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Fire Management Assistance Grants: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about the Fire Management Assistance Grant, which authorized by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act provides various forms of federal assistance such as the provision of equipment, personnel, and grants to state, local, and tribal governments for the control, management, and mitigation of any fire on certain public or private forest land or grassland that might become a major disaster.
Date: September 25, 2014
Creator: Lindsay, Bruce R.; McCarthy, Francis X.; Hoover, Katie & Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed rational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environment. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EDF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.
Date: August 31, 1994
Creator: Brumburgh, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium Facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident. Revision 1

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous programmatic activities involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of improved and/or unique fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed in July 1994 to address operational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environmental. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EBF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.
Date: February 27, 1995
Creator: Brumburgh, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

Description: To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Balice, Randy G.; Miller, Jay D.; Oswald, Brian P.; Edminster, Carl & Yool, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation accident response of a high-capacity truck cask for spent fuel

Description: Two of the primary goals of this study were (i) to check the structural and thermal performance of the GA-4 cask in a broad range of accidents and (ii) to carry out a severe-accidents analysis as had been addressed in the Modal Study but now using a specific recent cask design and using current-generation computer models and capabilities. At the same time, it was desired to compare the accident performance of the Ga-4 cask to that of the generic truck cask analyzed in the Modal Study. The same range of impact and fire accidents developed in the Modal Study was adopted for this study. The accident-description data base of the Modal Study categorizes accidents into types of collisions with mobile or fixed objects, non-collision accidents, and fires. The mechanical modes of damage may be via crushing, impact, or puncture. The fire occurrences in the Modal Study data are based on truck accident statistics. The fire types are taken to be pool fires of petroleum products from fuel tanks and/or cargoes.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: O`Connell, W.J.; Glaser, R.E.; Johnson, G.L.; Perfect, S.A.; McGuinn, E.J. & Lake, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequence modeling for nuclear weapons probabilistic cost/benefit analyses of safety retrofits

Description: The consequence models used in former studies of costs and benefits of enhanced safety retrofits are considered for (1) fuel fires; (2) non-nuclear detonations; and, (3) unintended nuclear detonations. Estimates of consequences were made using a representative accident location, i.e., an assumed mixed suburban-rural site. We have explicitly quantified land- use impacts and human-health effects (e.g. , prompt fatalities, prompt injuries, latent cancer fatalities, low- levels of radiation exposure, and clean-up areas). Uncertainty in the wind direction is quantified and used in a Monte Carlo calculation to estimate a range of results for a fuel fire with uncertain respirable amounts of released Pu. We define a nuclear source term and discuss damage levels of concern. Ranges of damages are estimated by quantifying health impacts and property damages. We discuss our dispersal and prompt effects models in some detail. The models used to loft the Pu and fission products and their particle sizes are emphasized.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Harvey, T.F.; Peters, L.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Hall, C. & Stephens, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Titanium-tantalum alloy development

Description: Research has been underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory for several years to develop an alloy capable of containing toxic materials in the event of a fire involving a nuclear weapon. Due to their high melting point, good oxidation resistance, and low solubility in molten plutonium, alloys based on the Ti-Ta binary system have been developed for this purpose. The course of the alloy development to-date, along with processing and property data, are presented in this overview.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Cotton, J.D.; Bingert, J.F.; Dunn, P.S.; Butt, D.P. & Margevicius, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FSAR fire accident analysis for a plutonium facility

