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Heat Shock Proteins in Ascaris suum

Description: Ascaris suum were exposed to a number of stressors, including heavy metals and both high (40°C) and low (18°C) temperatures. The 70kD and 90kD heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the different A. suum tissues were analyzed by Western blot and quantitated by Macintosh Image Program.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Chao, Sheng-Hao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Rapid Isolation and Purification of Plasmid DNA Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Description: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has been employed as an analytical tool for the purification and separation of nucleic acids. A Nucleogen DEAE 4000-10 weak anion exchange column, prepacked with modified silica gels, was used to purify and separate a number of Escherichia coli plasmids. Plasmid DNAs were extracted by the alkaline lysis method. The cleared lysate was injected directly onto the Nucleogen column, and the peaks were collected, desalted and analysed by gel electrophoresis. On the chromatogram, the pBR322 formed a distinctive peak at 27 minutes and partial separation was made for the E. coli V517 plasmids. Plasmid pBR322 showed a clear band without any detectable contamination on agarose gel. This purified plasmid DNA is biologically active for enzymatic reaction commonly used in genetic engineering techniques.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Nam, Kiebang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Noncovalent Crosslinking of SH1 and SH2 to Detect Dynamic Flexibility of the SH1 Helix

Description: In this experiment, fluorescent N- (1-pyrenyl) iodoacetamide modified the two reactive thiols, SH1 (Cys 707) and SH2 (Cys 697) on myosin to detect SH1-SH2 a -helix melting. The excimer forming property of pyrene is well suited to monitor the dynamics of the SH1 and SH2 helix melting, since the excimer should only form during the melted state. Decreased anisotropy of the excimer relative to the monomeric pyrene fluorescence is consistent with the disordering of the melted SH1-SH2 region in the atomic model. Furthermore, nucleotide analogs induced changes in the anisotropy of the excimer, suggesting that the nucleotide site modulates the flexibility of SH1-SH2 region.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Park, Hyunguk
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mechanisms of rapid receptive field reorganization in rat spinal cord

Description: Rapid receptive field (RF) reorganization of somatosensory neurons in the rat dorsal horn was examined using extracellular single unit recording. Subcutaneous injection of lidocaine into RFs of dorsal horn neurons results in expansion of their RFs within minutes. The expanded RFs appear adjacent to or/and proximal to original RFs. Out of 63 neurons tested, 36 (58%) show RF reorganization. The data suggest that dorsal horn of spinal cord is one of the initial sites for RF reorganization. The neural mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. We propose that changes in biophysical properties (membrane conductance, length constant) of the neurons resulting from lidocaine injection contribute to RF reorganization. Iontophoretic application of glutamate onto dorsal horn neurons that show lidocaine induced RF's expansion were used to test the model. Application of glutamate produced reduction of reorganized RFs in 9 of 20 (45%) tested cells. Application of NBQX produced no effect on either original or expanded RFs indicate that RF shrinkage effects of glutamate involve NMDA receptors. The results are consistent with the prediction of the proposed model. Subcutaneous injection of capsaicin into tactile RFs of low threshold mechanoreceptive dorsal horn neurons produced no effect on the RF sizes that are consistent with other studies. Following the injection, the original RFs were completely silenced (46%) or remained responsive (54%).
Date: August 2002
Creator: Vu, Hung
Partner: UNT Libraries

Subcellular Localization of N-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine Synthase in Cotyledons of Cotton Seedlings

Description: N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with free fatty acids catalyzed by N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) synthase was reported in cotyledons of 24-h-old cotton seedlings. Here I report subcellular localization of this enzyme. Differential centrifugation, sucrose density gradient fractionation,aqueous two-phase partitioning and electron microscopy techniques were utilized to elucidate subcellular site(s) of NAPE synthase. Marker enzymes were used to locate organelles in subcellular fractions. Differential centrifugation indicated that NAPE synthase is present in more than one organelle and it is a membrane bound enzyme. Sucrose density gradient fractionations indicated that NAPE synthase is present in membranes derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER),Golgi and possibly plasma membrane (PM) but not mitochondria, glyoxysomes or plastids. Aqueous two-phase partitioning experiments with cotton and spinach tissues supported these results but Goigi appeared to be the major site of NAPE synthesis. Electron microscopy of subcellular fractions was used to examine isolated fractions to provide visual confirmation of our biochemical results. Collectively, these results indicate that NAPE is synthesized in plant ER, Golgi and possibly PM.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Sriparameswaran, Anuja
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain Activity in Rats Exposed to Short-Term External Electrical Fields

