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The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses

Description: The East Asian winter monsoon, which is associated with the Siberian high and active cold surges, is one of the most energetic monsoon circulation systems. The dramatic shift of northeasterlies and the outbreak of cold surges dominate the winter weather and local climate in the East Asian region, and may exert a strong impact on the extratropical and tropical planetary-scale circulations and influence the SSTs in the tropical western Pacific. General characteristics of the winter monsoon and cold surges and their possible link with tropical disturbances are revealed in many observational studies. Little attention has been given to the climatological aspects of the winter monsoon and cold surges. The purpose of this study is to compile and document the East Asian mean winter circulation, and present the climatology of cold surges and the Siberian high based on the 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of winter monsoon circulation and cold surge events. Given that the cold surge activity and the Indonesian convection are much reduced during the 1982--83 period, one of the goals is to determine whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between ENSO and the interannual variation of winter monsoon and cold surges.
Date: April 1996
Creator: Zhang, Yi; Sperber, K. & Boyle, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

Description: This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Cushman, R.M. & Burtis, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

Description: This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Elliott, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Village Power `97. Proceedings

Description: It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R. & Weingart, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internet-based information resource and discussion platform on GHG reduction strategies in Asia

Description: The website (www.ccasia.teri.res.in) provides a consolidated Internet based information source and platform for discussions on climate change issues in Asia. The effort has been successful in reaching the target audience and in stimulating awareness about the crucial debate on GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction strategies in Asia.
Date: December 28, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

Description: As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David & Scheven, Alexander von
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance

Description: Unexploded ordnance (UXO) presents serious problems in Europe, Asia, as well as in the United States. Explosives and mines from World War I and World War II still turn up at European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training grounds. The high rate of failure among munitions from 60-90 years ago is cited as one of the main reasons for such a high level of contamination. Apart from war activities, military training has resulted in many uncovered ordnance. It is especially true in the United States, where most UXO has resulted from decades of military training, exercises, and testing of weapons systems. Such UXO contamination prevents civilian land use, threatens public safety, and causes significant environmental concern. In light of this problem, there has been considerable interest shown by federal, state, and local authorities in UXO remediation at former U.S. Department of Defense sites. The ultimate goal of UXO remediation is to permit safe public use of contaminated lands. A Defense Science Board Task Force Report from 1998 lists some 1,500 sites, comprising approximately 15 million acres, that potentially contain UXO. The UXO-related activity for these sites consists of identifying the subareas that actually contain UXO, and then locating and removing the UXO, or fencing the hazardous areas off from the public. The criteria for clearance depend on the intended land end-use and residual hazard risk that is deemed acceptable. Success in detecting UXO depends on the ordnance's size, metal content, and depth of burial, as well as on the ability of geophysical systems to detect ordnance in the presence of metallic fragments from exploded UXO and other metal clutter.
Date: January 15, 2007
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika & Beard, Les P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic bigheadedturtle (Platysternon): description of unusual genomic features and thereconciliation of phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial andnuclear DNA

Description: The big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) from east Asia is the sole living representative of a poorly-studied turtle lineage (Platysternidae). It has no close living relatives, and its phylogenetic position within turtles is one of the outstanding controversies in turtle systematics. Platysternon was traditionally considered to be close to snapping turtles (Chelydridae) based on some studies of its morphology and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, however, other studies of morphology and nuclear (nu) DNA do not support that hypothesis. We sequenced the complete mt genome of Platysternon and the nearly complete mt genomes of two other relevant turtles and compared them to turtle mt genomes from the literature to form the largest molecular dataset used to date to address this issue. The resulting phylogeny robustly rejects the placement of Platysternon with Chelydridae, but instead shows that it is a member of the Testudinoidea, a diverse, nearly globally-distributed group that includes pond turtles and tortoises. We also discovered that Platysternon mtDNA has large-scale gene rearrangements and possesses two, nearly identical, control regions, features that distinguish it from all other studied turtles. Our study robustly determines the phylogenetic placement of Platysternon and provides a well-resolved outline of major turtle lineages, while demonstrating the significantly greater resolving power of comparing large amounts of mt sequence over that of short fragments. Earlier phylogenies placing Platysternon with chelydrids required a temporal gap in the fossil record that is now unnecessary. The duplicated control regions and gene rearrangements of the Platysternon mt DNA probably resulted from the duplication of part of the genome and then the subsequent loss of redundant genes. Although it is possible that having two control regions may provide some advantage, explaining why the control regions would be maintained while some of the duplicated genes were eroded, examples of this are rare. So far, duplicated control ...
Date: December 28, 2005
Creator: Parham, James F.; Feldman, Chris R. & Boore, Jeffrey L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

Description: During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 ...
Date: April 12, 2006
Creator: Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I. & Phillips, W. Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating hazardous waste management into a multimedia pollution prevention paradigm. A protoype regulatory program for petroleum refinesments

