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Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report discusses Omnibus appropriations acts, which have become a significant feature of the legislative process in recent years as Congress and the President have used them more frequently to bring action on the regular appropriations cycle to a close. Following a discussion of pertinent background information, the report reviews the recent enactment of such measures and briefly addresses several issues raised by their use.
Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide discretionary funding for numerous activities--such as national defense, education, and homeland security--as well as general government operations. Appropriations acts are characteristically annual and generally provide funding authority that expires at the end of the federal fiscal year, September 30. These measures are considered by Congress under certain rules and practices, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report discusses the various aspects of this process.
Date: November 14, 2014
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Date: August 19, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Designation: Current Budget Rules and Procedures

Description: Budgetary legislation is constrained by certain enforcement rules that are generally intended to control spending, revenues, and the deficit. Since 1990, those rules have provided, in various forms, procedural mechanisms allowing Congress to effectively exempt certain budgetary amounts from such constraints by designating a provision in a measure as an emergency requirement. This report provides a brief description of the current rules and congressional procedures associated with the emergency designation.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Date: December 7, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Date: July 27, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the FY2011 continuing resolutions. The second segment focuses on the history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; CR types by duration; major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and funding gaps.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd Rule"

Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. This report discusses the Byrd rule, which provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Date: July 2, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the FY2011 continuing resolution. The second segment focuses on the (1) history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; (2) CR types by duration; (3) major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and (4) funding gaps.
Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals.
Date: April 2, 2013
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian L. & Tiersky, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments on, and selected provisions of, the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2009. The second segment focuses on the (1) history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of continuing resoutions (CRs) during the past 35 years; (2) CR types by duration; (3) major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and (4) funding gaps.
Date: October 16, 2008
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limitations in Appropriations Measures: An Overview of Procedural Issues

Description: This report discusses internal congressional rules and procedures regarding money and policy decisions. It begins by explaining the contrasting procedural contexts that influence the consideration of limitation provisions in appropriations measures on the House and Senate floor. Next, it defines the two forms of limitations that have been allowed under House and Senate precedents, with examples of previous purposes that have been allowed. This report then proceeds to identify the variety of substantive challenges that exist in structuring a limitation provision so that it does not constitute legislative language and thereby violate House and Senate rules. Finally, this report concludes by discussing the effect of points of order during floor consideration and the burden of proof that exists for proponents of limitation provisions to successfully overcome procedural objections.
Date: September 29, 2014
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The FY2016 Continuing Resolution (H.R. 719)

Description: This report discusses a resolution which would provide temporary funding to continue federal government operations through the beginning of the fiscal year, until annual appropriations acts could be enacted.
Date: September 25, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: This report discusses the following aspects of the congressional appropriations process: the annual appropriations cycle; types of appropriations measures; spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and the relationship between authorization and appropriation measures.
Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement.
Date: October 20, 2015
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the FY2016 Continuing Resolution (H.R. 719)

Description: This report provides an analysis of the FY2016 continuing appropriations in H.R. 719. None of the FY2016 regular appropriations bills were enacted by the start of the fiscal year (October 1, 2015). As of September 30, 2015, H.R. 719, a continuing resolution (CR) for FY2016, had passed the House and Senate.
Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revenue Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: This report discusses revenue legislation, which may include changes to individual and corporate income taxes, social insurance taxes, excise taxes, or tariffs and duties. Congressional consideration of revenue legislation is governed by various constitutional provisions and procedural rules.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Legislative Action

Description: This report discusses the budget reconciliation process that has been one of the chief tools used by Congress during the period covering from 1980 to the present to implement major changes in budget policy. Following a brief overview of the budget reconciliation process, this report provides information on the timing of House and Senate action on reconciliation measures.
Date: February 23, 2016
Creator: Lynch, Megan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Date: June 3, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconciliation Directives: Components and Enforcement

Description: This report discusses the purpose of the reconciliation process, which is to enhance Congress's ability to bring existing spending, revenue, and debt-limit laws into compliance with current fiscal priorities established in the annual budget resolution.
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

Description: This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request.
Date: March 10, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department