Description: The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for a plutonium facility as required by DOE Orders 5480.23 and 5480.22 has recently been completed and approved. The facility processes and stores radionuclides such as Pu-238, Pu-239, enriched uranium, and to a lesser degree other actinides. This facility produces heat sources. DOE Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 require analysis of different types of accidents (operational accidents such as fires, explosions, spills, criticality events, and natural phenomena such as earthquakes). The accidents that were analyzed quantitatively, or the Evaluation Basis Accidents (EBAs), were selected based on a multi-step screening process that utilizes extensively the Hazards Analysis (HA) performed for the facility. In the HA, specific accident scenarios, with estimated frequency and consequences, were developed for each identified hazard associated with facility operations and activities. Analysis of the EBAs and comparison of their consequences to the evaluation guidelines established the safety envelope for the facility and identified the safety-class structures, systems, and components. This paper discusses the analysis of the fire EBA. This fire accident was analyzed in relatively great detail in the FSAR because of its potential off-site consequences are more severe compared to other events. In the following, a description of the scenario is first given, followed by a brief summary of the methodology for calculating the source term. Finally, the author discuss how a key parameter affecting the source term, the leakpath factor, was determined, which is the focus of this paper.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Lam, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case study: Wildfire visualization

Description: The ability to forecast the progress of crisis events would significantly reduce human suffering and loss of life, the destruction of property, and expenditures for assessment and recovery. Los Alamos National Laboratory has established a scientific thrust in crisis forecasting to address this national challenge. In the initial phase of this project, scientists at Los Alamos are developing computer models to predict the spread of a wildfire. Visualization of the results of the wildfire simulation will be used by scientists to assess the quality of the simulation and eventually by fire personnel as a visual forecast of the wildfire`s evolution. The fire personnel and scientists want the visualization to look as realistic as possible without compromising scientific accuracy. This paper describes how the visualization was created, analyzes the tools and approach that was used, and suggests directions for future work and research.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Ahrens, J.; McCormick, P.; Bossert, J.; Reisner, J. & Winterkamp, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damage from the impacts of small asteroids

Description: The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its aerodynamic drag and rate of energy dissipation. The differential atmospheric pressure across it disperses its fragments at a velocity that increases with atmospheric density and impact velocity and decreases with asteroid density. Extending our previous work, we use a spherical atmosphere and a fitted curve to its density profile to find the damage done by an asteroid entering the atmosphere at various zenith angles. In previous work we estimated the blast damage by scaling from data on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. This underestimated the blast from asteroid impacts because nuclear fireballs radiate away a larger fraction of their energy than do meteors, so less of their energy goes into the blast wave. We have redone the calculations to allow for this effect. We have found the area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2} = 2.8 X 10{sup 5} dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings. About every 100 years an impactor should blast an area of 300 km{sup 2} or more somewhere on the land area of Earth. The optical flux from asteroids 60 meters or more in diameter is enough to ignite pine forests. However, the blast from an impacting asteroid goes beyond the radius within which the fire starts. It tends to blow out the fire, so it is likely that the impact will char the forest (as at Tunguska), but it will not produce a sustained fire. Because of the atmosphere, asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter are not effective in producing craters and earthquakes. They are also not effective in producing water waves and tsunami in ...
Date: August 15, 1996
Creator: Hills, J.G. & Goda, M.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source ...
Date: December 30, 1996
Creator: Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W. & Taleyarkhan, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

Description: The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.
Date: January 17, 1997
Creator: Barshick, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of time to rupture in a fire using 6FIRE, a lumped parameter UF{sub 6} cylinder transient heat transfer/stress analysis model

Description: The transportation of UF{sup 6} is subject to regulations requiring the evaluation of packaging under a sequence of hypothetical accident conditions including exposure to a 30-min 800{degree}C (1475{degree}F) fire [10 CFR 71.73(c)(3)]. An issue of continuing interest is whether bare cylinders can withstand such a fire without rupturing. To address this issue, a lumped parameter heat transfer/stress analysis model (6FIRE) has been developed to simulate heating to the point of rupture of a cylinder containing UF{sup 6} when it is exposed to a fire. The model is described, then estimates of time to rupture are presented for various cylinder types, fire temperatures, and fill conditions. An assessment of the quantity of UF{sup 6} released from containment after rupture is also presented. Further documentation of the model is referenced.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Williams, W.R. & Anderson, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hypothetical accident conditions thermal analysis of the 5320 package