Description: The effects of external electric fields (EEF) on brain activity in anesthetized rats were studied. The field strengths used, 9 kV/m and 5 kV/m, both D.C. and A.C. (60Hz) were in the range of those measured beneath current overhead transmission lines. Brain activity was monitored from surface electrodes and from electrodes stereotaxically implanted in the posterior-lateral portion of the hypothalamus. It was found that 9 kV/m and 5 kV/m EEF's both D.C. and A.C. brought about statistically significant changes in hypothalamic activity, however, the effects were bi-directional, (i.e. increases and decreases). Only seven of the 60 animals exposed showed changes in the EEG recorded with surface electrodes. The data clearly indicate that (1) anesthetized animals do respond to a change in the external electric field around them, (2) the hypothalamus may contain special electro-receptors that, in turn, may alter various other physiological processes, and (3) the data indicates the need for further research to help government agencies to establish more adequate safety guidelines.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hines, Gregory M. (Gregory Manuel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Long-Term Moderate Ethanol Intake on the Stress Response in Rats

Description: The effect of ethanol on the stress response in rats was examined. Experimental animals were given 0.25 ml of 28 percent ethanol or 0.25 ml of water orally once a day, five days a week, for a period of twelve months and were then subjected to fifteen minute cold stress. Corticosterone levels in ethanol-treated males following stress were significantly lower (22 percent) than in the sham group. Adrenal weights in sham-treated females were significantly higher (15 percent) than in the ethanol group at the end of twelve months. Mortality in sham-treated males was significantly higher (60 percent) than in ethanol-treated males. The effects observed may be due to the sedative action of ethanol on cortical centers controlling the hypothalmus.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Williams, Judy L. (Judy Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Calcium Channel Antagonists and Other Agents on Olfactory Reception

Description: The role of Ca++ in olfactory responses was investigated with inorganic and organic calcium channel antagonists. Electrophysiological responses to odorants were recorded from frog olfactory mucosa before and after aerosol application of different agents. Electroolfactogram responses were blocked by certain inorganic ions with the order of effectiveness Zn++ >Ln+++>Cd++>Ca++>Co++>Sr++>Mg++. Ba++ potentiated olfactory responses, and is known to potentiate calcium channel-mediated responses in other tissues. Certain local anesthetics which are thought to act through calcium channel blockade were inhibitory to olfactory responses, with the order of effectiveness being dibucaine>tetracaine>procaine. These data support the idea that Ca++ is involved in olfaction, perhaps acting as a current carrier and/or a second messenger. Preliminary experiments on channel localization were performed using a silicon-labeled amine. Attempts to localize the silicon label were inconclusive, although silicon was detected in the olfactory tissue.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Rosick, Edward R. (Edward Rudolph)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuroregulation and Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Ascaris Suum Obliquely Striated Skeletal Muscle

Description: Extraction and quantitation of myosin light chain two coupled with myograph recordings from Ascaris muscle perfused with calmodulin inhibitors and neurotransmitters in conjunction with their respective agonists and antagonists have been used to establish the regulation of contraction in this muscle. Densitometric tracings of isolectric focusing gels separating the regulatory light chain were used to quantitate phosphorylation in resting, contracted and flaccid muscle. These studies indicated that inhibitory neurostimulation is mediated by a true GABA receptor. Myosin-mediated contraction is responsible for maintaining the level of tension observed in resting actin-mediated muscle. Actin-mediated contraction is responsible for the rapid rise in tension following excitatory stimuli. Both systems function simultaneously and are independant.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Martin, Rex E. (Rex Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Long Term Modernate Ethanol Intake on Plasma Levels of ACTH, Beta Endorphin, and Corticosterone in Rats

Description: The effects of single injections and daily oral administration of ethanol on plasma levels of ACTH, beta endorphin, and corticosterone in response to cold stress were examined. The long-term experimental animals were given 0.25 ml of 28% ethanol or water orally once a day, five days a week, for fourteen months. Plasma levels of ACTH, beta endorphin, and corticosterone were lower in alcohol-treated rats as compared with water-treated rats when exposed to cold stress. The effects of a single injection of ethanol significantly elevated plasma levels of all three hormones. Mortality in sham-treated males was higher than ethanol-treated.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Breedlove, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ocular Hypotensive Effect of the α2-Adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine

Description: A selective a2-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, significantly reduced intraocular pressure (lOP) in intact ocular normotensive NZW rabbits, producing a differential dose-dependent decrease in IOP in'the ipsilateral and contralateral eye. Contralateral IOP reduction was most observable at low doses. Unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy and extraocular muscle excision studies were undertaken to elucidate the factors influencing differential IOP reduction by lofexidine. Similar significant contralateral decreases in IOP were noted when the agent was applied to either the intact or operated eye. Biochemical studies demonstrated that lofexidine inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated adenylcyclase in isolated iris-ciliary body preparations. Yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic antagonist, blocked this inhibitory response. Hence, these observations suggested that lofexidine's site of IOP reduction was probably at the cellular level.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Tran, Tung Vu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuronal Survival after Dendrite Amputation: Investigation of Injury Current Blockage

Description: After dendrite transection, two primary injury current pathways may acount for cell death: (1) the lesion current at the site of injury and (2) the voltage sensitive calcium channels along the dendrite. Lesions were made with a laser microbeam in mouse spinal monolayer cell cultures. Polylysine was tried as a positively charged "molecular bandage" to block the lesion current. The calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine, were used to reduce the calcium channel current. Control toxicity curves were obtained for all three compounds. The results show that neither verapamil, nifedipine, nor polylysine (MW: 3,300) protect nerve cells after dendrite amputation 100 ptm from the soma. The data also indicate that these compounds do not slow the process of cell death after such physical trauma.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Shi, Ri Yi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Description: The roles of Ca2 + and cAMP in olfactory transduction were explored using agents which affect calcium channels and second messenger systems. These agents were applied at certain calculated final concentrations onto olfactory epithelia of urethane-anesthetized frogs (Sana PiPlens) by two-sec aerosol spray. During extracellular recording, saturated vapors of isoamyl acetate were delivered every 100 sec in 0.3 sec pulses to produce an electroolfactogram (EOG). Inorganic cations that block inward calcium currents inhibit EOG responses with the following rank order: (La3+) > (Zn2+, Cd2+) > (Al3+, Ca2+, Sr2+) > (Co2+). Application of 7.5 mM La3+ eradicates £0G's, while Ba2+ (which can carry more current that Ca2+) initially produces significant enhancement (F=43.04, p<0.001, df=19). Magnesium ion has no effect on EOG's at 7.5 mM, while 1.5 X 10"4M Ca2+ is significantly inhibitory (F=5.74; p=0.0355; df=12). Control aerosol sprays of distilled water depress EOG's by an average of 5%. The organic calcium channel antagonists diltiazem and verapamil inhibit EOG's by 17% and 36X, respectively, at a concentration of 1.5 X 10~*M. Verapamil produces significant inhibition (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll) at 1.5 X 10" 5 M, while the 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nicardipine and nifedipine, do not inhibit beyond 1% DMSO controls. Several calmodulin antagonists decrease EOG's, but without correlation to their anti-calmodulin potency. Application of 1.5 X 10"*M chlorpromazine and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-l-naphthalenesulfonamide inhibit EOG's by 31% and 27%, respectively, while trifluoperazine inhibits by 23%. Dibutyryl cAMP, a lipophilic mimic of cAMP, produces 54% inhibition at 1.5 X 10" *M. Dibutyryl cGMP, cGMP, cAMP, and adenosine all decrease EOG's by less than 15% compared to distilled water controls. Forskolin, a reversible activator of adenylate cyclase, inhibits EOG's by 57% at 1.5 X 10"5M, which is significant beyond the 1% DMSO controls (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll). These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ participates in olfactory transduction. ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Winegar, Bruce D. (Bruce David)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Response of Freshwater and Saltwater Toxicity Test Species to Calcium and Salinity Concentrations Encountered in Toxicity Tests

Description: The responses of freshwater (Daphnia magna. Pimephales promelas) and saltwater (Mysidopsis bahia. Cyprinodon variegatus) toxicity test species to elevated calcium concentrations and changing salinity conditions were investigated. The use of salinity as a criterion for selection between saltwater and freshwater test species was investigated by conducting both calcium and salinity toxicity tests. Salinity was determined to be an inappropriate criterion under conditions encountered in this study.
Date: 1989
Creator: Price, Edmund E., 1954-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conformational Studies of Myosin and Actin with Calibrated Resonance Energy Transfer

