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Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

Description: The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R. & Wetz, T. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

Description: The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.
Date: March 17, 2008
Creator: Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Calibrated Maxey-Eakin Curve for the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

Description: Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin, which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Recharge rates are estimated on the basis that some fraction of annual precipitation will recharge, and that fraction will increase with increasing elevation. This results in a hypothetical curve relating annual groundwater recharge to annual precipitation. Field validation of recharge rates is critical in order to establish credibility to any estimate. This is due to the fact that the Maxey-Eakin model is empirical. An empirical model is derived from practical experience rather than basic theory. Therefore, a validated Maxey-Eakin model in one groundwater basin does not translate to a different one. In the WRD's Maxey-Eakin model, they used a curve calibrated against three locations in western Nevada and applied it to ...
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Davisson, M.L. & Rose, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

Description: Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Davisson, M.L. & Rose, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

Description: The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I. & LaGory, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

Description: This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S. & Poch, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

Description: It is widely recognized that increasing demands for water in Southern California are being affected by actions to reduce and redirect the amount of water imported from the Colorado River. In the Imperial Valley region, for example, import reductions will not only affect agricultural users but also could produce significant collateral impacts on the level and quality of water in the Salton Sea, its regional ecology, or even the long term air quality in the greater basin. The notion of using groundwater in the Imperial Valley as an additional source for agricultural or domestic needs, energy production, or Salton Sea restoration efforts, so as to offset reductions in imported water, is not a new concept. Even though it has been discussed recently (e.g., LLNL, 2002), the idea goes back, in part, to several studies performed by the US Department of Interior and other agencies that have indicated that there may be substantial, usable amounts of groundwater in some portions of the Imperial Valley. It has been estimated, for example, that between 1.1 and 3 billion acre-feet (AF) of groundwater lie within the extended, deep basin underlying the valley and Salton Sea region, even though much of it may be unrecoverable or too poor in its quality (Imperial County, 1997). This is a significant volume with respect to the total annual precipitation volume received in California, whose average is close to 200 million (or 0.2 billion) AF per year (DWR, 1998), and especially with respect to the total annual precipitation received in the Salton Sea watershed itself, which we estimate (Appendix A) to be approximately 2.5 million acre feet (MAF) per year. Clearly, a thorough appraisal of the groundwater resources in the Imperial Valley and Salton Sea region--i.e., an assessment of their overall physical availability--will be needed to determine how they ...
Date: January 11, 2008
Creator: Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of saline soils with multi-year remote sensing of crop yields

Description: Soil salinity is an important constraint to agricultural sustainability, but accurate information on its variation across agricultural regions or its impact on regional crop productivity remains sparse. We evaluated the relationships between remotely sensed wheat yields and salinity in an irrigation district in the Colorado River Delta Region. The goals of this study were to (1) document the relative importance of salinity as a constraint to regional wheat production and (2) develop techniques to accurately identify saline fields. Estimates of wheat yield from six years of Landsat data agreed well with ground-based records on individual fields (R{sup 2} = 0.65). Salinity measurements on 122 randomly selected fields revealed that average 0-60 cm salinity levels > 4 dS m{sup -1} reduced wheat yields, but the relative scarcity of such fields resulted in less than 1% regional yield loss attributable to salinity. Moreover, low yield was not a reliable indicator of high salinity, because many other factors contributed to yield variability in individual years. However, temporal analysis of yield images showed a significant fraction of fields exhibited consistently low yields over the six year period. A subsequent survey of 60 additional fields, half of which were consistently low yielding, revealed that this targeted subset had significantly higher salinity at 30-60 cm depth than the control group (p = 0.02). These results suggest that high subsurface salinity is associated with consistently low yields in this region, and that multi-year yield maps derived from remote sensing therefore provide an opportunity to map salinity across agricultural regions.
Date: October 17, 2006
Creator: Lobell, D; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Gurrola, F C & Valenzuela, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope tracer approaches for characterizing artificial recharge and demonstrating regulatory compliance

