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Geysering discharge of a geothermal wellbore at Zunil, Guatemala

Description: Within two hours after discharge began, for a production test in 1989 of well ZCQ-4, pressure variations changed from approximately sinusoidal to a cycle of sudden and complex peak discharge pressures, to 9 bar, separated by irregular pressure declines to 5 bar. Initial cycle periods of 42 minutes evolved to 150 minutes by day 20 of continuous testing, when three of four surge peaks were well separated. Chemical signatures of fluids discharged with pressure surges were distinctive. When combined with downwell pressure measurements, assignments can be made for elevations of fluid entry points. The variety of chemical signatures indicates a scarcity of interzone connectivity. These constrained discharges are suspected to derive from altered rubble zones between layered volcanic rocks.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Michels, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change in Lowland Central America During the Late Deglacial and Early Holocene

Description: The transition from arid glacial to moist early Holocene conditions represented a profound change in northern lowland Neotropical climate. Here we report a detailed record of changes in moisture availability during the latter part of this transition ({approx}11,250 to 7,500 cal yr BP) inferred from sediment cores retrieved in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala. Pollen assemblages demonstrate that a mesic forest had been largely established by {approx}11,250 cal yr BP, but sediment properties indicate that lake level was more than 35 m below modern stage. From 11,250 to 10,350 cal yr BP, during the Preboreal period, lithologic changes in sediments from deep-water cores (>50 m below modern water level) indicate several wet-dry cycles that suggest distinct changes in effective moisture. Four dry events (designated PBE1-4) occurred at 11,200, 10,900, 10,700, and 10,400 cal yr BP and correlate with similar variability observed in the Cariaco Basin titanium record and glacial meltwater pulses into the Gulf of Mexico. After 10,350 cal yr BP, multiple sediment proxies suggest a shift to a more persistently moist early Holocene climate. Comparison of results from Lake Peten Itza with other records from the circum-Caribbean demonstrates a coherent climate response during the entire span of our record. Furthermore, lowland Neotropical climate during the late deglacial and early Holocene period appears to be tightly linked to climate change in the high-latitude North Atlantic. We speculate that the observed changes in lowland Neotropical precipitation were related to the intensity of the annual cycle and associated displacements in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Azores-Bermuda high-pressure system. This mechanism operated on millennial-to-submillennial timescales and may have responded to changes in solar radiation, glacial meltwater, North Atlantic sea ice, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC).
Date: February 8, 2005
Creator: Hillesheim, M B; Hodell, D A; Leyden, B W; Brenner, M; Curtis, J H; Anselmetti, F S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical modeling of the initial state and matching of well test data from the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

Description: A significant amount of geoscientific and reservoir engineering data have been collected from the Zunil geothermal field since 1973. The data have been used to define a conceptual model for the field which has formed the basis for the construction of a three dimensional numerical simulation model. The numerical model has successfully matched both the initial state of the reservoir, as indicated by subsurface temperature and pressure distributions within the presently drilled area, and available well test data. The well test data include short and long term discharge tests and a comprehensive pressure interference test. Calibration of the model will continue during 1991 when the results from drilling and testing of three additional deep wells are available. The model will then be used to study various long term production scenarios for the proposed 15 MW power development.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Menzies, A.J.; Granados, E.E.; Sanyal, .K.; Merida-I., L. & Caicedo-A, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Socioeconomic Status and Prosperity Belief in Guatemala

Description: A popular belief in the exploding Pentecostal movement in the global South is the idea that if an individual has enough faith, God will bless them with financial prosperity. Although historically Pentecostalism has been identified as a religion of the poor, this study examines recent arguments that the current Pentecostal movement in Guatemala is a religion of the socially mobile middle and elite classes. Data from the Pew Forum on Religious and Public Life’s 2006 survey Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala is used to conduct a logistic regression, in order to measure the effects of socioeconomic status on adherence to prosperity belief. Results suggest that, contrary to the current literature on Guatemalan Pentecostalism, prosperity belief is not necessarily concentrated among the upwardly mobile middle and upper classes, but rather is widely diffused across social strata, and in particular, among those that have lower levels of education. These findings have implications for the study of Pentecostalism in Guatemala and in the global South in general.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Johnson, Lindsey A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prosperity Belief and Liberal Individualism: A Study of Economic and Social Attitudes in Guatemala

