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Minnesota Agripower Project, Task IV research report

Description: Economic analysis is being conducted by the Department of Applied Economics in support of Minnesota Alfalfa Producer`s development of alfalfa as a dedicated biomass feedstock for energy production. University Researchers have assisted in the development and implementation of inventory control systems and procedures. This report lists the tasks for which researchers are currently finalizing economic analysis. The tasks encompass three main areas: (1) optimization of feedstock transportation system, (2) analysis of market potential for new alfalfa products, and (3) total systems analysis.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Fruin, J. & Tiffany, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Effectiveness of Four Competing Scenarios in Explaining Economic Instability

Description: This study tests the relationship between certain economic scenarios and the state of the economy in regard to inflation and recession. Using data gathered from government publications, the economy was divided into periods of inflation, recession, and recession recovery. These periods were regressed against variables representing four schools of economic thought: monetarist scenario, structural scenario, power scenario, and micro, or supply side scenario. This study concludes that because of the complex nature of the economy, all representative variables have both positive and negative effects on the economy and no one scenario holds the key to economic stability.
Date: August 1983
Creator: O'Brien, Joan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

CO2 Effects on Mojave Desert Plant Interactions

Description: Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure from ...
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Defalco, L. A.; Fernandez, G. C.; Smith, S. D. & Nowak, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General-equilibrium approach to energy/environmental economic analysis

Description: This paper presents a brief critique of the use of fixed-coefficient input-output models for use in energy/environmental modeling systems, a shortcoming of input-output models that has been often been noted. Then, given the existence of aggregate, general-equilibrium, variable-coefficient growth models, a methodology is presented for using this information to adjust a recent disaggregated input-output table. This methodology takes into account all of the general-equilibrium aspects of the aggregate model in making the changes in the disaggregate model. The use of various weighting schemes and the implicit technological change biases they embody are examined. The methodology is being tested on historical tables for the United States, and preliminary results are discussed. This methodology's ability to fully capture the general-equilibrium nature of the economy should enhance the usefulness of input-output models in energy/environmental modeling systems.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Groncki, P J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Effectiveness of Four Competing Scenarios in Explaining the Causes of Stagflation

Description: This study investigates the relationship between stagflation and price stability and full employment and four economic scenarios and the economic condition. The data used in the study were obtained from government publications and were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. The standard inferential apparatus were employed. Give independent variables were found to be significant in explaining the causes of stagflation. These were: absolute change in M1, oil embargo of 1974, corporate profits, output per hour, and Iranian crisis of 1979. In conclusion, the causes of economic instability do not rest with one single theory or factor, but a combination of several.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Hurlbut, Toni T. (Toni Thompson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Final Technical Report

Description: The following report contributes to our knowledge of how to economically produce wildlife-friendly grass mixtures for future fuel feedstocks in the northern plains. It investigates northern-adapted cultivars; management and harvest regimes that are good for yields, soils and wildlife; comparative analysis of monocultures and simple mixtures of native grasses; economic implications of growing grasses for fuel feedstocks in specific locations in the northern plains; and conversion options for turning the grasses into useful chemicals and fuels. The core results of this study suggest the following:  Native grasses, even simple grass mixtures, can be produced profitably in the northern plains as far west as the 100th meridian with yields ranging from 2 to 6 tons per acre.  Northern adapted cultivars may yield less in good years, but have much greater long-term sustainable yield potential than higher-yielding southern varieties.  Grasses require very little inputs and stop economically responding to N applications above 56kg/hectare.  Harvesting after a killing frost may reduce the yield available in that given year but will increase overall yields averaged throughout multiple years.  Harvesting after a killing frost or even in early spring reduces the level of ash and undesirable molecules like K which cause adverse reactions in pyrolysis processing. Grasses can be managed for biomass harvest and maintain or improve overall soil-health and carbon sequestration benefits of idled grassland  The carbon sequestration activity of the grasses seems to follow the above ground health of the biomass. In other words plots where the above ground biomass is regularly removed can continue to sequester carbon at the rate of 2 tons/acre/year if the stand health is strong and yielding significant amounts of biomass.  Managing grasses for feedstock quality in a biomass system requires some of the same management strategies as managing for wildlife ...
Date: June 6, 2007
Creator: Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager & report., Subcontractors as listed on the
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seasonality of Annual Plant Establishment Influences the Interactionbetween the Non-Native Annual Grass Bromus Madritensis Ssp. Rubens and Mojave Desert Perennials

Description: Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts with the perennial ...
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Defalco, L A.; Fernandez, G. C. & Nowak, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Customer Response to RTP in Competitive Markets: A Study ofNiagara Mohawk's Standard Offer Tariff

