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The OPHELIE Mock-Up Experiment: First Step in the Demonstration of the Feasibility of HLW Disposal

Description: In the late 1980s, Belgium developed a reference design for disposal of the vitrified high level waste forms. Disposal was to be carried out in galleries in a sedimentary clay formation, acting as the main barrier. Engineered barriers (overpack, gallery backfill) complemented the host rock by retarding the release of radionuclides. To demonstrate the feasibility of this design, the Belgian Waste Management Agency (NIRAS/ONDRAF) started a demonstration project to construct and operate a dummy disposal gallery similar to the real ones. Several technical aspects of this in-situ testing not being worked out yet in detail, NIRAS/ONDRAF decided to carry out first a large scale surface mock-up test called OPHELIE. This test would allow the review of the chosen options for the backfill material, the disposal tube and the monitoring devices. The mock-up was constructed and put into operation in 1997 for some five years. The five years of hydration and heating of the backfill material h ave generated a large measurement database, as the set-up was heavily instrumented to monitor the main thermal, hydraulic and mechanical phenomena. In addition, a lot of unexpected observations have given more insight in physico-chemical phenomena (e.g. corrosion) that might take place in such an installation. The whole set-up was finally dismantled at the end of 2002. The paper will mainly focus on the last stage of this experiment i.e. the dismantling phase. It will detail how the sample analysis program has been elaborated in order to support both the preparation of the in-situ PRACLAY experiment and the current review of the disposal design. The dismantling of such large-scale experiment required a thorough preparation by a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers and technicians. Also the actual dismantling operations will be presented. Finally, this paper will discuss the lessons already learned, the first observations during the ...
Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: Dereeper, B. & Verstricht, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VENUS-2 Experimental Benchmark Analysis

Description: The VENUS critical facility is a zero power reactor located at SCK-CEN, Mol, Belgium, which for the VENUS-2 experiment utilized a mixed-oxide core with near-weapons-grade plutonium. In addition to the VENUS-2 Core, additional computational variants based on each type of fuel cycle VENUS-2 core (3.3 wt. % UO{sub 2}, 4.0 wt. % UO{sub 2}, and 2.0/2.7 wt.% MOX) were also calculated. The VENUS-2 critical configuration and cell variants have been calculated with MCU-REA, which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code system developed at Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' and is used extensively in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The calculations resulted in a k{sub eff} of 0.99652 {+-} 0.00025 and relative pin powers within 2% for UO{sub 2} pins and 3% for MOX pins of the experimental values.
Date: September 28, 2001
Creator: Pavlovichev, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International nuclear waste management fact book

Description: The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Abrahms, C. W.; Patridge, M. D. & Widrig, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

Description: This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F. & Bradley, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Index to Experiment Station Record Volumes 01-12, 1989-1901 and to Experiment Station Bulletin Number 2

Description: A topical, alphabetically arranged index to volumes 1-12 including experiment station records, publications reviewed, and foreign publications. It has a 'Consolidated Table of Contents' which lists all editorial notes and publications of the experiment stations and Department of Agriculture from the referenced volumes.
Date: 1903
Creator: United States. Office of Experiment Stations.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Travel Report - West Germany and Belgium - September 9 - September 13, 1985

Description: This report discusses visitation of the PAMELA plant which provided an opportunity to observe the operation and design of this European waste solidification facility. The aim of the workshop was to exchange expertise relative to the safe vitrification of HLLW in order to determine which areas were technologically solved and which areas required further study.
Date: May 17, 2001
Creator: Bickford, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent Fuel Reprocessing: More Value for Money Spent in a Geological Repository?

Description: Today, each utility or country operating nuclear power plants can select between two long-term spent fuel management policies: either, spent fuel is considered as waste to dispose of through direct disposal or, spent fuel is considered a resource of valuable material through reprocessing-recycling. Reading and listening to what is said in the nuclear community, we understand that most people consider that the choice of policy is, actually, a choice among two technical paths to handle spent fuel: direct disposal versus reprocessing. This very simple situation has been recently challenged by analysis coming from countries where both policies are on survey. For example, ONDRAF of Belgium published an interesting study showing that, economically speaking for final disposal, it is worth treating spent fuel rather than dispose of it as a whole, even if there is no possibility to recycle the valuable part of it. So, the question is raised: is there such a one-to-one link between long term spent fuel management political option and industrial option? The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of spent fuel treatment as an implementation of the policy that considers spent fuel as waste to dispose of. Based on technical considerations and industrial experience, we will study qualitatively, and quantitatively when possible, the different answers proposed by treatment to the main concerns of spent-fuel-as-a-whole geological disposal.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Kaplan, P.; Vinoche, R.; Devezeaux, J-G. & Bailly, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R & D +Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and present operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the backing of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T & C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material will be sorted. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated non-combustible alpha waste will be embedded in a cement matrix. The erection of the sorting and cementing units which include glove-boxes and the interim storage building for conditioned packages was completed at BELGOPROCESS, at the beginning of year 2002. Start-up operations for both facilities have been performed. Operating tests of the sorting and cementing units were completed in July 2002 and inactive operation campaigns were started in August 2002. The results of the tests and inactive campaigns are given. Overall testing of the storage building supervised by the Safety Authorities was successfully performed at the end of 202 after completion of the operating tests on the equipment. The present paper summarizes the main information collected during the tests and campaigns, some of which has led to modifications of the equipment originally installed.
Date: February 27, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Case for the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event: Mammoth, Megafauna and Clovis Extinction