Description: Resonance energy transfer was employed to study the conformational changes of actomyosin during ATP hydrolysis. To calibrate the technique, the parameters for resonance energy transfer were defined. With conformational searching algorithms to predict probe orientation, the distances measured by resonance energy transfer are highly consistent with the atomic models, which verified the accuracy and feasibility of resonance energy transfer for structural studies of proteins and oligonucleotides. To study intramyosin distances, resonance energy transfer probes were attached to skeletal myosin's nucleotide site, subfragment-2, and regulatory light chain to examine nucleotide analog-induced structural transitions. The distances between the three positions were measured in the presence of different nucleotide analogs. No distance change was considered to be statistically significant. The measured distance between the regulatory light chain and nucleotide site was consistent with either the atomic model of skeletal myosin subfragment-1 or an average of the three models claimed for different ATP hydrolysis states, which suggested that the neck region was flexible in solution. To examine the participation of actin in the powerstroke process, resonance energy transfer between different sites on actin and myosin was measured in the presence of nucleotide analogs. The efficiencies of energy transfer between myosin catalytic domain and actin were consistent with the actoS1 docking model. However, the neck region was much closer to the actin filament than predicted by static atomic models. The efficiency of energy transfer between Cys 374 and the regulatory light chain was much greater in the presence of ADP-AlF4, ADP-BeFx, and ADP-vanadate than in the presence of ADP or no nucleotide. These data detect profound differences in the conformations of the weakly and strongly attached crossbridges which appear to result from a conformational selection that occurs during the weak binding of the myosin head to actin. The resonance energy transfer data exclude a number ...
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Date: May 2000
Creator: Xu, Jin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Opioid/Adrenergic Interaction in Regulating Canine Cardiac Function

Description: Opioid/adrenergic interactions were studied to evaluate two hypotheses: (1) naloxone potentiates the effect of epinephrine on cardiac contractility by increasing circulating epinephrine concentrations; and (2) endogenous and exogenous opioids alter left cardiac nerve stimulationinduced norepinephrine release and cardiac function. A canine isolated heart-lung preparation was used for the first study. Plasma epinephrine was determined and myocardial epinephrine uptake was calculated during intravenous epinephrine infusion. Naloxone (4 mg) was given and the epinephrine infusion was repeated. Naloxone increased cardiac contractility, coronary blood flow, and the coronary sinus epinephrine concentration. When coronary blood flow was subsequently held constant (100% above resting), naloxone increased only contractility. This result indicated that the previously observed increase in coronary sinus epinephrine was flow dependent. Corticosterone (an uptake II blocker) was employed as a positive control. Corticosterone increased the contractile response to epinephrine, but unlike naloxone, corticosterone was accompanied by a clear decrease in myocardial epinephrine uptake. The stereospecificity of the response to naloxone was investigated and (+) naloxone equaled or exceeded (-) naloxone in potentiating the inotropic effect of epinephrine. In the second study, the left cardiac nerve was isolated and electrically stimulated in intact dogs. Norepinephrine overflow gradually declined during successive control stimulations. Pretreatment with naloxone (100 Mg/kg) prevented or delayed the decline. An intracoronary dynorphin 1-9 infusion (2 nmol/min/kg for 20 minutes) reduced both norepinephrine overflow and cardiac performance, and both effects were prevented by pretreatment with naloxone (100 /xg/kg) . To summarize, naloxone potentiated the inotropic effect of infused epinephrine without altering circulating epinephrine concentrations or myocardial epinephrine uptake. This effect of naloxone was not stereospecific and probably not mediated through a traditional opiate receptor. Endogenous and exogenous opioids inhibited the left cardiac nerve stimulation-induced norepinephrine overflow, suggesting that opiate receptors may regulate cardiac excitability by modulating norepinephrine release.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Gu, Hong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nucleotide Inhibition of Glyoxalase II

