnel mitigation technique showing that it is possible to direct fast moving fragments by changing the source orientation, in this case a Ta pinhole array. Another mitigation method is to change the source material to one that produces smaller fragments. Simulations and validating experiments are necessary to determine which fragments can penetrate or break 1-3 mm thick DDS's. Three-dimensional modeling of complex target-diagnostic configurations is necessary to predict the size, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel fragments. The tools we are developing will be used to set the allowed level of debris and shrapnel generation for all NIF experimental campaigns.
Date: August 31, 2005
Creator: Eder, D. C.; Whitman, P. K.; Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, R. W.; Wang, P.; Gunney, B. T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department