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Frame work on an on-line regulations expert permit server, Semi-annual technical progress report, September 25, 1996--March 24, 1997

Description: The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission and its member states have become increasingly concerned about environmental compliance costs for the petroleum exploration and production industry with estimated costs for 1990 at about $2 billion. Over the last decade, these costs have increased at a rate of 3 to 5% per year. At a time when regulatory and environmental needs and costs are increasing, major oil companies are restructuring and reducing staffs. The places an increased burden on the remaining personnel charged with regulatory compliance duties. As major oil producers have begun to concentrate on their more profitable overseas properties, they have created a greater role for the approximately 8000 independent oil and gas producers in the U.S. with many being small independent producers with limited staff. With small staffs, the independents lack the infrastructure to address an increasingly important aspect of production operations: compliance with environmental regulations. Depending on the level of industry activity, the oil and gas industry could incur an additional $16 to $24 billion in increased environmental compliance expenditures by the end of the 1990`s. At current oil prices, the abandonment of remaining resources in known oil reservoirs could be accelerated by approximately ten years, and up to 30% of currently producing resources could be immediately abandoned because of increased regulations. Transferring new and innovative technologies to the industry can help defer reservoir abandonments, improve regulatory compliance, lower the costs of compliance, reduce risk, and help assure the development of new domestic resources.
Date: March 24, 1997
Creator: Hansen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-Range Neutron Detection

Description: A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m{sup 2}) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the {sup 3}He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10{sup 5} n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10{sup 5} n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. ...
Date: November 24, 1999
Creator: Peurrung, AJ; Stromswold, DC; Hansen, RR; Reeder, PL & Barnett, DS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature Determination Using K(alpha) Spectra from M-shell Ti Ions

Description: The Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser facility at LLNL was used to irradiate Al-coated 2 - 50 {micro}m Ti foils with {approx} 4 x 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}, 500 fs, 3-6 J laser pulses. Laser-plasma interactions on the front side of the target generate hot electrons with sufficient energy to excite inner-shell electrons in Ti, creating K{sub {alpha}} emission which has been measured using a focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-1D) aimed at the back surface of the targets. The spatial extent of the emission varies with target thickness, and the high spectral resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 3800) is sufficient to measure blue shifts in K{sub {alpha}} arising from ionization of near-solid Ti into the 3p subshell. A self-consistent-field model is used to spectroscopically diagnose thermal electron temperatures up to 40 eV in the strongly coupled Ti plasmas.
Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Hansen, S B; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T A; Fournier, K B; Shepherd, R; Chen, H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department