Description: Globalization has facilitated the growth of “market-friendly” religions throughout the world, but especially in developing societies in the global South. A popular belief among these movements is prosperity belief. Prosperity belief has several characteristics which make it compatible with liberal individualism, the dominant value in a globalized society. At the same time, its compatibility with this value may be limited, extending only to economic liberalism, but not to liberal attitudes on social issues. Data from the Pew Forum on Religious and Public Life’s 2006 survey Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Guatemala is used to conduct a quantitative analysis regarding the economic and social attitudes of prosperity belief adherents in Guatemala in order to examine the potential, as well as the limits, of this belief’s compatibility with liberal individualism. Results suggest that support for liberal individualism is bifurcated. On one hand there is some support for the positive influence of prosperity belief on economic liberalism in regards to matters of free trade, but on the other hand, prosperity belief adherents continue to maintain conservative attitudes in regards to social issues. As prosperity belief and liberal individualism continue to grow along global capitalism, these findings have implications for the future of market-friendly religions and for the societies of the global South.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Huang, Lindsey A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

How Do I Use Renewable Energy in My Region?

Description: NREL can asses renewable energy resource information and integrate it with data using geographic information systems (GIS) and interface the data with key analytical models. Planners and energy developers use these integrated resource assessments to make decisions about the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and risks of developing projects in specific locations and for regional planning.
Date: November 1, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala

Description: This report is on a case study from Guatemala on malnutrition and food aid programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of food aid and/or food aid programs on the nutritional status of its recipients in two regions of Guatemala. From this investigation, empirically-based programmatic statements as to the role of food aid and its impact on human society will be presented.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D.
Partner: UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service

Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite]

Description: The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Orndorff, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Valdez]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story by reporter about Valdez, a reporter who went missing while on assignment in El Salvador and now returned to the U.S. This story aired at 5pm.
Date: December 5, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Script: Altrusa Dinner]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the Altrusa International organization having their fourth annual conference at the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth.
Date: October 24, 1959
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Valdez]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about about a reporter named Sal Valdez returning to the states after going missing during a reporting assignment in El Salvador. This story aired at 5pm.
Date: December 5, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Reporter]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a Dallas Spanish speaking radio station reporter named Sal Valdez that went missing in Nicaragua during a story assignment. This story includes an interview about Valdez and his possible whereabouts. This story aired at 10pm.
Date: December 3, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Sal Valdez]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story regarding a Dallas local Spanish-speaking reporter named Sal Valdez who went missing while working in El Salvador - showing still photographs of Valdez and including an interview with an unidentified man about Valdez back to the U.S. This story aired at 12pm.
Date: December 4, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Missing journalist]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a journalist named Sal Valdez who went missing during a reporting assignment in El Salvador, showing still photographs of Valdez as well as another man making radio announcements and providing an update about Valdez's welfare This story aired at 6pm.
Date: December 4, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Missing journalist]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a Dallas Spanish speaking radio station reporter named Sal Valdez that went missing in El Salvador during a story assignment. This story includes a brief interview with a man about Valdez's whereabouts. This story aired at 5pm.
Date: December 4, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Missing journalist]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a Dallas Spanish speaking radio station reporter named Sal Valdez that went missing in El Salvador during a reporting assignment. This b-roll footage includes a brief interview with a man about Valdez's whereabouts.
Date: unknown
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Hydrogeochemical exploration of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala

Description: Approximately 100 thermal and nonthermal water samples and 20 gas samples from springs and fumaroles have been chemically and isotopically analyzed to help evaluate the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala. Thermal waters of the acid- sulfate, steam condensate, and neutral-chloride types generally occur in restricted hydrogeologic areas: Tecuamburro-Laguna Ixpaco (acid- sulfate); andesite highland north of Tecuamburro (steam-condensate); Rio Los Esclavos (neutral-chloride). One small area of neutral-chloride springs east of the village of Los Esclavos has no relation to the Tecuamburro geothermal system. Neutral-chloride springs on the Rio Los Esclavos east and southeast of Tecuamburro show mixing with various types of groundwaters and display a maximum oxygen-18 enrichment compared to the world meteoric line of only about 1.5 parts per thousand. Maximum estimated subsurface temperatures are {le}200{degree}C. In contrast, maximum estimated subsurface temperatures based on gas compositions in the Laguna Ixpaco area are about 300{degree}C. The relation of neutral-chloride waters to the overall Tecuamburro geothermal system is not entirely resolved but we have suggested two system models. Regardless of model, we believe that a first exploration drill hole should be sited within 0.5 km of Laguna Ixpaco to tap the main geothermal reservoir or its adjacent, main upflow zone. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Goff, F.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Adams, A.; Roldan-M, A.; Meeker, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The direct application of geothermal energy to provide process heat in Guatemala

Description: One part of an energy and resource development program in Central America is a geothermal process heat project in Guatemala. The feasibility of the direct heat application depends upon the production characteristics and reliability of the geothermal source. Other factors are the distance from the heat source, quantity of use, and capacity factor of the use facilities. Favorable conditions would be distances of under 5 km, heat requirements approximately equal to the well capacity, and high capacity factors (say 60% or higher) in the industrial plants. Depending upon the values of these factors, energy costs of less than $1.00/million Btus to greater than $5.00/million Btus have been estimated. This can be compared to about $5.00/million Btus for petroleum-based fuels in Guatemala in mid 1987. A survey was made of existing industries in the Amatitlan and Zunil geothermal areas. In both Amatitlan and Zunil the existing industries are spread out over an area too large to be called an optimum. The most promising situation for an industrial park development is at Amatitlan, except that proven production wells are not yet available. At Zunil, production wells exist, but a diverse nearby industrial base does not. However, both of these two areas are sufficiently promising to merit further development. Consequently, a demonstration project is underway aimed at the ultimate establishment of an agricultural processing center at Zunil. This center would have the capability to process agricultural products by dehydration, freezing, and cold storage. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Altseimer, J.H. & Edeskuty, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system, Southern Guatemala

Description: Chemical and isotopic data from four fumarole sites combined with prefeasibility assessments obtained in the 1970s have resulted in a re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system. Moyuta consists of an east-west trending complex of Quaternary andesite/dacite domes and flows cut by north-trending faults. Areas of fumaroles, acid springs, and bicarbonate-rich thermal springs flank the north and south sides of the volcanic complex. Chloride-rich thermal springs discharge along rivers at lower elevations around the Moyuta highland. The distribution of thermal features indicates that deep reservoir fluid rises convectively near the axis of volcanism. Geochemical data suggest that there are two subsystems having temperatures of about 210{degrees}C (north flank) and 170{degrees}C (south flank). Exploration wells sited near the most northerly fumarole (Azulco) achieved temperatures of {le}113{degrees}C at 1004 m depth. We suggest the fumaroles occur above hydrothermal outflow plumes confined to vertical, fault-controlled conduits. Better drilling sites occur closer to the intersections of the north trending faults and the Quaternary volcanic axis. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Goff, F.; Adams, A.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Janik, C.; Fahlquist, L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

Description: A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Maldonado, O. (Consultecnia, Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cooper, L. (Energy Associates International, Albuquerque, NM (United States)) & Caicedo, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal initiatives in Central America

Description: The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica are being explored. Well-logging activities are in progress in the production wells at the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica, and preparations are being made for logging critical wells at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. A self-contained logging truck, complete with high-temperature logging cable and logging tools designed for geothermal service, is being fabricated and will be made available for dedicated use throughout Central America. Geochemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected in Panama are being evaluated to select a high-priority geothermal site in that country. Application of low- and medium-enthalpy geothermal fluids for industrial and agricultural processes is being investigated in Guatemala.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Hanold, R.J.; Loose, V.W.; Laughlin, A.W. & Wade, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

Description: The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department