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Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective June 1, 2010. It also examines current legislation on identity theft and possible issues for the 111th Congress to consider.
Date: May 27, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Retail Crime

Description: This report provides an overview of organized retail crime (ORC) rings, their operations, and goods targeted. It then examines the domestic impact of ORC in the arenas of the economy, public health and safety, and domestic security. The report also outlines current efforts by retailers, resale markets, and the federal government to combat ORC. It then analyzes various policy issues that Congress may wish to consider, including whether current federal resources provided for the investigation of ORC are adequate, whether to amend the U.S. Code to criminalize ORC, and whether to regulate resale marketplaces that may be utilized as fences for criminals to sell stolen goods.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration

Description: This report provides a discussion of the National Drug Control Strategy, the National Drug Control Budget, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP's) evaluation of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation. It then provides an analysis of selected legislative and oversight issues that Congress may consider when debating the reauthorization of ONDCP. Policymakers may question the status of the war on drugs, whether drug use should be seen as more of a law enforcement issue or a public health issue, and whether drug control resources are more effective when directed toward prevention and treatment or toward law enforcement. Another issue for consideration is whether the National Drug Control Budget--as currently conceived--represents a comprehensive view of federal drug control activities in the United States. Further, Congress may exercise oversight over ONDCP's means of evaluating the nation's federal drug control programs.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Retail Crime

Description: This report provides an overview of organized retail crime rings, their operations, and goods targeted. It then examines the domestic impact of organized retail crime (ORC) in the arenas of the economy, public health and safety, and domestic security. The report also outlines current efforts by retailers, resale markets, and the federal government to combat ORC. It then analyzes various policy issues that the 111th Congress may wish to consider, including whether current federal resources provided for the investigation of ORC are adequate, whether to amend the U.S. Code to criminalize ORC, and whether to regulate resale marketplaces that may be utilized as fences for criminals to sell stolen goods.
Date: June 16, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides a background on organized crime in the United States as well as the tools that Congress has afforded for the federal government to combat it. It outlines the trends in federal efforts to investigate and prosecute organized crime. The report then discusses the evolving nature of organized crime, including the domestic impact of organized crime, prominent organized crime groups, and their illegal activities affecting the United States. It concludes with a discussion of issues that Congress may wish to consider, including the attention the federal government allocates to organized crime matters, the multilateral efforts to combat organized crime, and issues surrounding a potential nexus between organized crime and terrorism.
Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juvenile Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking: Juvenile Justice Issues

Description: This report examines juvenile victims of sex trafficking and their intersection with states' juvenile justice systems throughout the United States. It outlines the federal conceptualization of minors involved in commercial sexual activities and discusses factors that may contribute to the treatment of sex trafficking victims as perpetrators. It also outlines various criminal justice policy options and approaches to victim-centered policing.
Date: August 5, 2014
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence

Description: This report focuses on how policy makers would identify any spillover of drug trafficking-related violence into the United States. It provides an overview of Mexican drug trafficking organization structures, how they conduct business, and the relationship between the drug trafficking organizations in Mexico and their partnerships operating here in the United States; a discussion of the illicit drug trade between Mexico and the United States, as well as a discussion of factors implicated in drug trafficking-related violence; an analysis of the possible nature of any spillover violence that may arise, as well as issues involved in accurately identifying and measuring such violence; and an evaluation of available crime rate data and a discussion of how this data may or may not reflect changes in drug trafficking-related crime.
Date: February 28, 2013
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Downturns and Crime

Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues

Description: This report will analyze the current federal legislation that impacts the state juvenile justice systems. Although the report provides some background information on the evolution of juvenile justice in the United States, the main focus of the report is the major federal legislation that impacts the states juvenile justice systems, including the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).
Date: unknown
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions.
Date: August 26, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective November 1, 2009.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: This report first provides a brief federal legislative history of identity theft laws. It analyzes the current trends in identity theft, including prevalent identity theft-related crimes, the federal agencies involved in combating identity theft, and the trends in identity theft complaints and prosecutions. The report also discusses the relationship between data breaches and identity theft as well as possible effects of the FTC's Identity Theft Red Flags Rule, effective June 1, 2010.
Date: January 5, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Downturns and Crime

Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
Date: July 28, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Downturns and Crime

Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Crime Control Issues in the 111th Congress

Description: This report aggregates various issues surrounding federal crime control into five broad themes: violent crime control, combating fraud and theft, drug control, sentencing reform, and state and local justice assistance. Within these themes, the report examines more specific issues that confronted the 111th Congress. Issues discussed under the umbrella of violent crime control include hate crimes, gangs, and gun control. Issues related to the federal government's efforts to combat fraud and theft include identity theft and organized retail crime.
Date: January 25, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: Globalization and technological innovation have fostered the expansion of both legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders as well as throughout cyberspace. U.S. law enforcement has increasingly relied on intelligence-led policing, enhanced interagency cooperation, and technological implementation to confront 21st century crime. Issues for Congress are how it can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime. It may also examine whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: This report looks at issues for Congress related to expansion of legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders and through cyberspace as a result of globalization and technological innovation. In particular, it considers how Congress can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime and whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: This report looks at issues for Congress, such as how legislative and oversight roles can bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime, including operations in cyberspace. It also examines whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Date: July 19, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Description: In 2010, about 8.1 million Americans were reportedly victims of identity fraud, and the average identity fraud victim incurred a mean of $631 in costs as a result of the fraud—the highest level since 2007. Identity theft is often committed to facilitate other crimes such as credit card fraud, document fraud, or employment fraud, which in turn can affect not only the nation's economy but its security. Consequently, in securing the nation and its economic health, policy makers are also tasked with reducing identity theft and its impact.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the threat of organized crime against the United States, most notably organized crime from criminal organizations in Russia, Asia, Italy, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Africa. The report explores the issue of organized crime in relation to the economic downturn and national security, namely terrorism. The report also discusses how Congress is currently working to address these issues and includes information on relevant pieces of legislation.
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Retail Crime

Description: Organized retail crime (ORC) involves the large-scale theft of everyday consumer items and potentially has much broader implications. In an increasingly globalized society, more and more transactions take place online rather than face-to-face. As such, in addition to relying on physical resale markets, organized retail thieves have turned to online marketplaces as means to fence, or re-sell, their ill-gotten goods. One policy issue facing Congress is whether criminalizing organized retail crime in the U.S. Code would allow for more effective investigation and prosecution of these criminals. Congress may also wish to consider whether regulating resale marketplaces (online markets, in particular), to require such entities to increase information sharing with retailers and law enforcement, would strengthen investigations and prosecutions of ORC as well as decrease the prevalence of retail thieves relying on legitimate online marketplaces to fence stolen goods.
Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: This report provides an analysis of how organized crime has capitalized on globalization by using borders as opportunities, relying on fast-paced technological change, and adapting its organizational structures. It illustrates how these transformations can impact U.S. persons, businesses, and interests. The report includes a discussion of how U.S. law enforcement conceptualizes organized crime in the 21st century and concludes by examining potential issues for Congress, including the extent to which organized crime is a national security threat (partly to be tackled by U.S. law enforcement agencies), congressional oversight regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations, and the utility of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department