Search Results

Food Safety on the Farm: Federal Programs and Legislative Action

Description: In recent years, major outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, product recalls, and reports about unsafe food imports have caused some to question the adequacy of the U.S. food safety system. Stakeholders appear to agree that an optimal system should encompass a comprehensive, preventive approach to food safety, focusing on those foods and points in the food system that pose the greatest public health risks, starting at the point of production - that is, on farms and ranches. This report discusses differing opinions on this topic, as well as related legislation.
Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

Description: Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Tolbert, V.R. & Downing, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating the economic costs, benefits and tradeoffs of dedicated biomass energy systems: The importance of scale

Description: The economic and environmental costs, benefits and tradeoffs of bioenergy from dedicated biomass energy systems must be addressed in the context of the scale of interest. At different scales there are different economic and environmental features and processes to consider. The depth of our understanding of the processes and features that influence the potential of energy crops also varies with scale as do the quality and kinds of data that are needed and available. Finally, the appropriate models to use for predicting economic and environmental impacts change with the scale of the questions. This paper explores these issues at three scales - the individual firm, the community, and the nation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Graham, R.L. & Walsh, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm batch system and Fermi inter-process communication and synchronization toolkit

Description: Farms Batch System (FBS) was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at Fermilab. FBS will manage PC farms composed of up to 250 nodes and scalable to 1000 nodes with disk capacity of up to several TB. FBS allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on multiple computers. It uses a simplified resource counting method load balancing. FBS has been successfully used for more than a year at Fermilab by fixed target experiments and will be used for collider experiment off-line data processing. Fermi Inter-Process Communication toolkit (FIPC) was designed as a supplement product for FBS that helps establish synchronization and communication between processes running in a distributed batch environment. However, FIPC is an independent package, and can be used with other batch systems, as well as in a non-batch environment. FIPC provides users with a variety of global distributed objects such as semaphores, queues and string variables. Other types of objects can be easily added to FIPC. FIPC has been running on several PC farms at Fermilab for half a year and is going to be used by CDF for off-line data processing.
Date: February 20, 2001
Creator: Mandrichenko, I.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fermilab Computing Farms in 2001-2002

Description: The Fermilab computing farms grew substantially in 2001 and 2002. This reflected primarily the CDF and D0 computing demand increase as run 2 began and the two detectors and the accelerator performed steadily better, leading to more data and a greater demand for reconstruction computing. In addition, the ''fixed-target'' farms evolved away from the old model of direct tape input and output to a system that uses Enstore and dcache (network-based) as the I/O mechanism. This was part of a more general trend away from a large server used for all of the I/O and many common services and many workers to a model with many smaller systems serving as I/O systems with distributed disk storage. Other major technological achievements include the use of dfarm, a disk caching mechanism, throughout the farms, the upgrades of FBSNG, NGOP for monitoring the farms systems, and generally a more sophisticated management of the machines that constitute these farms. The growth in systems was quite substantial, from a total of 314 dual PCs in early 2001 to 649 duals in early 2003. This does not include the farms that were purchased for CDF and D0 analysis--the CAF and the CAB, nor does it include CMS PC systems. Those systems are sufficiently different in use (and are used differently by the collaborations) that they are treated separately. In future versions of this memo it is likely that all of the systems will be covered.
Date: June 11, 2003
Creator: al., Merina Albert et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of longitudinal emittance growth caused by negative mass instability in proton synchrotrons

Description: The theory of negative mass instability (NMI) in proton synchrotrons has been regarded as established for about thirty years, but both accurate calculations and solid beam observations for real cases have been difficult and practically non-existent. The wider availability of so-called computing farms has made credible macroparticle simulations practical for routine use. The comparison of a macroparticle model with the existing theory indicates interesting discrepancies, although the theoretical threshold is confirmed. That comparison and code validation for the model are discussed in the context of useful specific cases. The importance of perturbations other than statistical fluctuation as the seed of instability is considered.
Date: December 18, 2003
Creator: MacLachlan, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparative analysis of business structures suitable forfarmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

Description: For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus ''cooperative'' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.
Date: November 11, 2004
Creator: Bolinger, Mark & Wiser, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

Description: For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.
Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert & West, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

Description: This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.
Date: August 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interconnecting Single-Phase Generation to the Utility Distribution System

Description: One potentially large source of underutilized distributed generation (DG) capacity exists in single-phase standby backup gensets on farms served from single-phase feeder laterals. Utilizing the excess capacity would require interconnecting to the utility system. Connecting single-phase gensets to the utility system presents some interesting technical issues that have not been previously investigated. This paper addresses several of the interconnection issues associated with this form of DG including voltage regulation, harmonics, overcurrent protection, and islanding. A significant amount of single-phase DG can be accommodated by the utility distribution system, but there are definite limitations due to the nature and location of the DG. These limitations may be more restrictive than is commonly assumed for three-phase DG installed on stronger parts of the electric distribution system.
Date: December 5, 2001
Creator: Dugan, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

Description: This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.
Date: August 18, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

Description: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert & Borglin, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments: Progress Report October 1998 through November 2000

Description: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the US Bureau of Reclamation and the Panoche Water District, is conducting a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium (Se)-enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems which may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to the groundwater; increased exposure to the biota; and reduced productivity of farm crops. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through November 2000, as well as the results of these investigations.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; TerBerg, R. & Borglin, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water, energy, and farm production

Description: Electric utility rate deregulation can have disproportionate impacts on water-intensive crops, which have historically relied upon pressurized irrigation technologies and surface water resources. Based on a case study of agricultural growers in southern California, the paper models the impacts of utility rates considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region. The study was performed as part of the 2004 Power Marketing Program Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The empirical results reflect linear-programming estimates of the income transfers from growers to energy providers based on county-wide coverage of 13 junior and senior irrigation districts and short-run production possibilities of 11 irrigated crops. Transfers of income from growers to energy suppliers occur through their losses in producer surplus.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Ulibarri, C.A.; Seely, H.S.; Willis, D.B. & Anderson, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

Description: The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.
Date: February 5, 2001
Creator: Annamalai, Dr. Kalyan; Sweeten, Dr. John & Mukhtar, Dr. Sayeed
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

Description: Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.
Date: September 22, 1998
Creator: Lusk, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Description: This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current USDA disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance.
Date: April 28, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Farm scene]

Description: Photograph of a small farm in a valley. There is a fenced in crop area with a small farm house and out house off to the side.
Date: 194u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Farm scene]

Description: Photograph of a farm in the hills. There are multiple buildings adjacent to a fenced in crop area. There is an expansive mountain view in the background of the photograph.
Date: 1940
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Hilltop farm]

Description: Photograph of a winding hillside covered in farmland. In the immediate foreground there is sprouting corn stalks. In the background there is a large building at the edge of a grain field. This negative is listed on the envelope as 1-258 but labeled as 1-259 on the negative itself.
Date: 195u
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections