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Adhesion and Surface Energy Profiles of Large-area Atomic Layers of Two-dimensional MoS2 on Rigid Substrates by Facile Methods

Description: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) show great potential for the future electronics, optoelectronics and energy applications. But, the studies unveiling their interactions with the host substrates are sparse and limits their practical use for real device applications. We report the facile nano-scratch method to determine the adhesion energy of the wafer scale MoS2 atomic layers attached to the SiO2/Si and sapphire substrates. The practical adhesion energy of monolayer MoS2 on the SiO2/Si substrate is 7.78 J/m2. The practical adhesion energy was found to be an increasing function of the MoS2 thickness. Unlike SiO2/Si substrates, MoS2 films grown on the sapphire possess higher bonding energy, which is attributed to the defect-free growth and less number of grain boundaries, as well as less stress and strain stored at the interface owing to the similarity of Thermal Expansion Coefficient (TEC) between MoS2 films and sapphire substrate. Furthermore, we calculated the surface free energy of 2D MoS2 by the facile contact angle measurements and Neumann model fitting. A surface free energy ~85.3 mJ/m2 in few layers thick MoS2 manifests the hydrophilic nature of 2D MoS2. The high surface energy of MoS2 helps explain the good bonding strength at MoS2/substrate interface. This simple adhesion energy and surface energy measurement methodology could further apply to other TMDs for their widespread use.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Wu, Min
Partner: UNT Libraries

A study of the impact of unconventional sources within a large urban area: Evidence from spatio-temporal assessment of volatile organic compounds.

Description: Conventional sources of emissions have been a prime target for policymakers in designing pollution control strategies. However, the evolution of shale gas activities is a growing concern over the impact of unconventional sources on urban and regional air quality. Owing to the development of Barnett Shale production, the fast-growing Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex has encountered both types of these emissions. Oil and gas activities result in emissions of ozone precursors, notably volatile organic compounds (VOC). The major objective of this study was to evaluate the spatio-temporal distribution of VOC in order to highlight the influence of unconventional emissions. The study utilized measurements from automated gas chromatography (AutoGC) monitors to analyze the patterns of the total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) and relative contributions from marker species of traffic versus oil and gas activities. In this study, data from 2001-2014 was obtained from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) for fifteen monitoring sites within the North Texas region. With over a thousand wells in a 10 mile radius, two of the rural sites measured twice as much TNMOC as compared to the urban site in Dallas. Source apportionment analysis was conducted using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique. The target site located in the urban zone resolved an eight factor model. Natural gas signature was the dominant source of emission with a 52% contribution followed by 31% from two separate traffic-related sources. Considering ethane to be the dominant species in oil and gas emissions, it was observed that the rising ethane/NOx ratio correlated with increasing annual average ozone post-2007. In this period, higher concentration of ozone was found to be associated with stronger winds from the Barnett Shale area – a region that did not seem to contribute to high ozone during 2001-2007. With traffic emissions having flattened over the years, the ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Matin, Maleeha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantification of Human Thermal Comfort for Residential Building's Energy Saving

Description: Providing conditioned and fully controlled room is the final goal for having a comfortable building. But on the other hand making smart controllers to provide the required cooling or heating load depending on occupants' real time feeling is necessary. This study has emphasized on finding a meaningful and steady state parameter in human body that can be interpreted as comfort criterion which can be expressed as the general occupants' sensation through their ambient temperature. There are lots of researches on human physiological behavior in different situations and also different body parts reaction to the same ambient situation. Body parts which have the biggest reliable linear fluctuation to the changes are the best subject for this research. For these tests, wrist and palm have been selected and their temperatures on different people have been measured accurately with thermal camera to follow the temperature trend on various comfort levels. It is found that each person reaches to his own unique temperature on these two spots, when he/ she feels comfortable, or in other word each person's body temperature is a precise nominate for comfort feeling of that individual. So in future by having this unique comfort parameter and applying them to the HVAC system temperature control, controlling the dynamic temperature and correlating the indoor condition depending on the occupants instant thermal comfort level, would be a rational choice to bring convenience while energy has been saved more.
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Date: August 2016
Creator: Sharifani, Pooya
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of a Novel Vapor Chamber for Efficient Heat Spreading and Removal for Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles

Description: This work investigated a novel vapor chamber for efficient heat spreading and heat removal. A vapor chamber acting as a heat spreader enables for more uniform temperature distribution along the surface of the device being cooled. First, a vapor chamber was studied and compared with the traditional copper heat spreader. The thickness of vapor chamber was kept 1.35 mm which was considered to be ultra-thin vapor chamber. Then, a new geometrical model having graphite foam in vapor space was proposed where the graphite foam material was incorporated in vapor space as square cubes. The effects of incorporating graphite foam in vapor space were compared to the vapor chamber without the embedded graphite foam to investigate the heat transfer performance improvements of vapor chamber by the high thermal conductivity graphite foam. Finally, the effects of various vapor chamber thicknesses were studied through numerical simulations. It was found that thinner vapor chamber (1.35 mm thickness) had better heat transfer performance than thicker vapor chamber (5 mm thickness) because of the extreme high effective thermal conductivities of ultra-thin vapor chamber. Furthermore, the effect of graphite foam on thermal performance improvement was very minor for ultra-thin vapor chamber, but significant for thick vapor chamber. The GF could help reduce the junction temperature by 15-30% in the 5-mm thick vapor chamber. Use of GF embedded vapor chamber could achieve 250-400 Watt per Centimeter square local heat removal for power electronics. The application of this is not only limited to electronic devices but actuator and avionics cooling in aircrafts, thermal management of electronics in directed energy weapon systems, battery thermal management for electric and hybrid vehicles, smart phones cooling, thus covering a wide gamut of heat flux applications.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Patel, Anand Kishorbhai
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of the Effect of Particle Size and Particle Loading on Thermal Conductivity and Dielectric Strength of Thermoset Polymers

Description: Semiconductor die attach materials for high voltage, high reliability analog devices require high thermal conductivity and retention of dielectric strength. A comparative study of effective thermal conductivity and dielectric strength of selected thermoset/ceramic composites was conducted to determine the effect of ceramic particle size and ceramic particle loading on thermoset polymers. The polymer chosen for this study is bismaleimide, a common aerospace material chosen for its strength and thermal stability. The reinforcing material chosen for this study is a ceramic, hexagonal boron nitride. Thermal conductivity and dielectric breakdown strength are measured in low and high concentrations of hexagonal boron nitride. Adhesive fracture toughness of the composite is evaluated on copper to determine the composite’s adhesive qualities. SEM imaging of composite cross-sections is used to visualize particle orientation within the matrix. Micro-indentation is used to measure mechanical properties of the composites which display increased mechanical performance in loading beyond the percolation threshold of the material. Thermal conductivity of the base polymer increases by a factor of 50 in 80%wt loading of 50µm hBN accompanied by a 10% increase in composite dielectric strength. A relationship between particle size and effective thermal conductivity is established through comparison of experimental data with an empirical model of effective thermal conductivity of composite materials.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Warner, Nathaniel Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Filled Bismalemide Polymer Composites for Thermal and Electrical Properties for Electronic Packaging

Description: Due to the multi-tasking and miniaturization of electronic devices, faster heat transfer is required from the device to avoid the thermal failure. Die-attached polymer adhesives are used to bond the chips in electronic packaging. These adhesives have to hold strong mechanical, thermal, dielectric, and moisture resistant properties. As polymers are insulators, heat conductive particles are inserted in it to enhance the thermal flow with an attention that there would be no electrical conductivity as well as no reduction in dielectric strength. This thesis focuses on the characterization of polymer nanocomposites for thermal and electrical properties with experimental and computational tools. Platelet geometry of hexagonal boron nitride offers highly anisotropic properties. Therefore, their alignment and degree of orientation offers tunable properties in polymer nanocomposites for thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. This thesis intends to model the anisotropic behavior of thermal and dielectric properties using finite element and molecular dynamics simulations as well as experimental validation.
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Date: December 2016
Creator: Uddin, Md Salah
Partner: UNT Libraries

Deleterious Synergistic Effects of Concurrent Magnetic Field and Superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) Nanoparticle Exposures on CHO-K1 Cell Line

Description: While many investigations have been performed to establish a better understanding of the effects that magnetic fields and nanoparticles have on cells, the fundamental mechanisms behind the interactions are still yet unknown, and investigations on concurrent exposure are quite limited in scope. This study was therefore established to investigate the biological impact of concurrent exposure to magnetic nanoparticles and extremely-low frequency magnetic fields using an in-vitro CHO-K1 cell line model, in an easily reproducible manner to establish grounds for further in-depth mechanistic, proteomic, and genomic studies. Cells were cultured and exposed to 10nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and DC or low frequency (0Hz, 50Hz, and 100Hz) 2.0mT magnetic fields produced by a Helmholtz coil pair. The cells were then observed under confocal fluorescence microscopy, and subject to MTT biological assay to determine the synergistic effects of these concurrent exposures. No effects were observed on cell morphology or microtubule network; however, cell viability was observed to decrease more drastically under the combined effects of magnetic field and nanoparticle exposures, as compared to independent exposures alone. It was concluded that no significant difference was observed between the types of magnetic fields, and their effects on the nanoparticle exposed cells, but quite clearly there are deleterious synergistic effects of these concurrent magnetic field and nanoparticle exposure conditions.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Coker, Zachary
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of an Investment Casting Method Combined with Additive Manufacturing Methods for Manufacturing Lattice Structures

Description: Cellular metals exhibit combinations of mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties that provide opportunities for various implementations and applications; light weight aerospace and automobile structures, impact and noise absorption, heat dissipation, and heat exchange. Engineered cell topologies enable one to control mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of the gross cell structures. A possible way to manufacture complex 3D metallic cellular solids for mass production with a relatively low cost, the investment casting (IC) method may be used by combining the rapid prototyping (RP) of wax or injection molding. In spite of its potential to produce mass products of various 3D cellular metals, the method is known to have significant casting porosity as a consequence of the complex cellular topology which makes continuous fluid's access to the solidification interface difficult. The effects of temperature on the viscosity of the fluids were studied. A comparative cost analysis between AM-IC and additive manufacturing methods is carried out. In order to manufacture 3D cellular metals with various topologies for multi-functional applications, the casting porosity should be resolved. In this study, the relations between casting porosity and processing conditions of molten metals while interconnecting with complex cellular geometries are investigated. Temperature, and pressure conditions on the rapid prototyping – investment casting (RP-IC) method are reported, thermal stresses induced are also studied. The manufactured samples are compared with those made by additive manufacturing methods.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Kodira, Ganapathy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ultrafast Laser Sampling of a Plant Tissue and ion Conductivity Measurement for Investigation of Light Stress Generation Mechanisms

Description: In this study we applied ultra-short laser pulses on a biological sample (Arabidopsis), in order to cut it precisely in a square pattern and subsequently use it for studying stress generation mechanisms. For this purpose, we utilized femtosecond laser pulses at 100 fs pulse width and 80 MHz repetition rate. We took two processing parameters into consideration such as laser power, laser exposure time which is related to the stage speed. Therefore, we were able to find the laser optimum conditions for ablation of biological tissues. The mutant and wildtype (control) obtained from laser cutting with a size of 500 µm × 500 µm were directly transferred (in-situ with laser cutting) into a microfabricated chamber containing ~500 nanoliters deionized water for measuring ion conductivity. The ion conductivity is a signature of cell-death mechanisms caused by various stresses. A light with intensity of 100 µmol was exposed to the samples for 2 hours and 20 minutes as a source of stress. A quantitative electrical analysis with high accuracy was assured by utilizing a microchamber, which enables a measurement in nanoliter volume. We measured the impedance which is reciprocal of conductivity using a lock-in amplifier and a precise current source at frequency of 130 Hz. Initially high impedance of mutant sample tended to drop within 2 hours and finally approached the constant value which signified that the cell death mechanism was complete. However, the wildtype sample demonstrated approximately constant impedance (conductivity) during the experiment.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Abtahi, Seyed Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanophotonic Devices

Description: The emergence of optical applications, such as lasers, fiber optics, and semiconductor based sources and detectors, has created a drive for smaller and more specialized devices. Nanophotonics is an emerging field of study that encompasses the disciplines of physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and biomedical technology. In particular, nanophotonics explores optical processes on a nanoscale. This dissertation presents nanophotonic applications that incorporate various forms of the organic polymer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) with inorganic semiconductors. This includes the material characterization of NIPA, with such techniques as ellipsometry and dynamic light scattering. Two devices were constructed incorporating the NIPA hydrogel with semiconductors. The first device comprises a PNIPAM-CdTe hybrid material. The PNIPAM is a means for the control of distances between CdTe quantum dots encapsulated within the hydrogel. Controlling the distance between the quantum dots allows for the control of resonant energy transfer between neighboring quantum dots. Whereby, providing a means for controlling the temperature dependent red-shifts in photoluminescent peaks and FWHM. Further, enhancement of photoluminescent due to increased scattering in the medium is shown as a function of temperature. The second device incorporates NIPA into a 2D photonic crystal patterned on GaAs. The refractive index change of the NIPA hydrogel as it undergoes its phase change creates a controllable mechanism for adjusting the transmittance of light frequencies through a linear defect in a photonic crystal. The NIPA infiltrated photonic crystal shows greater shifts in the bandwidth per ºC than any liquid crystal methods. This dissertation demonstrates the versatile uses of hydrogel, as a means of control in nanophotonic devices, and will likely lead to development of other hybrid applications. The development of smaller light based applications will facilitate the need to augment the devices with control mechanism and will play an increasing important role in the future.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Garner, Brett William
Partner: UNT Libraries

High-Precision Micropipette Thermal Sensor for Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotubes Thin Film

Description: The thesis describes novel glass micropipette thermal sensor fabricated in cost-effective manner and thermal conductivity measurement of carbon nanotubes (CNT) thin film using the developed sensor. Various micrometer-sized sensors, which range from 2 µm to 30 µm, were produced and tested. The capability of the sensor in measuring thermal fluctuation at micro level with an estimated resolution of ±0.002oC is demonstrated. The sensitivity of sensors was recorded from 3.34 to 8.86 µV/oC, which is independent of tip size and dependent on the coating of Nickel. The detailed experimental setup for thermal conductivity measurement of CNT film is discussed and 73.418 W/moC was determined as the thermal conductivity of the CNT film at room temperature.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Shrestha, Ramesh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experimental Study on Fluidization of Biomass, Inert Particles, and Biomass/Sand Mixtures

Description: Fluidization of biomass particles is an important process in the gasification, pyrolysis and combustion in order to extract energy from biomass. Studies on the fluidization of biomass particles (corn cob and walnut shell), inert particles (sand, glass bead, and alumina), which are added to facilitate fluidization of biomass, and biomass/sand mixture were performed. Experiments were carried out in a 14.5 cm internal diameter cold flow fluidization bed to determine minimum fluidization velocities with air as fluidizing medium. On the of basis of experimental data from both present work and those found in the literature, new correlations were developed to predict minimum fluidization velocity for inert particles as well as biomass particles. It was found that the proposed correlations satisfactorily predict minimum fluidization velocities and was in well agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, effect of weight percentage of biomass in the biomass/sand mixtures was studied. The weight fraction of biomass particles in the mixture was chosen in the range of 0 ~ 100 wt. %. The results show that minimum fluidization velocity of the mixtures increases with an increase in biomass content. Using the present experimental data, a new correlation was developed in terms of mass ratio for predicting values of minimum fluidization velocity of these mixtures. However, the validity of the proposed correlation should be further studied by conducting more experiments using the biomass/sand mixtures of different particle size, shape, and density.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Paudel, Basu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quasi-Three Dimensional Experiments on Liquid-Solid Fluidized Bed of Three Different Particles in Two Different Distributors

Description: This thesis is an experimental study of the fluidization of binary mixture in particulate flows. A fluidized bed with two distributors was built with water being used as carrying fluid. Three types of solid particles of nylon, glass and aluminum of the same size and different densities are used in the experiments. The wall effect on a single particle fluidization, the fluidization of binary mixture of large density difference (nylon and aluminum of density ratio of 0.42), and the fluidization of binary mixture of close density (glass and aluminum with density ratio of 0.91) were investigated. Also, the effect of distributors on mono-disperse and bi-disperse particle fluidization was investigated. Results show that the presence of narrow walls reduces the minimum fluidization velocity for a single particle by as much as nearly 40%. Also, in the case of binary mixture of close density particles, uniform mixing was easily achieved and no segregation was observed, but in the case of large density difference particles, there exists significant segregation and separation. At high velocity, the uniform distributor behaves like a transport bed. To achieve a full bed in the single jet, it requires 1.5 times velocity of the uniform distributor. This behavior determines their application in the industries.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Obuseh, Chukwuyem Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thermal Characterization of Austenite Stainless Steel (304) and Cnt Films of Varying Thickness Using Micropipette Thermal Sensors

Description: Thermal transport behavior of austenite stainless steel stripe (304) and the carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) films of varying thickness are studied using a micropipette thermal sensor. Micropipette sensors of various tip sizes were fabricated and tested for the sensitivity and reliability. The sensitivity deviated by 0.11 for a batch of pipette coated under same physical vapor deposition (PVD) setting without being affected by a tip size. Annealing, rubber coating and the vertical landing test of the pipette sensor proved to be promising in increasing the reliability and durability of the pipette sensors. A micro stripe (80µm × 6µm × 0.6µm) of stainless steel, fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) machining, was characterized whose thermal conductivity was determined to be 14.9 W/m-K at room temperature. Similarly, the thermal characterization of CNT films showed the decreasing tendency in the thermal transport behavior with the increase in the film thickness.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Dangol, Ashesh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Hybrid Ingan/gan Quantum Wells

Description: Group III nitrides are efficient light emitters. The modification of internal optoelectronic properties of these materials due to strain, external or internal electric field are an area of interest. Insertion of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) (Ag, Au etc) inside the V-shaped inverted hexagonal pits (IHP) of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) offers the potential of improving the light emission efficiencies. We have observed redshift and blueshift due to the Au MNPs and Ag MNPs respectively. This shift could be due to the electric field created by the MNPs through electrostatic image charge. We have studied the ultrafast carrier dynamics of carriers in hybrid InGaN/GaN QWs. The change in quantum confinement stark effect due to MNPs plays an important role for slow and fast carrier dynamics. We have also observed the image charge effect on the ultrafast differential transmission measurement due to the MNPs. We have studied the non-linear absorption spectroscopy of these materials. The QWs behave as a discharging of a nanocapacitor for the screening of the piezoelectric field due to the photo-excited carriers. We have separated out screening and excitonic bleaching components from the main differential absorption spectra of InGaN/GaN QWs.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Mahat, Meg Bahadur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrostatic Mechanism of Emission Enhancement in Hybrid Metal-semiconductor Light-emitting Heterostructures

Description: III-V nitrides have been put to use in a variety of applications including laser diodes for modern DVD devices and for solid-state white lighting. Plasmonics has come to the foreground over the past decade as a means for increasing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of devices through resonant interaction with surface plasmons which exist at metal/dielectric interfaces. Increases in emission intensity of an order of magnitude have been previously reported using silver thin-films on InGaN/GaN MQWs. the dependence on resonant interaction between the plasmons and the light emitter limits the applications of plasmonics for light emission. This dissertation presents a new non-resonant mechanism based on electrostatic interaction of carriers with induced image charges in a nearby metallic nanoparticle. Enhancement similar in strength to that of plasmonics is observed, without the restrictions imposed upon resonant interactions. in this work we demonstrate several key features of this new interaction, including intensity-dependent saturation, increase in the radiative recombination lifetime, and strongly inhomogeneous light emission. We also present a model for the interaction based on the aforementioned image charge interactions. Also discussed are results of work done in the course of this research resulting in the development of a novel technique for strain measurement in light-emitting structures. This technique makes use of a spectral fitting model to extract information about electron-phonon interactions in the sample which can then be related to strain using theoretical modeling.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Llopis, Antonio
Partner: UNT Libraries

Using a Multimodal Sensing Approach to Characterize Human Responses to Affective and Deceptive States

Description: Different ways to measure human affective and deceptive reactions to stimulus have been developed. One method is a multimodal approach using web camera, thermal imaging camera and physiological sensors data to extract different features in the human face (verbal and non-verbal behavior) such as breathing rate, heart rate, face temperature, skin conductance, eye tracking, language analysis and facial expressions among others. Human subjects from different ages and ethnicity were exposed to two different experiments were they watched videos (affection recognition) and others answered an interview session (deception recognition). With the data collected from videos (thermal and visual), different regions of interest (ROI) of the face were selected as well as the whole picture. The ROI were determined based on the most sensitive parts of the face where larger changes of temperature or other physiological features are recorded. It was also analyzed the language (written and spoken) in order to obtain the verbal modalities. The data has been compared among the subjects to determine whether the deceptive and affective reactions of a person can be predicted using multimodal approach. From the multiple data obtained, a characterization of reactions is proposed when subjects are exposed to different stimulus, positive or negative, as well as deceptive behavior and later on recognize if the person is happy, sad, nervous, anxious, telling the truth, lying etc. Using the multimodal approach we were able to predict automatically, with higher accuracy than the baseline, affective and deceptive states of a person. In the affective state recognition, the classifier software differentiated affective state versus neutral state with 92.85% accuracy. Then it differentiated Positive State, Negative State and Neutral State with 57.14% accuracy. Additionally, it differentiated Positive State versus Negative State with 73.21% accuracy. Finally, the classifier was able to predict Deceptive State (people lying) and Non Deceptive State ...
Date: May 2013
Creator: Narvaez-Valle, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current Evaluation of Molding Compounds

Description: TSDC (thermally stimulated depolarization current) is one of the most important and popular technique for investigating electret materials. TSDC technique can indicate the magnitude of polarization and depolarization, relaxation time, charge-storage, glass transition, and activation energy. To fully investigate polarization and relaxation for pure epoxy and filled epoxy materials, a TSDC system was built and verified by the research. The article describes the building processes and verification of the TSDC system. TSDC, TSPC, and TWC tests data for epoxy and filled epoxy samples are presented in the article. To compare TSDC technique with other related techniques, DEA (dielectric analysis), DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis), and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) tests are introduced.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Zhao, Shunli
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonlinear Light Generation from Optical Cavities and Antennae