Description: An axisymmetric model of the 5320 package was created to perform hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) thermal calculations. The analyses assume the 5320 package contains 359 grams of plutonium-238 (203 Watts) in the form of an oxide powder at a minimum density of 2.4 g/cc or at a maximum density of 11.2 g/cc. The solution from a non-solar 100 F ambient steady-state analysis was used as the initial conditions for the fire transient. A 30 minute 1,475 F fire transient followed by cooling via natural convection and thermal radiation to a 100 F non-solar environment was analyzed to determine peak component temperatures and vessel pressures. The 5320 package was considered to be horizontally suspended within the fire during the entire transient.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hensel, S.J. & Gromada, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of Atmospheric Dispersion of a Radioactive Plume Including Sensible Heat

Description: A postulated fire scenario in a Savannah River Site (SRS) laboratory facility could result in release of radioactive materials to the environment.The Technology Center is located in the general proximity of the site boundary.The relatively short distance to potential off- site receptors makes it important to consider the effects of plume rise and the effects of the sensible heat of the escaping combustion products. The potential consequences from the airborne release are calculated with the MACCS, Version, computer code. Calculation of atmospheric dispersion without consideration of plume rise results in a monotonically decreasing dose response. When the plume rise is modeled in the dose calculation, the results show that the cloud touchdown point and the location of highest off-site dose do not follow a monotonically decreasing pattern.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Hope, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire Department Emergency Response

Description: In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.
Date: September 1997
Creator: Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J. & Hudson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Releases of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

Description: Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R. & Anderson, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of incineration plenum fire: Building 771, July 2, 1980

Description: At about 1100 on July 2, 1980, a temperature rise above normal was recorded on charts monitoring operation of the incinerator in Room 149, Building 771. The plenum overheat alarm sounded at 1215, emergency actions initiated, and the fire was extinguished and mop-up began at about 1300. Investigation determined that the fire in the plenum was caused by a heat rise in the system, a deteriorated bypass valve on the No. 3 heat exchanger (KOH scrubber), nitration of the urethane seal on the HEPA filter media to the filter frame, and accumulation of metallic fines on the filter media. It was concluded that the management system responded properly, except for the ring- down system to activate the Emergency Operations Center.
Date: May 31, 1995
Creator: Fretthold, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deflagration analysis of the ITP facility utilizing the MELCOR/SR code

Description: Under certain accident conditions, waste tanks in the In-Tank Processing (ITP) facility may contain significant concentrations of benzene and hydrogen. Because these gases are flammable, a safety analysis was required to demonstrate that the risk posed by the possible combustion of these gases is acceptable. In support of this analysis, the MELCOR/SR computer code was modified to simulate the combustion of benzene-hydrogen mixtures. MELCOR/SR was developed originally to analyze severe accidents that may occur in the SRS production reactors but many of its modules can be used also for non-reactor applications such as combustion and aerosol and radionuclide transport. The MELCOR/SR combustion model (package) was originally configured for the deflagration analysis of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures. With minor changes to the coding in the combustion package subroutines, and the addition of benzene thermodynamic and transport properties to the input decks, MELCOR/SR was modified to analyze deflagrations in benzene-hydrogen gas mixtures. A MELCOR/SR model was created consisting of two control volumes connected by flow paths. One volume represents a type III waste tank; the other, the environment. The flow paths represent vents that open during the deflagration. Choked flow and radiative heat transfer from the hot gas to the cooling coils and tank walls are phenomonalogical aspects accounted for in the model. Results from MELCOR/SR compared favorably with results from two other codes: COMPACT, a code similar to MELCOR/SR used in the preliminary ITP analysis and DPAC, a code developed specifically to analyze deflagrations in SRS waste tanks. Peak pressures predicted by MELCOR/SR (and by DPAC) for realistic waste tank conditions do not exceed the pressure required to fail the primary line of the tank. ({approximately}23 psig)
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Allison, D. K. & Chow, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department