Search Results

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learning Rates Between Introverts and Extroverts in EMG Biofeedback Training

Description: In order to test Eysenck's hypothesis that introverts would condition faster than extroverts, twenty undergraduates were given muscle tensing and muscle relaxing trials using a feedback myograph to obtain electrical activity levels of the frontalis muscle. The subjects were divided into two groups of ten each. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was used to select ten students classified as introverts and ten classified as extroverts. .Both groups were given forty thirty-second trials to learn muscle relaxing and tensing. Analysis of covariance indicated a significant within trials effect for both the relaxation and tensing trials. No significant differences were found, however, between the introverts and the extroverts in either the muscle relaxing or muscle tensing training.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Root, William Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biofeedback and Control of Skin Cell Proliferation in Psoriasis

Description: The present study was designed to determine the effect of skin-temperature-biofeedback training on cellular proliferation in three psoriasis patients. It was hypothesized that (a) psoriasis patients would be able to consciously decrease skin temperature of psoriatic tissue, and (b) there would be a positive correlation between rate of cellular proliferation and temperature change. Results obtained indicated biofeedback training to be effective in decreasing the surface temperature of psoriatic tissue. A 2 X 7 analysis of variance for two repeated measures indicated the change in skin temperatures as a function of sample period to be significant, F (6,26) = 3.29, p < .02. Generalization of temperature-training effects from the biofeedback to the no-feedback condition were observed. Rate of proliferation decreased from pretraining to posttraining biopsies.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Benoit, Larry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Accelerated EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training and Tension Headache: The Effects of Home Practice and Headache Presence During Training

Description: This study investigated the value of headache presence during elecromyographic (EMG) feedback relaxation training and the contribution made by home relaxation practice in the elimination of tension headache. Eighteen participants, mainly coeds in their twenties, recorded headache and medication data for two baseline weeks, and were assigned to one of three training groups. Group A received EMG feedback training with headache presence during the session and home relaxation practice. Group B received EMG feedback without headache Presence and home practice. Group C received only home relaxation practice. Statistically significant treatment differences were not found, but declining trends of headache activity and medication use tend to support the efficacy of EMG training with headache presence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Christianson, James D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

Description: This experiment attempted to study the effectiveness of biofeedback training on an individual's peak performance while performing a stress-provoking task. In a between subjects design 30 individual college students were divided into 2 groups. One group received auditory biofeedback and relaxation training, and the other group received no training. Both groups met the researcher for 1 hour a week for seven weeks. During each session the participant completed a ten-minute Competition and Coaction (C & C) computer software program (Shea, 1992). The biofeedback equipment recorded the physiological state of each of the participants while he/she performed the C & C task. Both groups' physiological values and C & C scores were compared using the SPSS software. The biofeedback group had statistically lower stress values than the non-biofeedback group (Schwartz, 1995). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups' C & C scores. The STAI Y-1 and Y-2 anxiety inventories were given to each of the participants at the 1st and 7th session to examine the anxiety differences between the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups' STAI scores. This study's findings show that individuals can be taught to lower their stress response while performing a computer task.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Bruce, Kurt
Partner: UNT Libraries

EMG Biofeedback Training: Effect on Behavior of Children with Activity-Level Problems

Description: The relationships between muscle-tension level, motoric-activity level, and academic performance in the laboratory setting are investigated. Three participants were reinforced for reducing and increasing their tension levels, alternately, while engaged in a simulated academic task, and the effects of each on the rate of activity and academic performance were measured. Measures were also obtained on the rate of activity and occurrence of problem behavior in the subject's homes. Significant treatment differences were found which support a direct relationship between tension and activity level so that a decrease in EMG level was associated with a decrease in motoric activity, and an increase in EMG level was associated with an increase in motoric activity. The efficacy of using EMG biofeedback to train relaxation in children with activity-level problems to control their symptoms is supported, especially where such a technique can be used in a specific task-oriented situation.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Henry, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attainment of Low Levels of Muscle Tension: Biofeedback-Assisted/Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Biofeedback Training Compared

Description: Cue-controlled relaxation appeas to have several advantages over prominent anxiety-reduction treatments. It does not require the formulation of conditioned stimulus hierarchies nor the use of mental imagery as does systematic desensitization nor the application of noxious stimularion (farradic shock) utilized in anxiety relief. However, its efficacy, in quantitative terms, has not been determined. The present study compared the effectiveness in attainment of relaxation of instructional set, biofeedback training, and biofeedback-assisted/cue-controlled relaxation training procedures. Results indicate that cue-controlled relaxation training was more effective in terms of mean level of frontal is EMG and degree of maintenance of low EMG levels than either biofeedback training or instructions.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Ewing, Jack Winston
Partner: UNT Libraries

