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Midwest Flooding Disaster: Rethinking Federal Flood Insurance?

Description: This report examines the impact of the 2008 Midwest floods on the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in the context of congressional efforts to reauthorize and modify the program before its authorization expires on September 30, 2008. The report begins with an assessment of the risk of flooding in the United States and why Congress might move to rethink the current multifaceted approach to federal flood insurance. The report concludes with lessons learned from the 1993 and 2008 Midwest floods, and an analysis of the NFIP's current financial conditions and major policy issues, as well as a summary of legislative proposals pending before the 110th Congress.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: King, Rawle O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Evacuation Policy: Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses federal evacuation policy and analyzes potential lessons learned from the evacuation of individuals from Hurricane Katrina. Several issue areas that might arise concerning potential lawmaking and oversight on evacuation policy are also highlighted.
Date: November 12, 2008
Creator: Lindsay, Bruce R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an analysis of flood risk management, summarizes major challenges facing the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), and outlines key reforms enacted in the Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. The report identifies and presents some key remaining flood management issues for congressional consideration, and concludes with a discussion of policy options for the future financial management of flood hazards in the United States.
Date: February 6, 2013
Creator: King, Rawle O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95

Description: This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.
Date: March 24, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C. & Boissonnade, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

Description: This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S. & Boissonnade, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites. Revision 1

Description: This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.
Date: March 23, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin & Boissonnade, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What is the potential predictability of seasonal floods and droughts?

Description: The potential predictability (PP) of seasonal anomalies in continental hydrology may be thought of as the upper bound in forecast accuracy to be expected when the state of the oceans is known perfectly. We assume that the PP of the seasonal anomalies of continental hydrology is related to their degree of reproducibility in the presence of identical ocean boundary conditions across a number of simulations. In this study, the PP of seasonal anomalies in surface hydrological variables is estimated from an ensemble of 6 decadal integration of the ECMWF global atmospheric model coupled to a land-surface scheme which includes interception and transpiration by a simple vegetation canopy. Identical observed (AMIP) monthly sea surface temperatures are specified in each simulation, while the initial condition of the atmosphere and land surface are allowed to vary.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Phillips, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

Description: In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu Subsidence Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). The subsidence crater was used as a land disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988. Site disposal history is supported by memorandums, letters, and personnel who worked at the Nevada Test Site at the time of active disposal. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil form the tip of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that lead has been removed to concentrations be low regulatory action level. The area will then be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed, and certified by an independent professional engineer as to having followed the approved Closure Plan.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Parsons, Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

Description: Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Rabin, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new phase of matter in Oakland

Description: Recent results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the phase diagram of matter at very high energies were the focal points of Quark Matter 2004, held January 10-17, 2004 in the Oakland, California convention center. About 700 participants, including 125 students, from 28 countries gathered for 5 days of plenary and parallel sessions. Besides the scientific discussions, participants enjoyed an afternoon of excursions; choices included visits to San Francisco, the Muir woods, and, of course, a chance to sample Napa Valley wines. There was also a day of introductory lectures for graduate students and a separate afternoon program for 50 local high school teachers. The ''Quark Matter'' conference series has evolved into the premier venue for relativistic heavy ion collisions, and QM2004 was no exception. The 44 plenary and 92 parallel session talks featured a veritable flood of data from STAR (Kai Schweda, LBNL), PHENIX (Tony Frawley, Florida State), PHOBOS (Peter Steinberg, BNL) and BRAHMS (Michael Murray, Kansas), at RHIC. This was accompanied by contributions from HERMES ( Pasquale DiNezza, Frascati) and HERA-B (Joakim Spengler, Heidelberg) and continuing analyses from NA-49 (Marek Gazdzicki, Frankfurt) and NA-57 (Giuseppe Bruno, Bari) at the CERN SPS. The theoretical contributions presented a broad range of models and calculations, from microscopic particle-by-particle simulations to hydrodynamic models that model the bulk behavior using an equation of state. A focus of much discussion was the question ''Have we found the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)?'' This search was the prime motivation to build RHIC. Although the RHIC experiments made no formal statement, most conference attendees seemed to feel that the answer was yes. No single measurement makes the case, but the variety of data featured at QM2004 seems most easily explained in the context of a QGP. Some of the signatures included the suppression of high ...
Date: March 18, 2004
Creator: Klein, Spencer & Nystrand, Joakim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural phenomena hazards performance categorization guidelines for structures, systems, and components

