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The six-component wind balance

Description: Dr. Zahm's report is a description of the six-component wind-tunnel balance in use at the Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard. The description of the balance gives the mechanical details and the method of operation, and is accompanied by line drawings showing the construction of the balance. The balance is of particular interest, as it allows the model to be set up quickly and accurately in roll, pitch, and yaw, without stopping the wind. It is possible to measure automatically, directly, and independently the drag, cross-wind force, and lift; also the rolling, pitching, and yawing moments. It is also possible to make the balance self-recording.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

Description: The text gives theoretical formulas from which is computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. Pressure graphs are given for speeds from 1 cm. Sec. up to those of swift projectiles.
Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: Zahm, A F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables for pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

Description: In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Zahm, A F & Louden, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lift, drag, and elevator hinge moments of Handley Page control surfaces

Description: This report combines the wind tunnel results of tests on four control surface models made in the two wind tunnels of the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard, during the years of 1922 and 1924, and submitted for publication to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics May 7, 1927. The purpose of the tests was to compare, first, the lifts and the aerodynamic efficiencies of the control surfaces from which their relative effectiveness as tail planes could be determined; then the elevator hinge moments upon which their relative ease of operation depended. The lift and drag forces on the control surface models were obtained for various stabilizer angles and elevator settings in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel by the writer in 1922; the corresponding hinge moments were found in the 4 by 4 foot tunnel by Mr. R. M. Bear in 1924. (author).
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of wing flutter

Description: Part I describes vibration tests, in a wind tunnel, of simple airfoils and of the tail plane of an M0-1 airplane model; it also describes the air flow about this model. From these tests are drawn inferences as to the cause and cure of aerodynamic wing vibrations. Part II derives stability criteria for wing vibrations in pitch and roll, and gives design rules to obviate instability. Part III shows how to design spars to flex equally under a given wing loading and thereby economically minimize the twisting in pitch that permits cumulative flutter. Resonant flutter is not likely to ensue from turbulence of air flow along past wings and tail planes in usual flying conditions. To be flutterproof a wing must be void of reversible autorotation and not have its centroid far aft of its pitching axis, i. e., axis of pitching motion. Danger of flutter is minimized by so proportioning the wing's torsional resisting moment to the air pitching moment at high-speed angles that the torsional flexure is always small. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F & Bear, R M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Friction of aviation engines

Description: The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Sparrow, S W & Thorne, M A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Differential pressures on a Pitot-Venturi and a Pitot-static nozzle over 360 degrees pitch and yaw

Description: Measurements of the differential pressures on two navy air-speed nozzles, consisting of a Zahm type Pitot-Venturi tube and a SQ-16 two-pronged Pitot-static tube, in a tunnel air stream of fixed speed at various angles of pitch and yaw between 0 degrees and plus or minus 180 degrees. This shows for a range over -20 degrees to +20 degrees pitch and yaw, indicated air speeds varying very slightly over 2 per cent for the Zahm type and a maximum of about 5 per cent for the SQ-16 type from the calibrated speed at 0 degree. For both types of air-speed nozzle the indicated air speed increases slightly as the tubes are pitched or yawed several degrees from their normal 0 degrees altitude, attains a maximum around plus or minus 15 degrees to 25 degrees, declines rapidly therefrom as plus or minus 40 degrees is passed, to zero in the vicinity of plus or minus 70 degrees to 100 degrees, and thence fluctuates irregular from thereabouts to plus or minus 180 degrees. The complete variation in indicated air speed for the two tubes over 360 degree pitch and yaw is graphically portrayed in figures 9 and 10. For the same air speed and 0 degree pitch and yaw the differential pressure of the Zahm type Pitot-Venturi nozzle is about seven times that of the SQ-16 type two-prolonged Pitot-static nozzle.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Bear, R M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistance and cooling power of various radiators

Description: This reports combines the wind tunnel results of radiator tests made at the Navy Aerodynamical Laboratory in Washington during the summers of 1921, 1925, and 1926. In all, 13 radiators of various types and capacities were given complete tests for figure of merit. Twelve of these were tested for resistance to water flow and a fourteenth radiator was tested for air resistance alone, its heat dissipating capacity being known. All the tests were conducted in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel, or in its 4 by 8 foot restriction, by the writer and under conditions as nearly the same as possible. That is to say, as far as possible, the general arrangement and condition of the apparatus, the observation intervals, the ratio of water flow per unit of cooling surface, the differential temperatures, and the air speeds were the same for all.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag of C-class airship hulls of various fineness ratios

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on eight C-class airship hulls with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The purpose of the tests was to determine the variation of resistance with fineness ratio, and also to find the pressure and friction elements of the total drag for the model having the least shape coefficient. Seven C-class airship hulls with fineness ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 were made and verified. These models and also the previously constructed original C-class hull, whose fineness ratio is 4.62, were then tested in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel for drag of 0 degree pitch and yaw, at various wind speeds. The original hull, which was found to have the least shape coefficient, was then tested for pressure distribution over the surface at various wind speeds. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theories of flow similitude

