Search Results

A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

Description: A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J.; Schmor, P.; Altman, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations for FY2011

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) budget and operations. This report chronicles congressional action on the FY2011 Commerce, Justice, Science (CJS), and Related Agencies Appropriations bills, as well as any FY2010 supplemental appropriations bills, that provide funding for ATF.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations

Description: This report provides an overview of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives' (ATF) budget and operations. The ATF is the lead federal law enforcement agency charged with administering and enforcing federal laws related to the manufacture, importation, and distribution of firearms and explosives.
Date: August 6, 2009
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology for Geothermal Applications

Description: This report describes the development and testing of vector-wavefield seismic sources that can generate shear (S) waves that may be valuable in geothermal exploration and reservoir characterization. Also described is a 3-D seismic data-processing effort to create images of Rye Patch geothermal reservoir from 3-D sign-bit data recorded over the geothermal prospect. Two seismic sources were developed and tested in this study that can be used to illuminate geothermal reservoirs with S-waves. The first was an explosive package that generates a strong, azimuth-oriented, horizontal force vector when deployed in a conventional shot hole. This vector-explosive source has never been available to industry before. The second source was a dipole formed by operating two vertical vibrators in either a force or phase imbalance. Field data are shown that document the strong S-wave modes generated by these sources.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Hardage, B. A.; J. L. Simmons, Jr. & DeAngelo, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

Description: Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.
Date: February 3, 2012
Creator: Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L & Glascoe, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applying Science and Technology to Combat WMD Terrorism

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Wuest, C R; Werne, R W; Colston, B W & Hartmann-Siantar, C L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

Description: Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J. & Buffleben, George M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of Explosives Under Pressure in a Diamond Anvil Cell

Description: Diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies can yield information about the pressure dependence of materials and reactions under conditions comparable to shock loading. The pressure gradient across the face of the diamonds is often deliberately minimized to create uniform pressure over much of the sample and a simplified data set. To reach very high pressures (30-40 GPa), however, it may be necessary to use ''softer'', high nitrogen content diamonds that are more susceptible to bending under pressure. The resulting enhanced pressure gradient then provides a view of high-pressure behavior under anisotropic conditions similar to those found at the burn front in a bulk sample. We discuss visual observations of pressure-induced changes relative to variations in burn rate of several explosives (Triaminotrinitrobenzene, Nitromethane, CL-20) in the DAC. The burn rate behavior of both Nitromethane (NM) and Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were previously reported for pressures up to {approx}40 GPa. Nitromethane showed a near monotonic increase in burn rate to a maximum at {approx}30 GPa after which the burn rate decreased, all without color change. At higher pressures, the TATB samples had shiny (metallic) polycrystalline zones or inclusions where the pressure was highest in the sample. Around the shiny zones was a gradation of color (red to yellow) that appeared to follow the pressure gradient. The color changes are believed related to disturbances in the resonance structure of this explosive as the intermolecular separations decrease with pressure. The color and type of residue found in unvented gaskets after the burn was complete also varied with pressure. The four polymorphs of CL-20 ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, {var_epsilon}-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, HNIW) did not change color up to the highest pressure applied ({approx}30 GPa), and each polymorph demonstrated a distinctly different burn rate signature. One polymorph {beta} was so sensitive to laser ignition over a narrow pressure range that the sample ...
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Foltz, M F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Don't Mess with the NEST

Description: NEST stands for Nuclear Emergency Support Team. The NEST Mission Statement as first established: (1) Conduct, direct, coordinate search and recovery operations for nuclear material, weapons or devices; and (2) Assist in identification and deactivation of Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) and Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs). Then in 1980 a very sophisticated improvised explosive device was found at Harvey's Casino at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The FBI and Bomb Squads were unprepared and it detonated. As a result the additional phrase 'and Sophisticated Improvised Explosive Devices (SIEDs)' was added to the Mission Statement.
Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: Larson, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Directed Energy System for Defeat of Improvised Explosive Devices and Landmines

Description: We describe a laser system, built in our laboratory at LLNL, that has near-term, effective applications in exposing and neutralizing improvised explosive devices and landmines. We discuss experiments with this laser, demonstrating excavation capabilities and relevant material interactions. Model results are also described.
Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: Boley, C; Fochs, S; Parker, J; Rotter, M; Rubenchik, A & Yamamoto, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Explosive Bonding Process for Producing High Strength Bonds between Niobium and 6061-T651 Aluminum

Description: An explosive bonding procedure for joining 9.5 mm thick niobium plate to 203 mm thick 6061-T651 Al plate has been developed in order to maximize the bond tensile and impact strengths and the amount of bonded material across the surface of the plate. This procedure improves upon previous efforts, in which the 9.5 mm thick niobium plate is bonded directly to 6061-T4 Al plate. In this improved procedure, thin Nb and Al interlayers are explosively clad between the thicker niobium and aluminum plates. Bonds produced using these optimized parameters display a tensile strength of approximately 255 MPa and an impact strength per unit area of approximately 0.148 J/mm{sup 2}. Specialized mechanical testing geometries and procedures are required to measure these bond properties because of the unique bond geometry. In order to ensure that differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and niobium do not adversely affect the bond strength, the effects of thermal cycling at temperatures between -22 C and 45 C on the mechanical properties of these bonds have also been investigated by testing samples in both the as-received and thermal cycled conditions. Based on the results obtained from this series of mechanical tests, thermal cycling is shown to have no adverse effect on the resulting tensile and impact strengths of the bonds produced using the optimized bonding parameters.
Date: September 23, 2005
Creator: Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Brasher, D; Butler, D & Riddle, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density estimates. Objections raised by various parties to the use of a numerical ''discriminator'' in SiteStats/GridStats ...
Date: February 14, 2000
Creator: Ostrouchov, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

Description: The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must ...
Date: August 3, 2006
Creator: Valentine, G.; Krier, D.J.; Perry, F.V. & Heiken, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAMPLING AND MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES FOR THE DETECTION OF DRUGS AND FOREIGN CONTAMINANTS IN BREATH FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

Description: Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid phase microextraction ...
Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Martin, A N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-H-1, 116-H Reactor Stack Burial Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-053

Description: The 132-H-1 waste site includes the 116-H exhaust stack burial trench and the buried stack foundation (which contains an embedded vertical 15-cm (6-in) condensate drain line). The 116-H reactor exhaust stack and foundation were decommissioned and demolished using explosives in 1983, with the rubble buried in situ beneath clean fill at least 1 m (3.3 ft) thick. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.
Date: June 26, 2007
Creator: Dittmer, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary tables of six commercially available entry control and contraband detection technologies.

Description: Existing contraband detection and entry control devices such as metal detectors, X-ray machines, and radiation monitors were investigated for their capability to operate in an automated environment. In addition, a limited number of new devices for detection of explosives, chemicals, and biological agents were investigated for their feasibility for inclusion in future physical security systems. The tables in this document resulted from this investigation, which was part of a conceptual design upgrade for the United States Mints. This summary of commercially available technologies was written to provide a reference for physical security upgrades at other sites.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Hunter, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

Description: Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan & Schmitt, Randal L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.

Description: Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E. & Reichardt, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

Description: Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.
Date: September 12, 2007
Creator: Bliss, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Resonance Radiography for Explosives Detection: Technical Challenges

Description: Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has recently become a focus of investigation as a supplement to conventional x-ray systems as a non-invasive, non-destructive means of detecting explosive material concealed in checked luggage or cargo containers at airports. Using fast (1-6 MeV) neutrons produced by the D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction, NRR provides both an imaging capability and the ability to determine the chemical composition of materials in baggage or cargo. Elemental discrimination is achieved by exploiting the resonance features of the neutron cross-section for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. Simulations have shown the effectiveness of multiple-element NRR through Monte Carlo transport methods; this work is focused on the development of a prototype system that will incorporate an accelerator-based neutron source and a neutron detection and imaging system to demonstrate the realistic capabilities of NRR in distinguishing the elemental components of concealed objects. Preliminary experiments have exposed significant technical difficulties unapparent in simulations, including the presence of image contamination from gamma ray production, the detection of low-fluence fast neutrons in a gamma field, and the mechanical difficulties inherent in the use of thin foil windows for gas cell confinement. To mitigate these concerns, a new gas target has been developed to simultaneously reduce gamma ray production and increase structural integrity in high flux gas targets. Development of a neutron imaging system and neutron counting based on characteristic neutron pulse shapes have been investigated as a means of improving signal to noise ratios, reducing irradiation times, and increasing the accuracy of elemental determination.
Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Raas, W L; Blackburn, B; Boyd, E; Hall, J M; Kohse, G; Lanza, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Silicon Carbide Detector for Active Inspections

Description: The need to address increasingly challenging inspection requirements (such as large volume objects, very fast inspection throughputs, potentially significant shielding, etc.) for such items as nuclear materials and explosives will require the use of active interrogation technologies. While these active technologies can successfully address these challenges by inducing unique, temporal signatures, the inspection environment will also induce overall “background signals” that can be orders of magnitude larger than the induced signatures. Detectors that can successfully operate in these types of customized, inspection environments (pulsed and continuous) and successfully extract induced signature data are clearly needed and will effectively define the limitations of any active inspection system. A novel silicon carbide detector is now being investigated to successfully address both neutron- and photon/bremsstrahlung-type inspection applications. While this paper describes this detector and highlights efforts related to neutron inspection, it will focus on its neutron and gamma-ray/photon detection performance in neutron- and bremssstrahlung-type inspection applications.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Ruddy, F. H.; Seidel, J.G. & Flammang, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron Activated Shield Wall

Description: Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles in the immediate area. Identified as Corrective Action Unit 115, the TCA facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model, identified in the Data Quality Objective process. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. Key lessons learned from the project included: (1) Targeted preliminary investigation activities provided a more solid technical approach, reduced surprises and scope creep, and made the working environment safer for the D&D worker. (2) Early identification of risks and uncertainties provided opportunities for risk management and mitigation planning to address challenges and unanticipated conditions. (3) Team reviews provided an excellent mechanism to consider all aspects of the task, integrated safety into activity performance, increase team unity and ''buy-in'' and promoted innovative and time saving ideas. (4) Development of CED protocols ensured safety and control. (5) The same proven D&D strategy is now being employed on the larger ''sister'' facility, Test Cell C.
Date: September 16, 2007
Creator: Kruzic, Michael R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department