Flow-visualization studies, using smoke, were made of the secondary flows in rectangular bends, tandem cascades, and high-turning configurations. The roll-up of the wall boundary layer of a rectangular bend forms a passage vortex near the suction surface similar to that previously observed for cascades. The vortex so formed then shifts out into the main stream. Because of leading-edge effects, the boundary-layer flows in bends were found to be sufficiently different from the flows in blade rows to make direct application of bend results to blade rows inadvisable. Passage vortices are shown, in the tandem-cascade study, to resist turning with the main stream through which they pass and to disturb the flow in subsequent blade rows. This disturbance may explain in part the appreciable size of the losses sometimes attributed to secondary flows in turbomachines despite the fact that the energy involvement in vortex formation is slight. Tip-flow studies of high-turning blades with relative motion between blades and end wall indicated that if the relative sizes of the passage vortex forces, the tip clearance forces, and the blade-scraping effects are properly controlled, it may be possible to improve the blade-tip loading characteristics in turbomachine.
Date: March 11, 1953
Creator: Hansen, Arthur G; Costello, George R & Herzig, Howard Z
Measurements of organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC)concentrations over a variety of locations worldwide, have been analyzed to infer the spatial distributions of the ratios of OC to BC. Since these ratios determine the relative amounts of scattering and absorption, they are often used to estimate the radiative forcing due to aerosols. An artifact in the protocol for filter measurements of OC has led to widespread overestimates of the ratio of OC to BC in atmospheric aerosols. We developed a criterion to correct for this artifact and analyze corrected OC to BC ratios. The OC to BC ratios, ranging from 1.3to 2.4, appear relatively constant and are generally unaffected by seasonality, sources or technology changes, at the locations considered here. The ratios compare well with emission inventories over Europe and China but are a factor of two lower in other regions. The reduced estimate for OC/BC in aerosols strengthens the argument that reduction of soot emissions maybe a useful approach to slow global warming.
The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.
A first set of laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and x-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options.
Date: November 11, 2005
Creator: Landen, O L; Glenzer, S; Froula, D; Dewald, E; Suter, L J; Schneider, M et al.