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Proposed Cuts to Air Traffic Control Towers Under Budget Sequestration: Background and Considerations for Congress

Description: This report provides and overview of budget sequester and air traffic control. The report discusses air traffic control tower funding, effect of tower closures, possible technology remedies to potential safety impacts and related legislation.
Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Elias, Bart
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic model, analysis and computer code for take-off and landing related aircraft crashes into a structure

Description: A methodology is presented that allows the calculation of the probability that any of a particular collection of structures will be hit by an aircraft in a take-off or landing related accident during a specified window of time with a velocity exceeding a given critical value. A probabilistic model is developed that incorporates the location of each structure relative to airport runways in the vicinity; the size of the structure; the sizes, types, and frequency of use of commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft which take-off and land at these runways; the relative frequency of take-off and landing related accidents by aircraft type; the stochastic properties of off-runway crashes, namely impact location, impact angle, impact velocity, and the heading, deceleration, and skid distance after impact; and the stochastic properties of runway overruns and runoffs, namely the position at which the aircraft exits the runway, its exit velocity, and the heading and deceleration after exiting. Relevant probability distributions are fitted from extensive commercial, military, and general aviation accident report data bases. The computer source code for implementation of the calculation is provided.
Date: February 6, 1996
Creator: Glaser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Tobiason, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved assessment of aviation hazards to ground facilities using a geographical information system

Description: A computer based system for performing probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of aircraft crashes to ground structures is under development. The system called ACRA (aircraft crash risk assessment) employs a GIS (geographical information system) for locating, mapping, and characterizing ground structures; and a multiparameter data base system that supports the analytical PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) model for determining PSAs for aircraft crashes. The Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) is being employed as the base case for study and application of ACRA and evaluation of the projected safety assessment.
Date: June 3, 1996
Creator: Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. & Kimura, C.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

Description: In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).
Date: June 3, 1996
Creator: Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y. & Prassinos, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 3

Description: The alternative fuel industry is heating up. It is a very exciting time to be in the energy business, especially when it comes to transportation. Celebrating of the milestone 75th Clean Cities coalition and kick off of the new Federal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) USER Program is occurring in cities across the country. Clean Energy for the 21st Century and the events that are happening during Energy Awareness Month are covered in this issue. Spotlighted are niche markets; several airports across the country are successfully incorporating alternative fuels into their daily routines.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: DOE, Clean Cities Program at
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airport Privatization: Issues and Options for Congress

Description: This report discusses airport privatization, particularly the low participation in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (APPP) and the policy changes that would be required to encourage more airports to privatize. It provides background on privatization in general, the APPP and reasons why it has not stimulated privatization, privatization in Europe and Canada, and related issues and options.
Date: February 3, 2016
Creator: Tang, Rachel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELIST v.8.1 : User's Manual.

Description: This user's manual documents the capabilities and functions of the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) software application. Steps for using the Expanded Time Phase Force Deployment Data (ETPFDD) Editor (ETEdit), which is included in ELIST but is also a stand-alone software application, are contained in a separate document. ELIST is a discrete event simulation tool developed for use by military planners in both the continental United States (CONUS) and outside the continental United States (OCONUS). It simulates the reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) of military personnel and equipment from all services within, between, or among countries. ELIST not only runs a simulation, but it also provides the capability to edit asset sets, networks, and scenarios. These capabilities show how various changes can affect the outcome of a simulation. Further, ELIST incorporates topographic maps on which the network is displayed. The system also allows planners to simulate scenarios at the vehicle level. Prior to the implementation of ELIST, planners were able to simulate military deployment from the point of departure (origin) to the point of arrival in the theater (the port of debarkation). Since the development and implementation of ELIST, however, planners can simulate military deployment from the point of departure (airport or seaport), through the staging area, through the theater-staging base, to the final destination. A typical scenario might be set up to transport personnel and cargo to a location by aircraft or ship. Upon arrival at the airport or seaport, the cargo would be sent to a staging area where it would be set up and transferred to a vehicle, or in the case of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL), a pipeline. The vehicle then would transport the cargo to the theater-staging base where it would ''marry up'' with the main body of personnel. From this ...
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: VanGroningen, Blachowicz, D.; Duffy Braun, M.; Clemmons, M. A.; Simunich, K. L.; Timmerman, D.; VanderZee, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

Description: The following is an addendum to the ''Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', DOE/NV-641. This new information is based on the results of post-closure monitoring data that was not available at the time DOE/NV--641 was issued. This addendum replaces: Section 4.0, ''Closure Verification Results,'' in its entirety; renumbers Section 5.0, ''References'' to Section 6.0, ''References''; and introduces a new Section 5.0, ''Conclusions and Recommendations.'' The list of acronyms and references only contains additions to the original document.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Pastor, Laura A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. It contains a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. After a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

Description: A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J.; Schmor, P.; Altman, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

Description: This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Drake, R.H. & Williams, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated design environment for human performance and human reliability analysis

