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Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

Description: A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D. & Tentner, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of improving catalytic activity and catalytics produced thereby

Description: A process for dissociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material is disclosed in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 manometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1--100 nm range. This invention may have application to vehicle emissions control (three-way catalysts).
Date: September 23, 1993
Creator: Beck, D.D. & Siegel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of magnesium

Description: This paper describes the scope of a new project, just initiated, for the Lightweight Materials Program within the Office of Transportation Materials. The Center for Transportation Research and the Energy Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory will assess the feasibility and technical potential of using magnesium and its alloys in place of steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications in order to enable more energy-efficient, lightweight passenger vehicles. The analysis will provide an information base to help guide magnesium research and development in the most promising directions.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R. & Wu, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car

Description: Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Cuenca, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The IMPACTT model: Structure and technical description

Description: The Integrated Market Penetration and Anticipated Cost of Transportation Technologies model, or IMPACTT, is a spreadsheet model that calculates the effect of advanced-technology vehicles and market penetration on baseline fuel use and emissions. Outputs include estimates of the quantity and value of oil displaced and emissions reduced by advanced-technology vehicles, the quantity of alternative fuels they consume, and the total incremental costs bome by purchasers of advanced-technology vehicles. In the current version of IMPACTT, up to eight fuel or engine technologies applicable to light-duty vehicles can be modeled by using a three-phase approach. First, the vehicle stock and miles traveled by the advanced-technology vehicle are determined. Second, assumptions about efficiency and fuel shares are used to estimate substitution-fuel use and oil displacement. Third, changes in emissions of carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide are computed.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Mintz, M.M.; Tompkins, M.M. & Camp, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalytic pyrolysis of automobile shredder residue

Description: In the United States, approximately 10 million automobiles are scrapped and shredded each year. The mixture of plastics and other materials remaining after recovery of the metals is known as Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). In 1994, about 3.5 million tons of ASR was produced and disposed of in landfills. However, environmental, legislative, and economic considerations are forcing the industry to search for recycling or other alternatives to disposal. Numerous studies have been done relating the ASR disposal problem to possible recycling treatments such as pyrolysis, gasification, co-liquefaction of ASR with coal, chemical recovery of plastics from ASR, catalytic pyrolysis, reclamation in molten salts, and vacuum pyrolysis. These and other possibilities have been studied intensively, and entire symposia have been devoted to the problem. Product mix, yields, toxicology issues, and projected economics of conceptual plant designs based on experimental results are among the key elements of past studies. Because the kinds of recycling methods that may be developed, along with their ultimate economic value, depend on a very large number of variables, these studies have been open-ended. It is hoped that it may be useful to explore some of these previously studied areas from fresh perspectives. One such approach, currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is the catalytic pyrolysis of ASR.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Arzoumanidis, G.G.; McIntosh, M.J. & Steffensen, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of a continuous strand, swirl mat reinforced polymer composite in automotive environments

Description: Creep and creep-rupture behavior of an isocyanurate based polyurethane matrix with a continuous strand, swirl mat E-glass reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications. The material under stress was exposed to various automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on its creep and creep-rupture properties. Proposed design guide lines and stress reduction factors were developed for various automotive environments. These composites are considered candidate structural materials for light weight and fuel efficient automobiles of the future.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Ren, W. & Brinkman, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms

Description: A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M. & Anderson, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen fueling station development and demonstration

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop and demonstrate a hydrogen fueling station for vehicles. Such stations are an essential infrastructural element in the practical application of hydrogen as vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology that is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Edeskuty, F.J.; Daney, D.; Daugherty, M.; Hill, D. & Prenger, F.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1995 Federal Research and Development Program in Materials Science and Technology

Description: The Nation's economic prosperity and military security depend heavily on development and commercialization of advanced materials. Materials are a key facet of many technologies, providing the key ingredient for entire industries and tens of millions of jobs. With foreign competition in many areas of technology growing, improvements in materials and associated processes are needed now more than ever, both to create the new products and jobs of the future and to ensure that U.S. industry and military forces can compete and win in the international arena. The Federal Government has invested in materials research and development (R&D) for nearly a century, helping to lay the foundation for many of the best commercial products and military components used today. But while the United States has led the world in the science and development of advanced materials, it often has lagged in commercializing them. This long-standing hurdle must be overcome now if the nation is to maintain its leadership in materials R&D and the many technologies that depend on it. The Administration therefore seeks to foster commercialization of state-of-the-art materials for both commercial and military use, as a means of promoting US industrial competitiveness as well as the procurement of advanced military and space systems and other products at affordable costs. The Federal R&D effort in Fiscal Year 1994 for materials science and technology is an estimated $2123.7 million. It includes the ongoing R&D base that support the missions of nine Federal departments and agencies, increased strategic investment to overcome obstacles to commercialization of advanced materials technologies, interagency cooperation in R&D areas of mutual benefit to leverage assets and eliminate duplicative work, cost-shared research with industrial and academic partners in critical precompetitive technology areas, and international cooperation on selected R&D topics with assured benefits for the United States. The materials R&D program ...
Date: December 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PNGV NOx sensors and systems for engine management: Revision 1. Final report

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Motors` AC Rochester Division formed an agreement to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides from automobiles by developing a fiber-optic pressure sensor integrated into a spark plug and a new spark plug material with improved thermal conductivity and anti-fouling characteristics. These improvements will help the US auto industry`s global competitiveness by improving fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. The reconfigured DOE Complex will benefit from enhanced process control by meeting safety requirements that limit worker exposure to chemicals and radiation in automated facilities.
Date: December 18, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine

Description: In this paper, the authors report a dynamic cylinder pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine. The pressure is sensed by measuring the pressure-induced deflection of a membrane via a Fabry-Perot optical interferometric effect. The sensor is micromachined on a silicon wafer to minimize the cost and the size and to enhance the device quality in high-volume production mode. As a preliminary test, they measured the pressure of an air compressor using the micromachined miniature sensor.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Lee, S.B.; Yu, C.M.; Ciarlo, D.R. & Sheem, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

Description: The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.
Date: August 8, 1996
Creator: Allenby, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R. & Wallman, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a carburizing and quenching simulation tool: Numerical simulations of rings and gears

Description: This paper describes a calculational procedure using the ABAQUS finite element code that simulates a carburizing and quench heat treat cycle for automotive gears. The procedure features a numerically efficient 2-phase constitutive model to represent transformational plasticity effects for the austenite/martensite transformation together with refined finite element meshes to capture the steep gradients in stress and composition near the gear surfaces. The procedure is illustrated on carburizing and quenching of a thick ring, and comparison of model predictions for distortion, phase distribution, and residual stress with experiment is discussed. Sensitivity of predictions to mesh refinement is studied.
Date: June 24, 1996
Creator: Anderson, C.; Goldman, P. & Rangaswamy, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radical oxidation automotive de-NO{sub x}

Description: The authors describe an experiment to remove NO{sub x} from air-like gas flows by optimizing its oxidation to nitric acid. Their aim is to demonstrate an efficient de-NO{sub x} process that can replace the catalytic converter of today`s automobiles and recover greater engine performance. NO is oxidized to HNO{sub 3} by injecting O{sub 3} from an auxiliary air discharge unit, and the acid is scrubbed by a granular NaOH filter, the final product being NaNO{sub 3}. In theory this scheme requires less engine power than the enthalpy loss through the catalytic converter, and permits engine operation with oxygen-rich fuel mixtures at high compression ratios for peak thermodynamic efficiency. Experiments utilize a glass tube flow reactor with a 20 liter/minute flow mixed from the separate injections of compressed ozonized air and an admixture of 200 ppm of NO in nitrogen from a small pressurized bottle, for net proportions of 89% N{sub 2}, 11% O{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO. Ozone concentration is selected by adjusting the frequency of the repetitive-pulsed coaxial-barrier air discharge cell. For O{sub 3}:NO ratios greater than unity a chain of reactions successively produce NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, and N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which then combines with ambient H{sub 2}O to form HNO{sub 3}. The overall efficiency is dominated by the electrical efficiency of the ozonizer, at present about 30 eV/O{sub 3} within the discharge.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Chang, B. & Garcia, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote monitoring of emissions using on-vehicle sensing and vehicle to roadside communications

Description: Recent developments in on-vehicle electronics makes practical remote monitoring of vehicle emissions compliance with CARB and EPA regulations. A system consisting of emission controls malfunction sensors, an on-board computer (OBC), and vehicle-to-roadside communications (VRC) would enable enforcement officials to remotely and automatically detect vehicle out-of-compliance status. Remote sensing could be accomplished at highway speeds as vehicles pass a roadside RF antenna and reader unit which would interrogate the on- vehicle monitoring and recording system. This paper will focus on the hardware system components require to achieve this goal with special attention to the VRC; a key element for remote monitoring. this remote sensing concept piggybacks on the development of inexpensive VRC equipment for automatic vehicle identification for electronic toll collection and intelligent transportation applications. Employing an RF transponder with appropriate interface to the OBC and malfunction sensors, a practical monitoring system can be developed with potentially important impact on air quality and enforcement. With such a system in place, the current -- and costly and ineffective -- emission control strategy of periodic smog checking could be replaced or modified.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Davis, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

Description: Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.
Date: December 4, 1995
Creator: Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K. & Sherby, O.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of modal vehicle emission models with the TRANSIMS traffic simulation module

Description: TRANSIMS is a set of integrated analytical and simulation models and supporting data bases. The TRANSIMS methods deal with individual behavioral units and proceed through several steps to estimate travel. TRANSIMS predicts trips for individual households, residents and vehicles rather than for zonal aggregations of households. TRANSIMS also predicts the movement of individual freight loads. A regional microsimulation executes the generated trips on the transportation network, modeling the individual vehicle interactions and predicting the transportation system performance. The purpose of the TRANSIMS environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions. There are four major tasks required to translate traveler behavior into environmental consequences: (1) estimate the emissions, (2) describe the atmospheric conditions into which the contaminants are emitted, (3) describe the local transport and dispersion, and (4) describe the chemical reactions that occur during transport and dispersion of the contaminants.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Williams, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

Description: Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of PEM electrolyzers

Description: Hydrogen and oxygen can be produced using a PEM electrolyzer. A PEM electrolyzer operates like a fuel cell in reverse. On the anode side of the electrolyzer, electrons are removed from water to form protons and oxygen molecules. The protons are then transported across the membrane. The protons then rejoin with electrons to form hydrogen molecules. In this way water is electrolyzed. In automobiles, the majority of pollutant emissions occur during the start-up of the vehicle. In order to reduce these harmful emissions, a burner will be placed at the end of process to burn off the hydrocarbon emissions. However, this burner must also be hot to completely burn the harmful pollutants. One method of heating this burner quickly is to burn hydrogen before start-up. The burning of the hydrogen will not produce any pollutants. The only products of hydrogen combustion are water and heat. For this reason, a theoretical design of an electrolyzer/burner system was developed.
Date: July 24, 1998
Creator: Knobbe, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tensile and compressive behavior of a swirl mat composite

Description: The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the US Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on one representative reference material--an isocyanurate (polyurethane) reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass. The present report describes tensile and compressive testing and results for the reference composite. Behavior trends and proportional limit are established for both tension and compression. Damage development due to tensile loading and strain rate effects are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Ruggles, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department