Description: The purpose of this standard is as follows: (a) To provide, for the purpose of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) design and evaluation, criteria for selecting performance categories (PCs) of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in accordance with the requirements specified in DOE Order 420.1 and the NPH Implementation Guide to DOE Order 420.1. (b) To recommend general procedures for consistent application of the above performance categorization criteria so that the Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval process is simplified.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

Description: There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water ...
Date: November 11, 2003
Creator: Miller, Norman L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results and insights of internal fire and internal flood analyses of the Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during mid-loop operations

Description: During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states (POSs) other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies (CDFs), important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a Level 3 PRA for internal events and a Level 1 PRA for seismically induced and internal fire and flood induced core damage sequences. This paper summarizes the results and highlights of the internal fire and flood analysis documented in Volumes 3 and 4 of NUREG/CR-6144 performed for the Surry plant during mid-loop operation.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Chu, Tsong-Lun; Musicki, Z. & Kohut, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

Description: SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites.
Date: March 1980
Creator: Mara, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

Description: The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.
Date: May 8, 2001
Creator: Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A. & Mendez, Daniel L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

Description: The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

Description: The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils ...
Date: January 21, 1999
Creator: White, G. J. & Rood, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Evacuation Policy: Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses federal evacuation policy and analyzes potential lessons learned from the evacuations of individuals in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes of 2005. It also highlights several issue areas that might arise concerning potential lawmaking and oversight on evacuation policy.
Date: April 29, 2010
Creator: Lindsay, Bruce R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Military Commissions Act of 2009: Overview and Legal Issues

Description: This report provides an analysis of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and its financial status, summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency, presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses and describes pending legislation on this issue.
Date: April 6, 2010
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 3 Report - PCBs in the Environment Near the Oak Ridge Reservation - A Reconstruction of Historical Doses and Health Risks

Description: This report presents the results of an in-depth assessment of historical releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and risks of adverse health effects in local populations. The study was conducted by ChemRisk, a service of McLaren/Hart, Inc., for the Tennessee Department of Health. The project team (1) investigated releases of PCBs from the government sites, (2) evaluated PCB levels in environmental media in the area, (3) described releases of PCBs from other sources in the area, and (4) evaluated potential human exposures and health impacts associated with the historical presence of these contaminants in the environment. Beginning in the 1940s, PCBs were used extensively on the ORR and throughout the U.S. as a fire retardant in electrical components. PCBs were also used as cutting fluids for lubrication and cooling during metal working operations. Using information specific to the ORR, the project team estimated health risks for five off-site populations: (1) farm families that raised beef, dairy cattle, and vegetables on the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC); (2) individuals who may have purchased beef and milk from cattle raised in the EFPC flood plain; (3) commercial and recreational fish consumers; (4) individuals that may have consumed turtles; and (5) users of surface water for recreation. Noteworthy features of the study include a two-dimensional analysis of uncertainty and variability in the non-cancer risk estimates and an assessment of the uncertainty in PCB toxicology thresholds. Conservative estimates of cancer risks from the ORR releases of PCBs to consumers of fish from Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River range from less than 1 in a 1,000,000 to 2 in 10,000. Three or less excess cases of cancer would be expected to occur among individuals who consumed fish from these local waters since the 1940's. Persons ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Price, Paul S; Widner, Thomas; Bonnevie, Nancy; Schmidt, Charlie; McCrodden-Hamblen, Jane; Vantaggio, Joanne et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department