Description: Potable reuse of groundwater from wastewater origins requires new methods to quantify proposed regulatory criteria such as subsurface residence times, dilution, and water quality transitions. Isotope tracers oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O), tritium ({sup 3}H), dissolved noble gases, and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) have been used together in Orange County to age-date groundwater, quantify mixing, and characterize changes in total organic carbon (TOC). Simultaneous measurements of {sup 3}H and helium-3 ({sup 3}He) are used to determine groundwater ages between 1 and 40 years with uncertainties of plus/minus one year. These ages map preferred groundwater flowpaths and identify groundwater ages of less than or equal to 1 year. Wells recharged from the Anaheim Lake spreading basin were used to monitor arrival times and dilution of 6000 acre-ft of {sup 18}O-distinct Colorado River (COR) water introduced during a controlled recharge experiment. In addition, isotopically enriched Xe was introduced into the basin to quantify COR dilution of greater than 90%. The COR arrived at 7 wells between 30 and 200 days after recharge commenced. The COR was diluted up to 90% at distances and depths less than 1000 feet from the lake. Results suggest that dilution of 50% is obtained within 6 months from time or recharge. {sup 14}C measured in TOC of Anaheim Lake bottom water was 3 pmc higher than the DOC. The same water collected one month later in a nearby monitoring well, as confirmed by {sup 18}O, showed a 50% reduction in TOC concentration, and a 7 pmc decrease in {sup 14}C relative to the surface water. This result suggests that older carbon components increase in TOC after recharge.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Moran, J.E.; Neimeyer, S. & Herndon, R., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Rights Related to Oil Shale Development in the Upper Colorado River Basin

Description: Concerns over fluctuating oil prices and declining petroleum production worldwide have revived interest in oil shale as a potential resource. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58) identified oil shale as a strategically important domestic resource and directed the Department of the Interior to promote commercial development. Oil shale development would require significant amounts of water, however, and water supply in the Colorado River Basin, where several oil shale reserves are located, is limited. This report will provide a brief overview of water rights in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, including changes that may be made to currently held water rights and the possibility for abandonment of unused water rights.
Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lampsilis hydiana, Specimen #1447

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an oval shape; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Creator: Walker, J. B.
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula petrina, Specimen #1420

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an oval shape; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 100 - 120 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula aurea, Specimen #1396

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Truncilla macrodon, Specimen #1463

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an elliptical shape; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Truncilla macrodon, Specimen #1457

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an elliptical shape; white internal coloring; green external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Truncilla macrodon, Specimen #1439

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits an elliptical shape; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: August 9, 1891
Creator: Walker, J. B.
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula houstonensis, Specimen #1431

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be very-recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula houstonensis, Specimen #1428

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula houstonensis, Specimen #1427

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 100 - 120 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula houstonensis, Specimen #1430

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; white internal coloring; tan external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 0 - 60 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Quadrula houstonensis, Specimen #1429

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a round shape; bluish-white internal coloring; brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. The specimen measures between 60 - 100 mm in length and was assessed to be recently dead when collected.
Date: unknown
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Potamilus purpuratus, Specimen #681

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; pink internal coloring; reddish-brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Colorado basin. The specimen measures over 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: August 15, 1979
Creator: Britton, Joseph
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Potamilus purpuratus, Specimen #680

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including the right valve only. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; pink internal coloring; dark brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Colorado basin. The specimen measures over 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: August 15, 1979
Creator: Britton, Joseph
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Potamilus purpuratus, Specimen #682

Description: One preserved mussel specimen including both the left and right valves. The specimen exhibits a rhomboidal shape; thick shell; pink internal coloring; reddish-brown external coloring; no external sculpturing. Collected in the Colorado basin. The specimen measures between 100 - 120 mm in length and was assessed to be relatively-recently dead when collected.
Date: August 15, 1979
Creator: Britton, Joseph
Partner: Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum