Search Results

Rediscovery of the Elements: Aluminum

Description: Article describing the history of aluminum, from its use in alum to its isolation. Tourist information is given regarding locations pertinent to aluminum.
Date: Summer 2006
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

PROGRESS RELATING TO CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS DURING DECEMBER 1956

Description: Research is reported in the development of materials for Hanford reactors, development of Al-clad fuel elements, plant assistance to MCW, reactions between water and Zr alloys, general fuel element development, Zr - U alloy studies, corrosion of Zr, reactor materials development, physical metallurgy, development of PWR, and NaTa compatibility at high temperatures. (For preceding period see BMI-1136.) (T.R.H.)
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Dayton, R.W. & Tipton, C.R. Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS

Description: The effects of core barrier coatings, void spaces, and surface-cleaning techniques on the quality of Zircaloyclad flat-plate UO/sub 2/ fuel elements prepared by gas-pressure bonding were investigated. Techniques were developed for the application of barrier layers of chromium by a vapordeposition process and of crystalline carbon by a pyrolytic process. These coatings, together with a graphite coating previously developed, were evaluated in pressure-bonded fuel elements for their effectiveness in preventing coreto-cladding reaction and for their general production feasibility. Crystalline carbon coatings 15 to 40 mu in. thick and chromium coatings 25 to 40 mu in. thick were determined to be satisfactory. In the stady of the flow of cladding-plate material into void spaces in the picture-frame assembly, it was established that excessive flow, and consequent thinning of the cladding, can be minimized by individually compartmentalizing the cores with Zircaloy ribs. This design resulted in maximum restriction of the effects of a cladding failure in service. Quantitative data on the maximum amount of void space resulting from manufucturing tolerances or from chipped fuel cores that is tolerable in cladding failure in service. Quantitative data on the maximum amount of void space resulting from manufucturing tolerances or from chipped fuel cores that is tolerable in elements of this design were obtained. In stadies of surface-cleaning technlques, it was found that a final multistep rinsing cycle resulted in bonds consistently free of evidence of contamination. (See also BMI-1374.) (auth)
Date: May 11, 1960
Creator: Paprocki, S.J.; Hodge, E.S.; Layer, E.H.; Wintucky, E.G.; Gripshover, P.J. & Carmichael, D.C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FURTHER STUDIES WITH THE GCRE CRITICAL ASSEMBLY

Description: Further engineering and physics data to aid in constructing GCRE-1 were obtained in critical-assembly studies. Four major experiments were performed to investigate the effect on reactivity caused by changes in axial reflector materials, the effect on reactivity and the power perturbation caused by fast safety control-blade guides, the effect of changes in fuel-element material composition, and the effect of changes in fuel-element spacing designed to produce uniform radial power-generation rates. All studies were performed with a 4-in.-thick lead reflector at the core perimeter. Axial-reflector-material studies employed combirations of aluminum and steel reflectors. The reactivity worth of a 2 3/4-in.-thick steel reflector was +0.414% DELTA k/k compared with 0.175% DELTA k/k for a similar aluminum reflector. The perturbation in the flux distribution caused by the safety-blade guides was localized, and affected only the regions immediately adjacent to the guides. The combined reactivity worth of two guides was -0.281% DELTA k/k. Fuel-element material compositions were changed by separate additions of fuel and stainless steel. An increase in uranium loading from an average value of 303 to 404 g per element would provide, based on extrapolations from experimental data, a reactivity of about 4.5% DELTA k/k. An increase in steel from 1708 to 2093 g per element decreased the core reactivity by abeut 1.1% DELTA k/k. A change in fuelelement spacing reduced the ratio of maximum to average power generation from 1.46 to 1.24. (auth)
Date: December 29, 1958
Creator: Dingee, D.A.; Ballowe, W.C.; Egen, R.A.; Jankowski, F.J. & Chastain, J.W. Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE VMR CRITICAL-ASSEMBLY EXPERIMENTS

Description: Moderator Reactor (VMR), a reactor concept under investigation by American-Standard for the AEC. The VMR is light-water moderated and cooled and is fueled with slightly enriched uranium dioxide pellets loaded into aluminum tubes. The core consists of 37 hexagonal fuel cans each loaded with 61 fuel pins. The cooling water, which flows upward around the pins inside the fuel can, boils in passing through the core. Reactor control in the prototype will be achieved by varying the moderator height. The site, laboratory, and the critical assembly, including control and safety mechanisms, are described in detuil. Special characteristics of the assembly pentinent to safety were calculated. The nuclesr energy released and the average and maximum fuel temperatures resulting from step reactivity increases up to 2% DELTA k/k are presented graphically for two cases. In the first case, fuel-temperature effects are considered to be the oniy shutdown mechanism; in the second radiolytic gas is considered to contribute to shutdown, in addition to fuel-temperature effects. The accident considered to be the maximum credible accident causes a step addition in reactivity of 1.5% DELTA k/k. The nuclear-energy release is between 160 and 310 megawatt-sec depending on the assumed shutdown mechanisms. This accident does not cause any fuel to be vapcrized (and probably none to be melted) and, hence, there does not appear to be a hazard from fission-product activity. It appears that this criticalassembly program can be conducted with reasonable assurance of safe operation and that no public persons will be jeopardized by its operation. (auth)
Date: June 10, 1960
Creator: Egen, R.A.; Hogan, W.S.; Dingee, D.A. & Chastain, J.W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION RESISTANCE OF THIN IRON-CHROMIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEET

Description: S>The oxidation resistance of thin sheets of Fe - 28 wt. % Cr - 2.67 to 10.0 wt. % Al alloys, nominally 0.004, 0.006, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.016 in. thick, was determined by exposure in static air for 100 hr at 2100 and 2300 deg F. A minimum of 3.67 and 9.37 wt.% Al was necessary to prevent excessive oxidation of 0.004-in. thick sheet material at 2100 and 2300 deg F, respectively. Specimens of lower Al content and greater thickness withstood oxidation attack. Oxidation of Fe - Cr - Al alloys apperars to be related to the diffusion of Al to surfaces of the sheet to form an adherent protective layer of Al/sub 2/ O/sub 3/.(auth)
Date: October 22, 1957
Creator: Jablonowski, E.J.; Shober, F.R. & Dickerson, R.F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absolute Intensities of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra in a Metal-Etch Plasma Processing Discharge

Description: In this paper we report absolute intensities of vacuum ultraviolet and near ultraviolet emission lines (4.8 eV to 18 eV ) for aluminum etching discharges in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. We report line intensities as a function of wafer type, pressure, gas mixture and rf excitation level. IrI a standard aluminum etching mixture containing C12 and BC13 almost all the light emitted at energies exceeding 8.8 eV was due to neutral atomic chlorine. Optical trapping of the WV radiation in the discharge complicates calculations of VUV fluxes to the wafer. However, we see total photon fluxes to the wailer at energies above 8.8 eV on the order of 4 x 1014 photons/cm2sec with anon- reactive wafer and 0.7 x 10 `4 photons/cm2sec with a reactive wtier. The maj ority of the radiation observed was between 8.9 and 9.3 eV. At these energies, the photons have enough energy to create electron-hole pairs in Si02, but may penetrate up to a micron into the Si02 before being absorbed. Relevance of these measurements to vacuum-W photon-induced darnage of Si02 during etching is discussed.
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Aragon, B.P.; Blain, M.G.; Hamilton, T.W.; Jarecki, R.L. & Woodworth, J.R.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIFFUSION KINETICS STUDIES IN THE Al-Ni-U SYSTEM

Description: A diffusion couple technique was developed and standardized for the purpose of obtaining meaningful data regarding the diffusion kinetics of the Al-- Ni--U system. The technique entailed hot pressing under a dynamic vacuum and subsequent isothermal soaking treatments within evacuated quartz tubes for periods of 10 to 7000 hr at temperatures of 850, 750, 850, andd 950 deg F. In addition, the nickel barrier bond between Type 1100 aluminum cladding and cast U- 3.5% Mo fuel alloy was metallographically examined on four fuel cylinders fabricated according to Piqua procedure. One cylinder was inspected in the as fabricated'' conditions, and the three others after 1000, 2000, and 4000 hr of isothemnal soaking in Santowax OMP at 750 deg F in an autoclave under 100 psig of nitrogen. The following conclusions were obtained: 1) The penetration of aluminum into nickel followed a parabolic relationship with time. The penetration coefficient was graphically determined as a function of temperature. 2) The nickel penetration data generated by the diffusion couple technique were slightly higher thand those derived from the cylinder bond study. The maximum discrepancy was 20%. This disagreement was attributed to the geometry of the tubular specimens and to the interface displacements which occurred during the annealing process due to differential thermal expandsion between fuel and cladding, both at the OD and ID. 3) A low-aluminum phase AlN/sub 3/ or AlNi/sub 3/ nucleated at the Al/sub 3/Ni/Al/sub 3/Ni/sub 2/ interf ace when the supply of additional free Al into the system was restricted due to void formation or separation between intermetallics and Al. The growth of the low-aluminum phase progressed at the expense of the Al/sub 3/Ni until all this phase was consumed, then consumption of the Al/sub 3/Ni/sub 2/ phase began. 4) The interdiffusion rate of uranium and nickel also followed the parabolic ...
Date: November 30, 1963
Creator: R.A., Harlow. & Gamba, O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of Wet Oxidation of High-AL-Content III-V Materials

Description: Oxidation of layers of high-Al-content III-V materials by water vapor has become the enabling process for high-efficiency vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) and has potential applications for reducing substrate current leakage in GaAs-on-insulator (GOI) MESFETS. Because of the established importance of wet oxidation in optoelectronic devices and its potential applications in electronic devices, it has become increasingly important to understand the mechanism of wet oxidation and how it might be expected to affect both the fabrication and subsequent operation of devices that have been made using this technique. The mechanism of wet oxidation and the consequence of this mechanism for heterostructure design and ultimate device operation are discussed here.
Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Ashby, C.I.H.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING DUCTILITY OF IRON-ALUMINUM ALLOYS. Interim Report

Description: An analyers of the basic slip mechanism of several aluminum--iron alloys containing 8 to 16% aluminium indicated a crystallographic typs slip on the {110} planes. The effects of order-disorder heat-treatment variables, scavenging additions, and processing precedures were investigated. Plastic flow and fracture mechanisms in aluminum --iron alloys were investigated as a function of aluminum content. The degree of atomic orderirg in aluminum -iron alloys was studied by means of electrical resistivity and x-ray measurements. (See also TID-5626.) (C.J.G.)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Rauscher, G.; Perkins, F.C. & Nachman, J.F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEMI-ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1960 THROUGH JUNE 1960

Description: Modifications were made in the Carlson and Banks procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of silicon in beryllium metal and oxide. The refractory oxide is dissolved directly in hydrofluoric acid. The identical procedure is used for metal after ignition to the oxide. Concentrations of beryllium over certain limits have a quenching effect on the fluorescence of the aluminum-Portachrome Blue Black R complex. The determination of trace amounts of aluminum in beryilium can be carried out despite this quenching effect by the method of standard addition. Samples of plutonium sulfate tetrahydrate prepared 9 to 12 months earlier were under investigation to determine the suitability of this compound as a primary analytical standard of plutonium. The compound was determined experimentally to contain four molecules of water of crystallization. Plutonium sulfate tetrahydrate was found to lose a major portion of its water of crystallization when heated at 115 ts C. Indications, but no conclusive evidence, of the existence of another intermediate hydrate of plutonium(IV) sulfate, were found. Microscopic examination of 1-year-old crystals of Pu(S0/sub 4/)/sub 2/.4H/sub 2/0 shows no evidence of the effect of any alpha radiolysis on the water of crystallization. Continued exposure to a fluctuating atmosphere caused no apparent changes in crystal structure or weight. Heating Pu(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/.4H/sub 2/0 to 325 ts C produced a dehydrated salt of weight equivalent to the formula, Pu(S0/sub 4/)/sub 2/. This material, although slightly hygroscopic, can be readily dried at 120 ts C and appears to be satisfactory for further investigation of its suitability as an alternate primary stand ard of plutonium. A method is presented for the rapid determination of milligram quantities of sulfateiIn pure plutonium sulfates. Plutonium is adsorbed on a cation resin and an acidimetric titration is made of the displaced hydrogen ion which is equivalent to the sulfate content of the ...
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Rodden, C.J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SHIELDING STUDIES ON SALT SLABS, GADOLINIUM, AND WATER

Description: A lid-tank shielding facility, simular to the one in operation at Oak Ridge, has been constructed and is in operation at Battelle. This facility was descnibed in BMI-1291. The fast-neutron and gamma dose rates and thermalneutron fluxes were mapped in a symmetry plane of the shielding tank. Fast-neutron and gamma dose rates were raeasured behind a series of shielding plugs along a line in the water perpendicular to the fission-plate center. The plug materials included aluminum, iron, lead, titanium, and gadolinium. In order to use small- diameter plugs the effective diameter of the fission plate was reduced for these experiments by placing an iris between the thermal column and the flssion plate. The purpose of the test was to determine the removal cross section of gadolinium by comparison with other materials, using a small amount of gadolinium. The removal cross section for gadolinium is about the same as for lead. Experiments were conducted on ordinary and enriched LiH slabs 4 to 32 in. thick. Fast- neutron and gamma dose rates in addition to thermalneutron fluxes were measured on the water center line behind the slabs. (auth)
Date: October 7, 1959
Creator: Klingensmith, R.W.; Epstein, H.M. & Chastain, J.W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

Description: Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.
Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P. & Kwong, K.S.
Item Type: Article
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

Description: The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind ...
Date: September 30, 2012
Creator: David Schwam, PI & Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS RELATING TO CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS DURING JUNE 1956

Description: Development studies are described for: reactor materials; aluminum-clad fuel elements; plant assistance to MCW; processing of feed materials; alloy and ceramic fuel elements; uranium and zirconium corrosion mechanisms; Zr-U alloys; physical metallurgy; Zircaloy-water reactions; sir-flow in PWR pressure vessel; modified fuelelement cores; liquid-metal neutron absorbers for control of gas- cooled power reactors; snd evaluations of reflectorcontrolled heterogeneous boiling reactors. (B.O.G.)
Date: July 1, 1956
Creator: Dayton, R.W. & Tipton, C.R. Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY REPORT. PART II. PILOT PLANT WORK

Description: ABS>The stoicbiometric HNO/sub 3/ concentrations required to digest feed materials to 200g U/I, 3N excess acid are tabulated. Stoichiometrically the minimum HNO/sub 3/ concentration required to dissolve feed materials to flowsheet conditions flowsheet tests is presented. The sensitivity of the Weldon Spring TBP-extraction system to process flow rates is discussed. A series of pilot plant experiments are deserined for removing TBP from raffinate. Steam distillstion of the raffinate slurries proved to be more effective than washing with hexone in a pulse column. The flame fusion melting of UO/sub 2/ to form dense rods of relatively constant cross section continued. The rods and tubes which were extruded from micronized UO/sub 2/ had excellent surface quality and sintered densities greater than 98% of theoretical. Bomb center temperatures of 500 deg F and higher prior to fining, obtained by increasing the firing time, tended to produce low hydrogen U. A method for producing dingot U with an acceptable H/sub 2/ contact was developed. A number of solid additions to the UF/ sub 4/-Mg bomb charge were investigated. The tonnage of forged bar stock produced during this period is given. The variables affeeting diagot extrusion are discussed. An investigation of the dingot process is given. The determination of plant decontamination faetors for Ce/sup 3+/, Mg, and Al are presented. (W.L.H.)
Date: August 1, 1957
Creator: Elliott, B. ed.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program: Gaseous Nitridation

Description: Textron has developed a mature process for the fabrication of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) tubes for application in the aluminum processing and casting industry. The major milestones in this project are System Composition; Matrix Formulation; Preform Fabrication; Nitridation; Material Characterization; Component Evaluation
Date: October 29, 2001
Creator: DiBona, R. Suplinskas G. & Grant, W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

Description: The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.
Date: December 16, 1999
Creator: Sousa, L.
Item Type: Book
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting

Description: A low-temperature aluminum smelting process being developed differs from the Hall-Heroult process in several significant ways. The low-temperature process employs a more acidic electrolyte than cryolite, an alumina slurry, oxygen-generating metal anodes, and vertically suspended electrodes. Wetted and drained vertical cathodes are crucial to the new process. Such cathodes represent a significant portion of the capital costs projected for the new technology. Athough studies exist of wetted cathode technology with Hall-Heoult cells, the differences make such a study desirable with the new process. This project is such a study. In Phase 1, titanium diboride, zirconium diboride and composites of these with other materials were tested using a statistically useful test matrix. The materials were consolidated both by hot pressing and by a new method, plasma pressure compaction (P2C�). The materials were subject to controlled electrolysis tests under conditions of the low-temperature smelting process. Post-electrolysis characterizations included quantitative atomic analyses and electron microscopic examinations. These methods allowed evaluating the relative merits of the materials, and the mechanisms of their corrosion. Also, a few tests were performed to determine whether oxygen and carbon dioxide bathing vertically suspended cathodes exhibited different current efficiencies. In Phase 2, additional composite materials were fabricated with P2C�, electrolysis tested, and subsequently characterized. The statistical test matrix was not used in this Phase. However, the materials were tested with electrolysis lasting both five and twenty hours. The project demonstrated that good current efficiencies are obtained with the new process at this scale. All of the materials tested except for aluminum infiltrated aluminum nitride wetted well and gave comparable electrolysis voltages. Both hot pressing and P2C� produce grain structures in the consolidated materials. Grain loss to the product metal is the dominant corrosion mechanism of these materials as cathodes. Grain loss is more of a problem with the composites ...
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Brown, Craig W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

Description: An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.
Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: Schwam, David; Wallace, John F. & Zhou, Quanyou
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department