Description: The laws of comparison of dynamically similar fluid motions are derived by three different methods based on the same principle and yielding the same or equivalent formulas. This report outlines the three current methods of comparing dynamically similar motions, more especially of fluids, initiated respectively by Newton, Stokes (or Helmholtz), and Rayleigh. These three methods, viz., the integral, the differential, and the dimensional, are enough alike to be studied profitably together. They are treated in succession then compared. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forces on elliptic cylinders in uniform air stream

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on four elliptic cylinders with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The object of the tests was to investigate the characteristics of sections suitable for streamline wire which normally has an elliptic section with a fineness ratio of 4.0; also to learn whether a reduction in fineness ratio would result in improvement; also to determine the pressure distribution on the model of fineness ratio of 4. Four elliptic cylinders with fineness ratios of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 were made and then tested in the 8 by 8 wind tunnel; first, for cross-wind force, drag, and yawing moment at 30 miles an hour and various angles of yaw; next for drag 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds; then for end effect on the smallest and largest models; and lastly for pressure distribution over the surface of the largest model at 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds. In all tests, the length of the model was transverse to the current. The results are given for standard air density, p = .002378 slug per cubic foot. This account is a slight revised form of report no. 315. A summary of conclusions is given at the end of the text. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

Description: This report deals with the construction and properties of bearings and pivots for use in instruments. The static and running friction for both thrust and radial loads was determined for a number of conical pivots and cylindrical and ball bearings. The static rocking friction was also measured for several conical and ball bearings under a heavy load, especially to determine their suitability for use in N. P. L. (National Physical Laboratory) type wind tunnel balance. In constructing conical pivots and sockets it was found that the pivots should be hardened and highly polished, preferably with a revolving lap, and that the sockets should be made by punching with a hardened and polished punch. It was found that for a light load the conical pivots give less friction than any other type, and their wearing qualities when hardened are excellent. Very small ball bearings are unsatisfactory because the proportional accuracy of the balls and races is not high enough to insure smooth running. For rocking pivots under heavy loads it was found that a ball-and-socket bearing, consisting of a hemispherical socket and a sphere of smaller diameter concentric with it, with a row of small balls resting between the two, was superior to a pivot resting in a socket. It was found that vibration such as occurs in an airplane will greatly reduce the static friction of a pivot or bearing, in some cases to as little as one-twentieth of its static value.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on free flight tests

Description: Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E. P. & Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slip-stream corrections performance computation

Description: This report is an analysis of experiments performed by Eiffel on the air velocity in slip stream of a propeller, and also includes a theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the velocity in different propellers.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuselage stress analysis

Description: Report analyzes the stresses in a fuselage of the built-up type in which the shear is taken by diagonal bracing wires. Tests are conducted for landing, flying, and thrust loads.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, Edward P. & Miller, Roy G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind tunnel balances

Description: Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, Edward P. & Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers

Description: Report discusses the theory of energy losses in wind tunnels, the application of the Drzewiecki theory of propeller design to wind tunnel propellers, and the efficiency and steadiness of flow in model tunnels of various types.
Date: January 1, 1919
Creator: Warner, Edward P.; Norton, F. H. & Hebbert, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic theory and test of strut forms. Part I

Description: This report presents the first part of a two part study made under this title. In this part the symmetrical inviscid flow about an empirical strut of high service merit is found by both the Rankine and the Joukowsky methods. The results can be made to agree as closely as wished. Theoretical stream surfaces as well as surfaces of constant speed and pressure in the fluid about the strut are found. The surface pressure computed from the two theories agrees well with the measured pressure on the fore part of the model but not so well on the after part. From the theoretical flow speed the surface friction is computed by an empirical formula. The drag integrated from the friction and measured pressure closely equals the whole measured drag. As the pressure drag and the whole drag are accurately determined, the friction formula also appears trustworthy for such fair shapes. (author).
Date: May 1928
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic theory and tests of strut forms. Part II

Description: This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.
Date: May 1929
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air force and moment for N-20 wing with certain cut-outs

Description: From Introduction: "The airplane designer often finds it necessary, in meeting the requirements of visibility, to remove area or to otherwise locally distort the plan or section of an airplane wing. This report, prepared for the Bureau of Aeronautics January 15, 1925, contains the experimental results of tests on six 5 by 30 inch N-20 wing models, cut out or distorted in different ways, which were conducted in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel of the Navy Aerodynamical Laboratory in Washington in 1924. The measured and derived results are given without correction for vl/v for wall effect and for standard air density, p=0.00237 slug per cubic foot."
Date: November 29, 1926
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air forces, moments and damping on model of fleet airship Shenandoah

Description: From Introduction: "To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship."
Date: 1922~
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing

Description: From Introduction: "The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span."
Date: 1920
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department