Description: The glyoxalase system mediates the conversion of methylglyoxal, a toxic ketoaldehyde, to D-lactic acid. The system is composed of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase II (Glo-II), and exhibits an absolute requirement for a catalytic quantity of glutathione (GSH). Glo-I catalyzes the isomerization of a hemithioacetal, formed non-enzymatically from methylglyoxal and GSH, to the corresponding a -D-hydroxyacid thioester, s-D-lactoylglutathione (SLG). Glo-II catalyzes the irreversible breakdown of SLG to D-lactate and GSH. We have observed that ATP or GTP significantly inhibits the Glo-II activity of tissue homogenates from various sources. We have developed a rapid, one step chromatography procedure to purify Glo-II such that the purified enzyme remains "sensitive" to inhibition by ATP or GTP (Glo-II-s). Studies indicate that inhibition of Glo-II-s by nucleotides is restricted to ATP, GTP, ADP, and GDP, with ATP appearing most effective. Kinetics studies have shown that ATP acts as a partial non-competitive inhibitor of Glo-II-s activity, and further suggest that two kinetically distinguishable forms of the enzyme exist. The sensitivity of pure Glo-II-s to nucleotide inhibition is slowly lost on storage even at -80° C. This loss is accelerated at higher temperatures or in the presence of ATP. Kinetics studies on the resultant "insensitive" enzyme (Glo-II-i) show that a significant reduction of the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate, SLG, occurs and further suggest that only one form of the enzyme is kinetically distinguishable after "de-sensitization". Tryptophan fluorescence studies of the two enzyme preparations suggest that a subtle conformational change in the enzyme has occurred during de-sensitization. We have also observed that Glo-II-i is "resensitized" to nucleotide inhibition after incubation in the presence of a reagent that reduces disulfide bonds. The resensitized enzyme exhibits an increased KM value similar to that of the original Glo-II-s. Kinetics studies show that ATP or GTP again ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Gillis, Glen S
Partner: UNT Libraries

Functional Properties and Organization of Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Description: The physiological characteristics and organization of cat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were studied in electrophysiological and anatomical experiments. In single cell recording experiments, quantitatively controlled mechanical stimuli were used to examine the responses of SI cortical neurons to the velocity component of skin or hair displacement. The firing frequency of most rapidly adapting neurons increased as stimulus velocity was increased. Rapidly adapting neurons were classified based on their response patterns to constant-velocity ramp stimuli. Neurons in these classes differed significantly in sensitivity to stimulus velocity and amplitude, adaptation rate, and spontaneous firing rate. The results suggest that frequency coding of stimulus displacement velocity could be performed by individual SI rapidly adapting neurons, and that the classes of rapidly adapting neurons may play different roles in sensation of tactile stimuli. Tract-tracing experiments were used to investigate the ipsilateral corticocortical connections of areas 3b and 2 in SI. Different patterns of connections were found for these areas: area 2 projects to areas 3b, 1, 3a, 5a, 4 and second somatosensory cortex (SII), and area 3b projects to areas 2, 1, 3a and SII. To further compare the organization of these areas, the thalamic input to the forepaw representation within each area was studied. The forepaw region in area 3b receives thalamic input exclusively from ventroposteriopr lateral nucleus (VPL), while area 2 receives input from VPL, medial division of the posterior complex (PoM), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP). These results suggest that area 2 lies at a higher position in the hierarchy of somatosensory information flow.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Esteky, Hossein
Partner: UNT Libraries

Subcloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Two Positive Acting Regulatory Genes, xy1R and xy1S, from the Pseudomonas putida HS1 TOL Plasmid PDK1

Description: TOL plasmids of Pseudomonas putida encode enzymes for the degradation of toluene and related aromatics. These genes are organized into two operons regulated by the Xy1R and Xy1S transcriptional activators. Previous analysis of the TOL pDK1 catechol-2,3-dioxygenase gene (xy1E) and a comparison of this gene to xy1E from the related TOL plasmid pWW0, revealed the existance of a substantial level of sequence homology (82%).
Date: May 1992
Creator: Chang, Teh-Tsai
Partner: UNT Libraries

Application of Synthetic Peptides as Substrates for Reversible Phosphorylation

Description: Two highly homologous synthetic peptides MLC(3-13) (K-R-A-K-A-K-T-TK-K-R-G) and MLC(5-13) (A-K-A-K-T-T-K-K-R-G) corresponding to the amino terminal amino acid sequence of smooth muscle myosin light chain were utilized as substrates for protein kinase C purified from murine lymphosarcoma tumors to determine the role of the primary amino acid sequence of protein kinase C substrates in defining the lipid (phosphatidyl serine and diacylglycerol) requirements for the activation of the enzyme. Removal of the basic residues lysine and arginine from the amino terminus of MLC(3-13) did not have a significant effect on the Ka value of diacylglycerol. The binding of effector to calcium-protein kinase C appears to be random since binding of one effector did not block the binding of the other.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Abukhalaf, Imad Kazem
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physiological Effects of Ascaris Suum Intestinal Microflora on 5-Hydroxytryptamine Level and Binding Sites in the Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Description: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to activate carbohydrate metabolism in adult female Ascaris suum. Serotonin may be either absorbed directly from the environment or synthesized de novo from the absorbed L-tryptophan in adult female A. suum. The enzymes necessary for the synthesis of 5-HT have been identified in both intestine and muscle tissues. The serotonin absorbed from the environment is obtained either from the host's gastrointestinal contents or from the 5-HT producing bacteria in the intestine of A. suum. Numerous 5-HT producing bacteria were identified in the intestinal microflora. The physiological contributions of 5-HT producing bacteria to the 5-HT level, turnover and binding sites in the intestinal tissue of A. suum were investigated.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Shahkolahi, Akbar Mohammadpour
Partner: UNT Libraries