Description: Work over the last few years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has included a major focus on applying human performance and human reliability knowledge and methods as an integral element of system design and development. This work has been pursued in programs in a wide variety of technical domains, beginning with nuclear power plant operations. Since the mid-1980`s the laboratory has transferred the methods and tools developed in the nuclear domain to military weapons systems and aircraft, offshore oil and shipping operations, and commercial aviation operations and aircraft design. Through these diverse applications the laboratory has developed an integrated approach and framework for application of human performance analysis, human reliability analysis (HRA), operational data analysis, and simulation studies of human performance to the design and development of complex systems. This approach was recently tested in the NASA Advanced Concepts Program {open_quotes}Structured Human Error Analysis for Aircraft Design.{close_quotes} This program resulted in the prototype software tool THEA (Tool for Human Error Analysis) for incorporating human error analysis in the design of commercial aircraft, focusing on airplane maintenance tasks. Current effort is directed toward applying this framework to the development of advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems as part of NASA`s Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program. This paper summarizes the approach, describes recent and current applications in commercial aviation, and provides perspectives on how the approach could be utilized in the nuclear power industry.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Nelson, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

Description: This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.
Date: April 20, 2000
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

St. Louis FUSRAP-A Strategy for Success

Description: In October 1997, Congress transferred the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) from the Department of Energy (DOE) to the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). FUSRAP addresses contamination generated by activities of the Manhattan Engineering District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1940's and 50's in support of the nation's nuclear weapons development program. The USACE Operation Order for FUSRAP gave responsibility for remediation of five sites in Missouri and Illinois to the USACESt. Louis District. The principal site is the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS), which involves the removal, transportation, disposal, and restoration of approximately 28 acres and 245,000 bank cubic yards (bcy) of contaminated soils. This paper will focus on the progress and achievements in removal action efficiencies of the SLAPS team. This team consists primarily of the USACE and Stone & Webster, Incorporated.
Date: February 27, 2002
Creator: Lyerla, M.; Fox, B.; Chinnock, J.; Haase, A.; Wojinski, S.; Bretz, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

Description: A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Chanin, D.I. & Murfin, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

Description: The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Godfrey, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium characterization at the St. Louis Airport Site

Description: In support of the Department of Energy/Office of Technology Development`s Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project (coordinated by Ames Laboratory), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory demonstrated two complementary technologies at the St. Louis Airport (SLAP) site that have been designed and optimized for the rapid, in situ quantification of radionuclide contamination in surface soils. The sensors are optimized for the detection of high-energy beta particles or gamma rays emitted from the decay of specific radionuclides of interest. These technologies were demonstrated by measuring the beta and gamma fluxes at several locations within the SLAP site. Measurements were converted to average contamination levels, using detector calibrations performed with spiked samples (beta) or sealed sources (gamma). Additionally, subsurface activity levels were derived from discrete soil samples (provided by the ESC field crew) via gamma-ray spectrometry in a controlled laboratory setting. Since the beta and gamma sensor technologies are intrinsically sensitive to different types of radiation and activity distributions (i.e., surface and shallow subsurface, respectively), the data obtained from the two detectors provide complementary information about the distribution of the contamination. The results reported here suggest that a number of locations within the SLAP site have elevated levels of {sup 211}U, and the differences between the beta and gamma activities indicate that the contamination is largely located near the surface of the soil.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Bowyer, T.W. & Reiman, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a trace explosives detection portal for personnel screening

Description: The authors discuss the development, design, and operation of a walk-through trace detection portal designed to screen personnel for explosives. Developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with primary funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and additional support from the Department of Energy office of Safeguards and Security, this portal is intended primarily for use in airport terminals and in other localities where a very high throughput of pedestrian traffic is combined with stringent security requirements. The portal is capable of detecting both vapor and particulate contamination, with the collection of explosive material being based upon the entrainment of that material in air flows over the body of the person being screened. This portal is capable of detecting most types of common high explosives of interest to the FAA. The authors discuss the results of field testing of the portal in the Albuquerque International Airport in September, 1997 and more recent steps towards commercialization of the portal.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Parmeter, J.E.; Linker, K.L.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.; Bouchier, F.A. & Hannum, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of a walk-through portal detector for the identification of contraband explosives

Description: Recent worldwide events have shown that explosives are the weapon of choice of terrorists in a variety of situations. For this reason, the need exists to develop a walk-through explosives detector that can be used at airports, government buildings, and other sites requiring both high security and the rapid screening of large numbers of people. In this paper, we discuss on-going efforts at Sandia to develop a walk-through explosives detection portal for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). We present a brief overview of detectors and detection methods currently utilized in this field, and discuss the special challenges associated with the development of portal detectors. Preliminary results obtained with the portal system at Sandia indicate that the overall portal concept is viable for the detection of contraband high explosives.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Parmeter, J.E.; Conrad, F.J.; Hannum, D.W.; Linker, K.L. & Lastoskie, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airport testing an explosives detection portal

Description: At the direction of the US Congress, following the Pan Am 103 and TWA 800 crashes, the Federal Aviation Administration funded development of non-invasive techniques to screen airline passengers for explosives. Such an explosives detection portal, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was field tested at the Albuquerque International airport in September 1997. During the 2-week field trial, 2,400 passengers were screened and 500 surveyed. Throughput, reliability, maintenance and sensitivity were studied. Follow-up testing at Sandia and at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was conducted. A passenger stands in the portal for five seconds while overhead fans blow air over his body. Any explosive vapors or dislodged particles are collected in vents at the feet. Explosives are removed from the air in a preconcentrator and subsequently directed into an ion mobility spectrometer for detection. Throughput measured 300 passengers per hour. The non-invasive portal can detect subfingerprint levels of explosives residue on clothing. A survey of 500 passengers showed a 97% approval rating, with 99% stating that such portals, if effective, should be installed in airports to improve security. Results of the airport test, as well as operational issues, are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Rhykerd, C.; Linker, K.; Hannum, D.; Bouchier, F. & Parmeter, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department