Description: Utilizing load, price, and survey data for 119 largecustomers that paid competitively determined hourly electricity pricesannounced the previous day between 2000 and 2004, this study providesinsight into the factors that determine the intensity of price response.Peak and off-peak electricity can be: perfect complements, substitutes,or substitutes where high peak prices cause temporary disconnection fromthe grid, as for some firms with on-site generation. The averageelasticity of substitution is 0.11. Thirty percent of the customers usepeak and off-peak electricity in fixed proportions. The 18 percent withelasticities greater than 0.10 provide 75 percent of the aggregate priceresponse. In contrast to Industrial customers, Commercial/Retail andGovernment/Education customers are more price responsive on hot days andwhen the ratio of peak to off-peak prices is high. Price responsivenessis not substantially reduced when customers operate near peak usage.Diversity of customer circumstances and price response suggest dynamicpricing is suited for some, but not all customers.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Boisvert, Richard N.; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Neenan,Bernie & Hopper, Nicole
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

Description: In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Nelson, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

Description: This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Rooney, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 5/5

Description: This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).
Date: March 31, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAB evaluation of the Effectiveness of Partial Lead Service Line Replacements

Description: This is a report by the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of the Effectiveness of Partial Lead Service Line Replacement. Issues covered is blood level of lead in children, tap water sampling, partial vs. full service replacement, galvanic corrosion, and costs.
Date: September 28, 2011
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Freight Railroads: Industry Health Has Improved, but Concerns about Competition and Capacity Should Be Addressed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Staggers Rail Act deregulated the freight rail industry, relying on competition to set rates, and allowed for differential pricing (charging higher rates to those more dependent on rail). The act gave the Surface Transportation Board (STB) authority to develop remedies for shippers "captive" to one railroad and set a threshold for shippers to apply for rate relief. GAO was asked to review (1) changes in the railroad industry since the Staggers Rail Act, including rates and competition; (2) STB actions to address competition and captivity concerns and alternatives that could be considered; and (3) freight demand and capacity projections and potential federal policy responses. GAO examined STB data, conducted interviews, and held an expert panel."
Date: October 6, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empowering the Black Community Faith-Based Economic Development

Description: This paper is addressed to the inner city and some suburban congregations seeking to express their faith through practical initiatives to revitalize their distressed communities. The paper seeks to inspire and instruct the reader with motivational stories containing illustrations of the valuable role that African-American congregations have played in stimulating economic development in their communities. The paper also shows the importance of African-Americans having some control over the flow of economic funds throughout the community. African-American churches in the inner city should undertake significant ventures in community economic development to minister to the temporal as well as the spiritual needs of their communities. This paper will demonstrate how the African-American church, with assistance from federal, state, local programs, and private concerns, can be effective in the urban revitalization.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Gipson, Phillip E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

Description: The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.
Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Boisvert, Richard N. & Neenan, Bernard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dairy Industry: Information on Milk Prices, Factors Affecting Prices, and Dairy Policy Options

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2003, U.S. dairy farmers marketed nearly 19.7 billion gallons of raw milk, one-third of which were used in fluid milk products. Farmers, cooperatives, processors, and retailers receive a portion of the retail price of milk for their part in providing milk to consumers. During 2002 and 2003, farm prices fell while retail prices did not similarly decline. This pattern raised concerns about a growing spread between farm and retail prices. Farm prices have since increased, reaching record highs in April 2004. As requested, GAO examined (1) the portion of retail milk prices received by farmers, cooperatives, processors, and retailers, how this changed over time, and the relationship between price changes at these levels; (2) how various factors influence prices and affect the transmission of price changes among levels; and (3) how federal dairy program changes and alternative policy options have affected or might affect farm income and federal costs, among other considerations."
Date: December 29, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

Description: Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

Description: Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Relationships between Employee Stock Ownership Plans and Corporate Performance

Description: This work collected four years of financial data from an employee-owned firm and a traditionally-owned firm from the same industry. The data were then organized to provide measures of three dimensions of corporate performance: (1) employee turnover, (2) productivity, and (3) profitability. Based upon a review of the literature, employee stock ownership plans (ESOP) are reported to enhance corporate performance after their adoption. Additionally, ESOPs are purported to perform better than traditionally-owned companies. This dissertation developed hypotheses to ascertain whether or not the particular ESOP used in this study conformed to these expectations. The first set of three hypotheses was tested using multiple regression techniques to determine if the ESOP experienced a reduction in turnover, an improvement in productivity, and an increase in profitability following its conversion to employee-ownership. The results of the regressions found that there was no incremental significance. There was no improvement noted in the performance of the ESOP firm. Another component of this investigation was to determine whether improvements in corporate performance were temporary or permanent phenomena. This portion of the research was rendered superfluous when no improvements were available for analysis. The final question that was examined was whether the ESOP would demonstrate better performance than a traditionally-owned control firm during the post-intrusion period. There was no significant difference discovered in productivity and profitability. A marked difference was identified in terms of turnover. However, it was the traditionally-owned firm which performed better than the employee-owned firm—the opposite of what was predicted. These findings, although interesting, had to be evaluated as inconclusive because of innate differences between the treatment and control firms. The variance between the two companies may be attributed to such factors as company size and marked differences in their respective labor markets. The ESOP used in this study did not demonstrate any of ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Robinson, Robert K. (Robert Kirkland)
Partner: UNT Libraries