Description: Semiconductor based micro- and nano-structures grown in a systematic and controlled way using selective area growth are emerging as a promising route toward devices for integrated optical circuitry in optoelectronics and photonics field. This dissertation focuses on the experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical effects in selectively grown gallium nitride micro-pyramids that act as optical cavities, zinc oxide submicron rods and indium gallium nitride multiple quantum well core shell submicron tubes on the apex of GaN micro pyramids that act as optical antennae. Localized spatial excitation of these low dimensional semiconductor structures was optimized for nonlinear optical light (NLO) generation due to second harmonic generation (SHG) and multi-photon luminescence (MPL). The evolution of both processes are mapped along the symmetric axis of the individual structures for multiple fundamental input frequencies of light. Effects such as cavity formation of generated light, electron-hole plasma generation and coherent emission are observed. The efficiency and tunability of the frequency conversion that can be achieved in the individual structures of various geometries are estimated. By controlling the local excitation cross-section within the structures along with modulation of optical excitation intensity, the nonlinear optical process generated in these structures can be manipulated to generate coherent light in the UV-Blue region via SHG process or green emission via MPL process. The results show that these unique structures hold the potential to convert red input pulsed light into blue output pulsed light which is highly directional.
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Date: May 2017
Creator: Butler, Sween J
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bioinspired and biocompatible coatings of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and layer double hydroxide composites for corrosion resistance

Description: Hierarchical arrangement of biological composites such as nacre and bone containing high filler (ceramic) content results in high strength and toughness of the natural material. In this study we mimic the design of layered bone microstructure and fabricate an optimal multifunctional bio-nanocomposite having strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), a biodegradable polymer was used as a substrate material with the reinforcement of LDH (Layered double hydroxide) as a nanofiller in different concentrations to achieve enhancement in mechanical properties as well as processing related thermostability. Corrosion resistance was increased by mimicking a layered structured which incorporated a tortuous diffusion path.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Rizvi, Syed Hussain
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Enhancement of Light Emission from Metal Nanoparticles Embedded Graphene Oxide

Description: A fully oxidized state of graphene behaves as a pure insulating while a pristine graphene behaves as a pure conducting. The in-between oxide state in graphene which is the controlled state of oxide behaves as a semiconducting. This is the key condition for tuning optical band gap for the better light emitting property. The controlling method of oxide in graphene structure is known as reduction which is the mixed state of sp2 and sp3 hybrid state in graphene structure. sp2 hybridized domains correspond to pure carbon-carbon bond i.e. pristine graphene while sp3 hybridized domains correspond to the oxide bond with carbon i.e. defect in graphene structure. This is the uniqueness of the graphene-base material. Graphene is a gapless material i.e. having no bandgap energy and this property prevents it from switching device applications and also from the optoelectronic devices applications. The main challenge for this material is to tune as a semiconducting which can open the optical characteristics and emit light of desired color. There may be several possibilities for the modification of graphene-base material that can tune a band gap. One way is to find semiconducting property by doping the defects into pristine graphene structure. Other way is oxides functional groups in graphene structure behaves as defects. The physical properties of graphene depend on the amount of oxides present in graphene structure. So if there are more oxides in graphene structure then this material behaves as a insulating. By any means if it can be reduced then oxides amount to achieve specific proportion of sp2 and sp3 that can emit light of desired color. Further, after achieving light emission from graphene base material, there is more possibility for the study of non-linear optical property. In this work, plasmonic effect in graphene oxide has been focused. Mainly there are two ...
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Karna, Sanjay K
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Enhanced Coarse-Graining for Multiscale Modeling of Elastomers

Description: One of the major goal of the researchers is to reduce energy loss including nanoscale to the structural level. For instance, around 65% of fuel energy is lost during the propulsion of the automobiles, where 11% of the loss happens at tires due to rolling friction. Out of that tire loss, 90 to 95% loss happens due to hysteresis of tire materials. This dissertation focuses on multiscale modeling techniques in order to facilitate the discovery new rubber materials. Enhanced coarse-grained models of elastomers (thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and natural rubber) are constructed from full-atomic models with reasonable repeat units/beads associated with pressure-correction for non-bonded interactions of the beads using inverse Boltzmann method (IBM). Equivalent continuum modeling is performed with volumetric/isochoric loading to predict macroscopic mechanical properties using molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD). Glass-transition and rate-dependent mechanical properties along with hysteresis loss under uniaxial deformation is predicted with varying composition of the material. A statistical non-Gaussian treatment of a rubber chain is performed and linked with molecular dynamics in order predict hyperelastic material constants without fitting with any experimental data.
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Date: December 2016
Creator: Uddin, Md Salah
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Indirect Fabrication of Lattice Metals with Thin Sections Using Centrifugal Casting