Regulation of the Frequency of Part-Word Repetitions Using Electromyographic Feedback

Description: This study investigated the use of electromyographic feedback in regulating the frequency of part-word repetitions. Two adult stutterers, one female (Subject A) and one male (Subject B) were employed. The frequency of part-word repetitions during baserate, EMG uV raising, and EMG uV lowering conditions was assessed for Subject B. As hypothesized, results indicate that there was a notable decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG uV lowering sessions. However, contrary to the second hypothesis, (i.e. that an increase in EMG uV would correspond with an increase in part-word repetitions) there was also a decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG raising sessions.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Pachman, Joseph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biofeedback Training: Avoidance Conditioning of Frontal EMG

Description: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing an avoidance conditioning paradigm in EMG biofeedback training and to compare this method to the standard biofeedback training paradigm. Frontalis EMG levels of 20 college students were monitored during non-stress and stress conditions. Half then received standard EMG biofeedback training. The other half received biofeedback with contingent aversive stimulation. Both groups received training to a relaxation criterion of 3 microvolts for 100 seconds or, for a maximum of two 20 minute sessions. Subjects were then monitored again during non-stress and stress conditions. Both groups obtained significant EMG reductions due to training with no significant differences between them. Standard biofeedback training required less time for subjects to achieve the relaxation criterion than did biofeedback with a shock-avoidance contingency. Possible applications of avoidance contingent biofeedback were suggested.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Catalanello, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Disorders: Their Relationship and Reduction with Neurotherapy

Description: This study investigated the relationship among anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances and the treatment of these three disorders through neurotherapy. Research suggests that these conditions commonly co-occur in the general population and that central nervous system (CNS) arousal may play a primary role in the development and maintenance of these disorders. Several recent studies suggested that neurotherapy, a biofeedback-based treatment for CNS dysregulation, might be an effective treatment for comorbid conditions, particularly the ones of interest here, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This investigation used a clinical case-series design to assess pre/post neurotherapy changes on objective measures of anxiety, depression, and sleep and to determine whether changes in anxiety and depression then predict improvements in sleep quality. Data for 23 participants (10 males) were obtained from files of adults (Mage = 40.22 years, SD = 16.20) who received at least 15 neurotherapy sessions (M = 47.83 sessions, SD = 22.23) the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab. Matched pair t-tests revealed that symptoms of sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety showed significant improvements following neurotherapy. Neurotherapy treatment effect sizes generally ranged from moderate to large (d = .414 - .849). Multiple regression analysis found that changes in self-reported anxiety symptoms, but not depressive symptoms, predicted observed improvements in sleep quality (adjusted R2 = .26). Last, the implications and limitations were discussed in relation to neurotherapy practice and the associated research.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Fisher, Christopher, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Heart rhythm variability in persons with chronic pain.

Description: The present study evaluated the utility of heart rhythm coherence (HRC) feedback to reduce the reported pain intensity of patients enrolled in a multimodal pain management program. Participants were recruited and assigned to a usual treatment group (UT) or a heart rhythm coherence feedback group (UT+HRC). It was hypothesized that UT+HRC participants who achieved heart rhythm coherence would report a reduction of pain intensity, as measured by the McGill Pain Inventory. For those whose pain intensity decreased, it was also expected that their self reported levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and state anger as measured by the State Trait Anger Inventory would decrease. It is also hypothesized that with a reduction in pain levels, anger, and depression, blood pressure would also decrease among those who had high blood pressure prior to the intervention. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between treatment condition, coherence status and pain levels. A series of independent t-tests were utilized to investigate the change in pain, depression, and state anger from baseline to posttest, followed by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients on difference scores to understand the relationship between the outcome variables for Hypothesis 2. Standard multiple regression analyses were computed using difference scores to determine if the outcome measures were significant predictors of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Results indicated a failure to reject the null with regard to hypothesis one. No relationship between treatment assignment, coherence status or pain levels were found. Hypothesis 2 was partially supported. Although there was a positive significant relationship between depression and anger when utilizing difference scores, these affective measures were not related to difference scores on either pain measure. In regard to Hypothesis 3, there was also a failure to reject the null. None of ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Saxon, LaDonna Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Efficacy of neurofeedback for children with histories of abuse and neglect: Pilot study and meta-analytic comparison to other treatments.

Description: This two-part study investigates the effectiveness of neurofeedback training for reducing behavioral problems commonly observed in abused/neglected children, and compares its efficacy to other treatment interventions with this population. Neuro-developmental sequelae of early relationship trauma are explored as an etiological framework for understanding disturbed affect-regulation, which appears central to the behavioral and emotional difficulties commonly experienced by this pediatric population. It is suggested that neurofeedback teaches children to self-regulate brain rhythmicity mechanisms, which in turn affects global improvements in behavior and mood. The pilot study utilizes records of 20 children removed from their biological homes by Child Protective Services. Children were assessed prior to treatment using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and again after 30 sessions of individualized, qEEG-guided neurofeedback training. A t-test analysis of pre- and post-scores was computed, and indicated significant improvements following treatment. A meta-analysis of existing literature on treatment interventions with abused/neglected children provides individual and aggregate effect sizes for 33 outcome studies with this clinical population, and contextualizes the results of the present pilot study within other empirically validated treatment modalities. Establishment of an overall effect size for treatment for this pediatric population provides a needed method of comparing research results across studies when control groups may not be ethical or feasible.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Huang-Storms, Lark
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment Outcomes Related to EEG-Biofeedback for Chemical Dependency: Changes in MMPI-2™ (University of Minnesota) Personality Measures and Long Term Abstinence Rates

Description: Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1990) demonstrated the effectiveness of alpha-theta EEG-Biofeedback (EEG-BFB) in treating inpatient alcoholics noting significant improvements in depression, psychopathology, serum β-endorphin levels, and abstinence rates. The present study is an extension of a previously unpublished replication of the Peniston EEG-BFB protocol with 20 chemically dependent outpatients (Bodenhamer-Davis, Callaway, & DeBeus, 2002). Fifteen subjects were "high risk for re-arrest" probationers. Data for the EEG-BFB group was collected from archival records. Subjects completed an average of 39 sessions (SD = 6.096), with 33 of those being EEG-BFB. Pre/post-treatment MMPI-2s™ (University of Minnesota) were collected and follow-up (4-11 years) data obtained (abstinence rates, re-arrests in some cases). Treatment effects were evaluated by comparing assessment data (pre/post) and documenting abstinence rates. Post-treatment MMPI-2 results were within normal limits, with several scales significantly reduced from baseline suggesting less psychopathology. Results were then compared to 20 subjects receiving standard addiction treatment (OT-CD group), but not EEG-BFB. OT-CD subjects completed a 2-week inpatient program followed by 18 outpatient sessions. Pre/post assessment and follow-up data was collected on the OT-CD group. The OT-CD group's post-assessment results showed three elevations (MMPI-2 scales 4/6/8), suggestive of characteriological problems. Post-MMPI-2 results of the two groups were compared via ANCOVAs. Findings indicated no significant differences between groups on targeted scales; however, there was a trend for the EEG-BFB group to have lower scores. Follow-up data was obtained on 13 EEG-BFB subjects. Results indicated 92% (n = 12) were sober, with 8% (n = 1) claiming significantly reduced alcohol intake. Probationer re-arrest and revocation rates were collected on the subset of probationers (n = 14 out of 15). The majority of the probationers (79%, n = 11) had not been re-arrested nor had their probation been revoked. Short-term follow-up information (35-131 days post-assessment), available at the time of writing, for ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Callaway, Tonya Gayle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation Therapy on the Psychophysiological Measures of Stressed-Out Working Professional Mothers

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy on reducing psychophysiological stress levels of working professional mothers. Participants were 14 working professional mothers from a major daily newspaper. Reported stress levels were measured with the 123 question Stress Profile (Nowack, 1990) three times during the eight week treatment study that was held at the women's workplace. A repeated measure ANOVA design was used to analyze the data and a partial eta squared was used to calculate effect size. As hypothesized, the study found a statistically significant reduction of reported stress levels (F=8.62; p=.001) and a statistically significant (F=3.65; p=.01) reduction in measured muscle tension across subjects. Practical significance (effect size) was found for reduction in reported stress levels (n=.39) and reduction in muscle tension (n=.21).
Date: May 2006
Creator: Valdez, Diana Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Biofeedback and Verbal Feedback on the Training and Maintenance of Diaphragmatic Breathing

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer program on the training and maintenance of diaphragmatic breathing. The biofeedback portion was visual computer training and the results were displayed concurrently with participants' breathing responses to monitor display. The verbal feedback portion was praise that was given and recorded when participants responded with predominantly diaphragmatic breathing at the scheduled moment and response instruction that was given when participants responded with predominantly thoracic breathing. The results of this study indicate the computer program's effectiveness needs to be increased by supplementation with verbal feedback.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Armstrong, Earl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment Effects Related to EEG-Biofeedback for Crack Cocaine Dependency: Changes in Personality and Attentional Variables