Description: The onset of>1000 years of Younger Dryas cooling, broad-scale extinctions, and the disappearance of the Clovis culture in North America simultaneously occurred 12,900 years ago followed immediately by the appearance of a carbon-rich black layer at many locations. In situ bones of extinct megafauna and Clovis tools occur only beneath this black layer and not within or above it. At the base of the black mat at 9 Clovis-age sites in North America and a site in Belgium numerous extraterrestrial impact markers were found including magnetic grains highly enriched in iridium, magnetic microspherules, vesicular carbon spherules enriched in cubic, hexagonal, and n-type nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon containing Fullerenes and nanodiamonds, charcoal, soot, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The same impact markers were found mixed throughout the sediments of 15 Carolina Bays, elliptical depressions along the Atlantic coast, whose parallel major axes point towards either the Great Lakes or Hudson Bay. The magnetic grains and spherules have an unusual Fe/Ti composition similar to lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane and the organic constituents are enriched in 14C leading to radiocarbon dates often well into the future. These characteristics are inconsistent with known meteorites and suggest that the impact was by a previous unobserved, possibly extrasolar body. The concentration of impact markers peaks near the Great Lakes and their unusually high water content suggests that a 4.6 km-wide comet fragmented and exploded over the Laurentide Ice Sheet creating numerous craters that now persist at the bottom of the Great Lakes. The coincidence of this impact, the onset of Younger Dryas cooling, extinction of the megafauna, and the appearance of a black mat strongly suggests that all these events are directly related. These results have unleashed an avalanche of controversy which I will address in this paper.
Date: October 26, 2009
Creator: Firestone, Richard B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts; Technical report, working draft 001

Description: Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs.
Date: November 4, 1987
Creator: Hanke, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

Description: Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Singh, B. K.; Gillette, J. & Jackson, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jewish Hidden Children in Belgium during the Holocaust: A Comparative Study of Their Hiding Places at Christian Establishments, Private Families, and Jewish Orphanages

Description: This thesis compares the different trauma received at the three major hiding places for Jewish children in Belgium during the Holocaust: Christian establishments, private families, and Jewish orphanages. Jewish children hidden at Christian establishments received mainly religious trauma and nutritional, sanitary, and medical neglect. Hiding with private families caused separation trauma and extreme hiding situations. Children staying at Jewish orphanages lived with a continuous fear of being deported, because these institutions were under constant supervision of the German occupiers. No Jewish child survived their hiding experience without receiving some major trauma that would affect them for the rest of their life. This thesis is based on video interviews at Shoah Visual History Foundation and Blum Archives, as well as autobiographies published by hidden children.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Decoster, Charlotte
Partner: UNT Libraries

Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"

Description: To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Zikanov, Oleg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Rescue As Survival Resistance: Hidden Children in Nazi-occupied Western Europe

Description: The phenomenon of rescue organizations that devoted themselves specifically to hiding and saving Jewish children appeared throughout Nazi-occupied Western Europe (France, Belgium, and the Netherlands). Jewish and non-Jewish rescuers risked their lives to save thousands of children from extermination. This dissertation adds to the historiographical understanding of Holocaust resistance by analyzing the efforts of these child rescue organizations as a form of “survival resistance.” Researching the key aspects of traditional resistance (conscious intent, extensive organization, and effective turn-out) demonstrates that, while child rescue did not present armed resistance, it still was a form of active resistance against the Nazi Final Solution. By looking at rescuers’ testimonies and archival sources (from Yad Vashem, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Centre de documentation juive contemporaine, and Kazerne Dossin), this dissertation first outlines the extensive organization and intent of Jewish rescue groups, such as the Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE) and Comité de défense des Juifs (CDJ), in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The second part looks at rescue organization and intent by Catholic, Protestant, and humanitarian groups. The dissertation concludes by discussing the effectiveness of organized child rescue. In the end, the rescue groups saved thousands of children and proofs that Child rescue in Nazi-occupied Western Europe was a valid--not to mention heroic--form of survival resistance.
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Date: August 2012
Creator: Decoster, Charlotte Marie-Cecile Marguerite
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

Description: The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, D; Pybus, O; Magiorkinis, G & Hatzakis, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

Description: Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.
Date: June 20, 2011
Creator: Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E. & Rutqvist, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The United States Atomic Energy Commission program of assistance to the European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels ("Eurochemic"), Mol, Belgium, is presented. Included are: background, formation, purpose, and structure of the Company; basic design considerations and a brief description of the proposed plant; present status of the and a list of participating organizations and members. (auth)
Date: December 31, 1958
Creator: Shank, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics Beyond the Single Top Quark Observation

Description: In March 2009, the D0 Collaboration first observed the electroweak production of single top quarks at 5{sigma} significance. We measured the cross section for the combined s-channel and t-channel production modes, and set a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. Since then, we have used the same dataset to measure the t-channel production mode independently, the combined cross section in the hadronically-decaying tau lepton final state, and the width and lifetime of the top quark, and we have set upper limits on contributions from anomalous flavor-changing neutral currents. This paper describes these new measurements, as presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Top Quark Physics, held in Brugge, Belgium, May 31-June 4, 2010.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Heinson, A.P. & Collaboration, for the DZero
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department