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Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate

Description: This report discusses the appointment of Supreme Court Justices, including the President's selection of a nominee and process to reach confirmation in the Senate. The appointment of a Supreme Court Justice is an event of major significance in American politics. Each appointment is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power the Supreme Court exercises as the highest appellate court in the federal judiciary. Appointments are usually infrequent, as a vacancy on the nine-member Court may occur only once or twice, or never at all, during a particular President's years in office. Under the Constitution, Justices on the Supreme Court receive lifetime appointments. Such job security in the government has been conferred solely on judges and, by constitutional design, helps insure the Court's independence from the President and Congress.
Date: September 3, 2010
Creator: Rutkus, Denis S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
Date: March 29, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) comprising nine members, two ex officio members, and other members as appointed by the President representing major departments and agencies within the federal executive branch. While the group generally has operated in relative obscurity, the proposed acquisition of commercial operations at six U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World in 2006 placed the group's operations under intense scrutiny by Members of Congress and the public.
Date: February 19, 2016
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Powers: An Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of separation of powers. It reviews the philosophical and political origins of the doctrine, surveys the structure of separation of power in the Constitution, and discusses the consequences of the system for both the institutions and for individual political actors. Finally, there is a discussion of separation of powers in the context of contemporary politics.
Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Description: This report provides a brief overview of procedures involved in vetoing a bill and the ways Congress can respond to a presidential veto. Presidential vetoes are a rejection of legislation approved by majorities in both houses of Congress. Vetoes and congressional efforts to override them are often the reason for, or a reflection of, conflict between Congress and the President. The threat of a presidential veto can prompt the modification of bills moving through the legislative process. Tabular data are provided on the number of presidential vetoes exercised by each President from George Washington to William Clinton.
Date: February 27, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Date: January 7, 2016
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Description: This report discusses Congress' power to override presidential vetoes. The President's veto authority is among his most significant tools in legislative dealings with Congress. It is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President.
Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress's oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Date: January 8, 2010
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. This law broadens Congress's oversight role in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy. It also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the implications of a foreign investment transaction.
Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statements of Administration Policy

Description: This report discusses Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) -- i.e., statements that communicate the Administration's position on upcoming legislation -- including structural components, the development of SAPs from the Ronald Reagan Administration to the present, the coordination of executive branch actors involved in issuing SAPs, the receipt of SAPs and their impact on government institutions, and possible reactions to SAPs when they are released publicly.
Date: June 21, 2016
Creator: Stuessy, Meghan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party states of such military items.
Date: April 19, 2016
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

Description: This report provides information on the timing of submission of the mid-session review for FY1980-FY2009, a 30-year period that covers all or part of the administrations of five Presidents, applying to the last two years of the Carter Administration, and the full terms of the Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations.
Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Description: he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Description: The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department