Description: EEG biofeedback (neurotherapy) has been demonstrated as effective in the treatment of alcoholism, as evidenced by Peniston and Kulkosky's research efforts. These neurotherapy pioneers evaluated the efficacy of alpha-theta brain wave biofeedback as a treatment for chronic alcohol abuse, citing 80% abstinence rates as measured by improvements in psychopathology, serum beta endorphin levels, and long-term alcohol abstinence. Most research with alpha-theta EEG biofeedback has addressed alcohol addiction. Cocaine is now considered to be the most common drug problem of patients entering treatment for drug abuse. To date, only one controlled study has been published that researched alpha-theta neurofeedback in the treatment of "crack" cocaine addiction. The present study was an extension of a 4-year EEG-biofeedback treatment outcome project underway at a faith-based homeless mission in Houston, Texas, with male "crack" cocaine addicts. Changes in personality, attention, and impulsivity were measured following 30 sessions of a non-individualized EEG -biofeedback protocol. Experimental subjects received a variant of the Peniston-Kulkosky alpha-theta protocol for 30 sessions while controls received all elements of the experimental protocol except the EEG biofeedback. Assessment measures included the MMPI-2 and the IVA. Although experimental subjects showed greater mean improvement on most MMPI basic scales and all IVA Attention related measures, results indicated no significant differences between control and experimental groups. The present study did not result in significant differences between control and experimental groups on attentional or personality variables in crack cocaine addicts. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Burkett, Virginia Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback treatment for children with attention deficit disorders in a school setting.

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the use of EEG biofeedback in a school setting to assist students who had attentional challenges. The equipment for implementing biofeedback was relatively inexpensive and was easily integrated into the school setting. Twenty students ranging in age from 7 to 17 were recruited for this study. Data was used from 14 subjects, 12 males (2 Hispanic, 1 African American, and 10 Caucasian) and 2 females (1 Hispanic, 1 Caucasian.) The subject pool was reduced due to non-compliance or the students. moving from the school district. Significant effect size was obtained in the treatment group in areas pertaining to visual perception and motor coordination. However, significant effect sizes in other areas were obtained when the control group scores worsened. The inclusion of student subjects who, perhaps, did not meet stringent criterion of attention deficit may have skewed the results. The small number of students in the study may have hindered accurate measures of statistical significance. Conversely, the information obtained from this study may offer insight to school districts in providing their students an alternate/adjunct to psychopharmacological medication and a non- invasive method of helping students with psycho-social challenges.
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Mosse, Leah Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Sequential Versus Referential Montage Neurofeedback Amplitude Training on Qeeg Measures of Phase and Coherence.

Description: An important clinical research question to be answered in the field of neurofeedback (NF) is whether amplitude training affects connectivity between cortical sites. This study hypothesizes that, following NF amplitude training, there will be a difference in QEEG coherence and phase measures between NF training done using referential montages and using sequential montages. The study examined case files of 16 adult clients from the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab who had received NF training that consisted of either referential or sequential placement amplitude training (no coherence training) and who received both pre- and post- treatment QEEGs. Sixty-eight percent of the cases consisted of referential placements, while 34% of the cases consisted of sequential placements. All frontal site phase and coherence abnormal z-scores at pre-treatment were converted to deviation scores and compared by general linear model analysis of variance to post-treatment deviation scores. Effect size r-values and eta square values indicate that differences between referential and sequential electrode placements after NF amplitude training are moderately high. This study shows that referential placements tend to increase phase scores and decrease coherence scores, while sequential placements tend to decrease phase scores and increase coherence scores.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Ramezani, Amir
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Reduction of Tension Headache Using EMG Biofeedback and Locus of Control as Predictors

Description: This study investigates the status of biofeedback treatment and locus of control (LOC) affiliation on the reduction of tension headache. Three LOC groups designated as internals, powerful-other externals and chance externals (using Wallston and Wallston's, 1978, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale) were administered an eight week electromyogram (EMG) frontalis muscle biofeedback training program using an Autogen 1700 biofeedback unit. Subjects were 12 female and four male undergraduate students who had a history of tension headache. Results indicated no significant difference in frontalis muscle tension between the beginning and end of sessions in either a biofeedback or self-control condition for any of the LOC groups. Further, there was no significant difference among LOC groups in ability to reduce muscle tension in either the training or self-control condition. Finally, neither biofeedback training nor LOC groups were significant predictors of headache reduction. Extreme within-group variability and small sample size affected study findings and these and other implications for future research are discussed.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Grier, Finlay
Partner: UNT Libraries