Description: An emerging trend in environmental regulatory management promises enhanced environmental protection and more flexibility for regulated entities. This trend reflects three concepts. First, regulations designed to reduce one type of environmental pollution (e.g., air pollution) should not increase other types of pollution (e.g. hazardous waste). Second, pollution prevention is an important alternative to end-of-pipe control requirements. Third, offering polluting entities the flexibility of meeting certain performance criteria may produce better environmental results than prescribing specific technologies or approaches. A significant body of literature supports the need to develop regulatory programs that incorporate these concepts. However, there is little evidence that these concepts have been integrated into actual multimedia regulatory programs. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy are developing a prototype regulatory program for petroleum refineries that embraces these concepts. The development approach in this case study comprises several steps: (1) identifying and evaluating existing regulations governing petroleum refineries (if any); (2) characterizing expected future operating conditions of refineries; (3) setting goals for the regulatory program; (4) identifying and evaluating options for the program; (5) developing a prototype based on selected options; (6) identifying and addressing implementation issues; and (7) testing the prototype on a pilot basis. The approach being used in the U.S. effort is flexible and can be used in environmental management efforts throughout the Pacific Basin--in both developing and developed countries.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Elcock, D. & Gasper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical seasonal predictability of the Asian summer monsoon

Description: The goals of this paper are to (1) ascertain the ability of atmospheric general circulation models to hindcast the summer monsoons of 1987, 1988, and 1993, (2) to determine how well the models represent the dominant modes of subseasonal variability of the 850hPa flow, (3) to determine if the models can represent the strong link between the subseasonal modes of variability and the rainfall, (4) to determine if the models properly project these modes onto interannual timescales, (5) to determine if it is possible to objectively discriminate among the ensemble members to ascertain which members are most reliable. The results presented here are based upon contributions to the seasonal prediction model intercomparison project (SMIP), which was initiated by the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP; formally Numerical Experimentation Group-1). For each summer, June--September, ensembles of integrations were performed using observed initial conditions, and observed sea surface temperatures. Here, the results from a 4-member ensemble from the United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO) model are presented for the sake of brevity. The conclusions based on the analysis of this model are consistent with the behavior of the other models.
Date: December 14, 1999
Creator: Sperber, K R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

Description: My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Di Capua, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets

Description: The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All ...
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Boyle, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear relations in South Asia

Description: The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.
Date: December 18, 1998
Creator: Joeck, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The relationship between intraseasonal and interannual variability during the asian summer monsoon

Description: The purpose of this paper is to investigate intraseasonal (30-70 days) and higher frequency (5-30 days) variability and its relationship to interannual variability. Various modelling studies have suggested a link between intraseasonal and interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon. This relationship has been mainly based upon the similar spatial structures of the dominant EOF patterns of the monsoon circulation on intraseasonal and interannual time scales from simulations with simple models and atmospheric general circulation models. Here we investigate these relationships using 40 years of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. Motivation for this study is embodied in the suggestions of Charney and Shukla (1981) that boundary forcing (e.g., sea surface temperature) may predispose the monsoon system towards a dry or wet state, and the result of Palmer (1994), using the Lorenz (1963) model, that the probability of being in one regime of phase space or another is no longer equally probable in the presence of external forcing. To investigate the influence of the boundary forcing, the probability distribution functions (PDF�s) of the principal components are given.
Date: April 21, 1999
Creator: Annamalai, H; Slingo, J M & Sperber, K R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

Description: Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Pregenzer, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

Description: Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Olsen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports

Description: The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verifying Missile Non-Proliferation in Northeast Asia

Description: Missiles are attractive weapon systems because of their flexibility, survivability, and relatively low cost. Consequently, many nations are seeking to build missile forces resulting in regional arms races. Missile forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Efforts to control missile proliferation must account for these effects. A number of strategies to control the destabilizing effects of missiles were developed during the Cold War. Some of these strategies are applicable to regional missile control but new approaches, tailored to regional geographic and security conditions, are needed. Regional missile nonproliferation can be pursued in a variety of ways: Reducing the demand for missiles by decreasing the perception of national threats; Restricting the export of missiles and associated equipment by supplier countries; Restricting information describing missile technology; Limiting missile development activities such as flight or engine tests; Restricting the operational deployment of existing missile forces; and Reducing existing missile forces by number and/or type. Even when development is complete, limits on deployment within range of potential targets or limits on operational readiness can help stabilize potential missile confrontations. Implementing these strategies often involves the collection and exchange of information about activities related to missile development or deployment. Monitoring is the process of collecting information used to for subsequent verification of commitments. A systematic approach to implementing verification is presented that identifies areas where monitoring could support missile nonproliferation agreements. The paper presents both non-technical and technical techniques for monitoring. Examples of non-technical techniques are declarations about planned test launches or on-site inspections. Examples of technical monitoring include remote monitoring (i.e., a sensor that is physically present at a facility) and remote sensing (i.e., a sensor that records activity without being physically present at a facility).
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Vannoni, Michael G.; Biringer, Kent L. & Trost, Lawrence C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

Description: EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department