Description: There is a wide range of applications for 3D printing technology with an additive manufacturing such as aerospace, automotive, marine and oil/gas, medical, consumer, electronics, building construction, and many others. There have been many pros and cons for 3D additive manufacturing. Even though 3D printing technology has many advantages: freedom to design and innovate without penalties, rapid iteration through design permutations, excellence mass customization, elimination of tolling, green manufacturing, minimal material wastes, energy efficiency, an enablement of personalized manufacturing. 3D additive manufacturing still has many disadvantages: unexpected pre- and post-processing requirement, high-end manufacturing, low speed for mass production, high thermal residual stress, and poor surface finish and dimensional accuracy, and many others. Especially, the issues for 3D additive manufacturing are on high cost for process and equipment for high-end manufacturing, low speed for mass production, high thermal residual stress, and poor surface finish and dimensional accuracy. In particular, it is relatively challenging to produce casting products with lattice or honeycomb shapes having sophisticated geometries. In spite of the scalable potential of periodic cellular metals to structural applications, the manufacturing methods of I∙AM Casting have been not actively explored nor fully understood. A few qualitative studies of I∙AM Casting has been reported. Recently, a sand casting of cellular structures was attempted, resulting in casting porosity and the sharp corners in the lattice structure of the cellular structural molds, a sharpness which prevent fluid-flow and causes undesired solidification, resulting in misrun casting defects. Research on the indirect AM methods has not been aggressively conducted due to the highly complex and multidisciplinary problems across the process – continuum modeling (thermal stress, flow, heat transfer, and water diffusion) with multiple materials (polymer, metals, and ceramic) for multiphase simulations – solid, liquid, and gas. As an initial step to fully understand the processing of I∙AM ...
Date: December 2015
Creator: Mun, Jiwon
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Programmable Mechanical Metamaterials with Negative Poisson's Ratio and Negative Thermal Expansion

Description: Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve particular shapes or mechanical properties upon command. This is an essential technique that could one day lead to morphing aircraft and ground vehicles. Metamaterials are the rationally designed artificial materials whose properties are not observed in nature. Their properties are typically controlled by geometry rather than chemical compositions. Combining metamaterials with a programmable function will create a new area in the intelligent material design. The objective of this study is to design and demonstrate a tunable metamaterial and to investigate its thermo-mechanical behavior. An integrated approach to the metamaterial design was used with analytical modeling, numerical simulation, and experimental demonstration. The dynamic thermo-mechanical analysis was used to measure base materials' modulus and thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature. CPS, the unit cell of the metamaterial, is composed of circular holes and slits. By decomposing kinematic rotation of the arm and elastic deformation of a bi-material hinge, thermo-mechanical constitutive models of CPS were developed and it was extended to 3D polyhedral structures for securing isotropic properties. Finite element based numerical simulations of CPS and polyhedral models were conducted for comparison with the analytical model. 3D printing of multi-materials was used for sample fabrication followed by tests with uniaxial compressive mechanical tests and thermal tests at 50℃. From the analytical model of the metamaterial, the contour plots were obtained for the effective properties – Poisson's ratio, the effective coefficient of thermal expansion of the metamaterial as a function of geometry and materials. A controllable range of temperature and strain was identified associated with maximized thermal expansion mismatch and contact on the slit surface of CPS, respectively. This work will pave the road toward the design of programmable metamaterials with both mechanically- and thermally- tunable capability and provide unique ...
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Date: December 2016
Creator: Heo, Hyeonu
Partner: UNT Libraries