Autophosphorylation and Autoactivation of an S6/H4 Kinase Isolated From Human Placenta

Description: A number of protein kinases have been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, but few have demonstrated a coordinate increase or decrease in enzymatic activity as a result. Described here is a novel S6 kinase isolated from human placenta which autoactivates through autophosphorylation in vitro. This S6/H4 kinase, purified in an inactive state, was shown to be a protein of Mr of 60,000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE and could catalyze the phosphorylation of the synthetic peptide S6-21, the histone H4, and myelin basic protein. Mild digestion of the inactive S6/H4 kinase with trypsin was necessary, but not sufficient, to activate the kinase fully
Date: May 1994
Creator: Dennis, Patrick B. (Patrick Brian)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Naloxone Potentiation of Epinephrine Induced Vasoconstriction in Canine Skeletal Muscle Arteries

Description: Naloxone (NX) potentiated epinephrine (EPI) induced submaximal vasoconstriction in canine renal and skeletal muscle arterial segments, yet had no vasoconstrictor action alone. Developed tension generated in-vitro by 4 x 1mm. O.D. rings from 1st degree branches of canine femoral arteries was expressed as % of KCI induced maximum response. NX (10^-5 M) potentiated EPI induced submaximal contractions (34.2%) significantly more than contractions induced by norepinephrine, phenylephrine, lofexidine, ADH, KCI and serotonin (13.8,13.4,4.7,13.5,14.4 and 11.4% respectively). The NX response was unaffected by beta-adrenergic blockade and NX did not reverse an isoproterenol mediated vasodilation. Alphaadrenergic blockade with phentolamine completely eliminated EPI plus NX induced vasoconstriction. After washout, vessels exposed to EPI plus NX relaxed by 50% significantly faster than vessels exposed to EPI alone (18.5 and 27.9 min respectively). EPI induced vasoconstrictions were potentiated by 10^-5 M corticosterone (49.0%) which inhibits extraneuronal catecholamine uptake, but not by 10^-7 M desipramine (1.1%) which inhibits neuronal uptake. EPI induced vasoconstrictions were also potentiated by 10^-4 M pyrogallol (33.0%) which inhibits catechol-o-methyl transferase activity, but not by 10^-5 M pargyline (-1.1%) which inhibits monoamine oxidase activity. The NX effect was endothelium independent. The dose-response of various opioid receptor agonists and antagonists were compared to the NX response. A specific opioid receptor subclass could not be identified as the mediator of the NX effect. The ED_50s for NX (3.7x^-6 M) and (+)NX (8.1x^-7M) indicated a significant stereoselectivity for the (+)enantiomer. A variety of sigma receptor ligands, steroids and steroid metabolites were tested for the ability to augment EPI vasoconstrictions. Several of the opioid, sigma and steroid ligands, all with polycyclic structures, induced responses similarto those of NX. NX exerted its effect independent of traditional opiate receptors and may have influenced the cellular uptake or degradation of EPI. Endogenous compounds with sigma or steroid activity may modulate ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Stoll, Scott Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chronic Ventricular Sympathectomy : Effects on Myocardial Metabolism

Description: Chronic ventricular sympathectomy elicits changes in the coronary circulation, myocardial oxygen consumption and size of infarction resulting fromcoronary occlusion. These changes indicate a change occurring in the basic metabolism of the heart in response to the removal of its sympathetic nervous input. This hypothesis was tested using two groups of dogs, a shamoperated control and a ventricular sympathectomized group. The sympathectomy procedure was an intrapericardial surgical technique which selectively removes ventricular sympathetic input. Four weeks after surgery, left ventricular tissue samples were obtained and rapidly frozen to -80°C. Selected metabolic variables were then compared between the two groups.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Adix Longlet, Nancy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries