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A Theory of the Role of Medium of Exchange in Mergers and Acquisitions

Description: An acquisition bid is like any other proposal for risky investment. The difference arises due to additional source of risk arising from two different sources of information asymmetry due to private knowledge held by the bidder and target. We hypothesize that the bidding process evolves in a manner to optimize bidder's investment in the target through a process of joint signalling. Medium of exchange and bid premium are used as the two signal elements simultaneously by the bidder. We develop a multiple signalling model of the bidding process which is fully revealing in equilibrium.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Test of Allocational Market Efficiency in Takeovers Using Tobin's q Theory of Investment

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to investigate whether takeover markets are allocationally efficient using Tobin's q as the variable which summarizes the investment opportunities of firms. Chapter I presented the purposes, hypotheses, methodology, and limitations of the study. The two hypotheses proposed were as follows: Acquiring firms' q should be significantly higher than that of control firms, on average, and target firms' q should be significantly lower than that of control firms, on average. Chapter II presented the review of literature on takeovers and theory of investments. Chapter III presented the research design adopted to test the above hypotheses. The methodology to calculate q-values and methods to reduce the bias which may result from choice-based sampling were also given. A paired comparison t-test was employed to test the hypotheses. Sample firms were selected from the COMPUSTAT RESEARCH and COMPUSTAT INDUSTRIAL tape.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Kim, Keeho
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants of Outbound Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions by Emerging Asian Acquirers

Description: This dissertation identifies key determinants of outbound cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging Asian acquirers during 2001-2012. Using a zero-inflated model that takes into account different mechanisms governing country pairs that never engage in cross-border M&As and country pairs that actively participate in cross-border M&As, I uncover unique patterns for emerging Asian acquirers. Emerging Asian acquirers originate from countries with lower corporate tax rates than those countries where their targets are located. Furthermore, the negative impact of an international double tax burden is significantly larger than that found in previous studies. While country governance differences and geographical and cultural differences are important determinants of international M&As, relative valuation effects are muted. Coefficients of these determinants vary substantially, depending on whether targets are located in developing or advanced nations. Also, determinants differ considerably between active and non-active players in cross-border M&As. Moreover, comparisons of empirical models illustrate that estimating a non-linear model and taking into account both the bounded nature and non-normal distributions of fractional response variables lead to different inferences from those drawn from a linear model estimated by the ordinary least squares method. Overall, emerging Asian acquirers approach the deals differently from patterns documented in developed markets. So, when evaluating foreign business combinations or devising policies, managers or policymakers should consider these differences.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Punurai, Somrat
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of SFAS No. 141 and SFAS No. 142 on the Accuracy of Financial Analysts' Earnings Forecasts after Mergers

Description: This study examines the impact of Statements of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 and No. 142 (hereafter SFAS 141, 142) on the characteristics of financial analysts' earnings forecasts after mergers. Specifically, I predict lower forecast errors for firms that experienced mergers after the enactment of SFAS 141, 142 than for firms that went through business combinations before those accounting changes. Study results present strong evidence that earnings forecast errors for companies involved in merging and acquisition activity decreased after the adoption of SFAS 141, 142. Test results also suggest that lower earnings forecast errors are attributable to factors specific to merging companies such as SFAS 141, 142 but not common to merging and non-merging companies. In addition, evidence implies that information in corporate annual reports of merging companies plays the critical role in this decrease of earnings forecast error. Summarily, I report that SFAS 141, 142 were effective in achieving greater transparency of financial reporting after mergers. In my complementary analysis, I also document the structure of corporate analysts' coverage in "leaders/followers" terms and conduct tests for differences in this structure: (1) across post-SFAS 141,142/pre-SFAS 141, 142 environments, and (2) between merging and non-merging firms. Although I do not identify any significant differences in coverage structure across environments, my findings suggest that lead analysts are not as accurate as followers when predicting earnings for firms actively involved in mergers. I also detect a significant interaction between the SFAS-environment code and leader/follower classification, which indicates greater improvement of lead analyst forecast accuracy in the post-SFAS 141, 142 environment relative to their followers. This interesting discovery demands future investigation and confirms the importance of financial reporting transparency for the accounting treatment of business combinations.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Mintchik, Natalia Maksimovna
Partner: UNT Libraries